Photometry iii anu

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  1. 1. PHOTOMETRY - III Presenter: Dr.Anurag Yadav Moderator: Mr.Arun Kumar
  3. 3. Atomic absorption flame spectrophotometry (AAS) AAS : is an analytical technique that measures the concentrations of elements. It makes use of the absorption of light by these elements in order to measure their concentration. Atomic absorption is a very common technique for detecting metals and metalloids in environmental samples like aluminum, Cu, lead, Li, Mg, Zn etc.
  4. 4. Atomic absorption flame spectrophotometry (AAS) Basic principle: Atomic absorption in which the element is not excited in the flame, but is merely dissociated from its chemical bond & placed in an unexcited (ground) state. Thus the ground state atoms capable of absorbing radiation in the flame, resulting in net in intensity of the beam from the lamp, The analyte concentration is determined from the amount of absorption.
  5. 5. Atomic absorption flame spectrophotometry (AAS) Concentration measurements are usually determined from a working curve after calibrating the instrument with standards of known concentration. Absorption bands- .001 - .01 nm. Entire absorption spectrum