Picturesque Nepal-Percy Brown

download Picturesque Nepal-Percy Brown

If you can't read please download the document

  • date post

    14-Dec-2014
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    117
  • download

    8

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Picturesque Nepal-Percy Brown

i(J)I

CD

=CD

CO

PICTURESQUE NEPAL

AGENTSAMERICA

.... THE. ..

MACMII.LAN COMPANY

ATJ8TEALABIA

CANADA

4 & 66 Fifth Ave.\ue, NEW YORK OXPORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 205 FLINDERS LANE, MELBOURNE THE MACMILLAN COMPANY OF CANADA, LTD.

ST.

Martin's House,

70

Bond Street, toro.NTO

OIA

& COMPANY, LTD. .macmili.an Building, Bombay 3o9 bow Bazaar Street, CalcuttaMACMri.I.AN

.\

CUKNTR OK THE DURBAR SQUARE. PATAN.

(p. 73).

PICTURESQUE

NEPALBY

PERCY BROWNINDIAN EDUCATIONAL SERVICE ASSOCIATE OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF ART PRINCIPAL OF THE GOVERNMENT SCHOOL OF ART, CALCUTTA TRUSTEE OF THE INDIAN MUSEUM CALCUTTA, AND OFFICER-IN-CHARGE OF THE ART SECTION; ;',

LONDON

ADAM AND CHARLES BLACK1912

NfB7

OCT

u

PREFACETheinterest

which

it is

beheved the countries

of the Indian

Borderland possess for a con-

siderable portion of the readingis

community

the

reason

venture.

presentation of this Information of any nature regarding

for

the

a territory about which the recent literature is scanty may not be unacceptable, while impressions obtained first-hand of a region

somewhat

off

the beaten track have a claim

to be placed on record. Especially does this apply to the little-known State of Nepal,

where the wonderful natural scenery and the creative genius of man have combined to

make a powerful appealis

to all lovers of the

picturesque and of the imaginative in art. It trusted that some of the observations here

produced

particularlythe

remarkably

artistic character of

those relating to the the Newars

may

fulfil

purpose for which they are

vi

PREFACEThiseharacteris,

intended.

of

the

original

inhabitant of

Nepal

like

tive qualities of the Oriental,

many now undergoingart craftsman of

other attrac-

a

marked

transition,

and the

to-day lives in a world different from that ofhis forbears of tlie last generation.

The

brief

photographic survey included in these pages is an attempt to preserve some of the mainfeatures of the latter's art,into decay,

now

falling rapidly

and maylike

in the near future serve

in its pictorial capacity as a

form

of reference.

At a timeaesthetics

are

present the attracting

the

when Easternattentionof

scholars in all quarters,tlie

great field of into focus, a view of a little-known aspect of this subject may perhaps be the humble

and particularly when Buddhist art is coming more

meansof theis

of assisting in the elucidation of

some

complex problems with whichshort

this study

surroimdcd.

A

buildings

personal acquaintance with the in the Valley of Nepal speedily

revealed one fact which could not be overluoked.

This was that the visit leading to

the production of this work was

made only

PREFACEjust in time, as before our eyes the

vii

modern-

was being conducted in a very emphatic manner. Down the main bazaar of Katmandu a row of electric hght standards was being erected, and with the present progressive pohcy of the Nepal Durbarization of the Statein other directions,

the old

is,

almost hourly,

giving place to the new.

For some years my duties have brought me into close touch with a unique collection of theart productions of Tibet

and Nepal, and I have been able from time to time to add to thisas occasion offered.

A

study of these speci-

mens, hoAvever, was in no sense satisfying owing to that barrier which naturally arisesin

I

connection with

all

Museum

research.

refer to the scarcity of information regarding the object for which these specific works of art were devised, the dearth of any knowledge

in

appertaining to the particular circumstances which they were created, the lack of evidence

relating to the religious

atmosphere with which

they were surrounded, and ignorance as to their Before the full siggeneral local associations.nificance of this Central

Asian school of art

viii

PREFACEthat ""its fitness,

could be realized, some idea as to environment,

and

beauty

inseparableof Tibet

grim portals

accompaniment of seemed called for. Thedifficult as

open before are now more hermetically sealed

they were to

than they have been for centuries, and my only hopes lay in an investigation of these conditions as maintained in the neighbouringcountry of Nepal.of

Through the kindLt.-Col.

offices

the

BritishI

Resident,

Manners-

was enabled to put my desires Smith, V.C, into effect and to pay an extended visit to the The tour was a revelation, as it soon Valley.demonstrated tosmalla

me

that this comparatively

area was a veritable art

museumwith

ofall

particularly interesting character,

the drawbacks to such an institution removed

but withsults of

many an added charm.study of theartistic

my

The remonuments

of the

Nepal Valley, and that

from a kindred source in

examples the Government Art

series of

Gallery, Calcutta, to which I

have had such

free access, are incorporated in the following

pages.

To

the Nepal Durbar, and especially to the

PREFACEMaharaja Bahadur,State

ix

Chancier

Sham

Sher

Jang

Rana

thanks are due for the permission so generously allowed me to travel in the

my

and to publish

this

account

of

my

impressions.P. B.

Calcutta, February 1912.

I

CONTENTSCHAPTER/ V SituationofI

THE INDEPENDENT STATE OF NEPALNepalThe

^Its

Isolation

Legend

of

the.

Foundation

^ Valley of Nepal

CHAPTER

II

THE HISTORY OF NEPALMythological Period Visit of Buddha to the Valley ' 1^ Asoka's Visit Chinese Record The Malla Rajas The Gurkha Period

.

.

.

.

14

CHAPTERThe Different Tribes in Nepal Newars The Religions

III

THE PEOPLE

Theof

Influence on the Art of the

Nepal Religious State Tantrism.

Gurkhas and the

29

CHAPTER

IV

THE HIGH ROAD TO KATMANDUThe Snowy Range of the Himalayas Through the Plains The Terai The Road in the River-bed Churia Rest-house Fishing The Pass of Sisagarhi

xii

CONTENTS

The Passof

of Chandragiri

First View of the Valley.. .

PAGE

NepalThe Last Stage

.41

CHAPTER VTHE CITIES OF THE VALLEY

Katmandu Legendary Plan History The Durbar Bhim Sen's Tower Bhatgaon The Durbar Square

The Golden GateNyatpola Deval or the Temple Patan of the Five Stages The Taumari Tol The Durbar Square Principal BuildDecay Kirtipur .61 ings of PatanIts.

.

.

CHAPTERTheDeath

VI

PASHPATTI

DoorwayDevotees

Women

of

Its

Pilgrims

Buildings The Daily The Burning-Ghat.

84

CHAPTER

VII

THE TEMPLE OF CHANGU-NARAINThe Situation of the Temple Pilgrims to the Shrine The Art and Architecture of the Temple The

Pilgrims' Ritual

.

.

.

.

-93

CHAPTER

VIII

FESTIVALS

The Popularity of the Festivals The Machendranath Festival The Procession The Dassera Festival The Review The Dassera Procession Blessing the " Kaka Colours at the Kot Minor Celebrations, " " boli and Swana boli "The PilgrimageThe

Sacred Lake of Gosainthan

.

.

.103

CONTENTSCHAPTER IXTHE ARTS OF THE NEWARSArtReligion Indian Nepales^e Architectureof the "

xiii

The " Chaitya " Buddhist Bodhnath and Shambu-Nath-rrSymbolism TemplesChaitya.

and

and

Chinese

Infl uences

PAGE

"The.

"

Pagoda "Origin.. .

of the

Pagoda

.127

CHAPTER XTHE ARTS OF THE NEWARS{continued)

The Nepalese School Its Origin and Influences Metalwork Metal Statuary The Process of Manufacture The Artist-priest Minor Metalwork The Makara

Religious Utensils Wood-carvingTerra-cotta .152 Stone-carving Textiles

.

.

.

CHAPTER XISKETCHES

The Water-Garden of Balaji Fishponds and Fountains The Submerged Narain Lamaism The " Unko Vihar " The High-priest Gambling The Day of

Gifts

.......

177

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS*

A Corner

of the Durbar Square, Patan

.

FrontispieceFACING PAGE

Carved Elephants outside a Temple dedicated to Krishna in the Durbar Square at Patan The Range of Himalayan Snows seen from the Valley of Nepal Statuette in Copper-gilt of Maitreya, the Coming

......

.

i

8

Buddha The Residency at Katmandu..

.

.

.

.

.

.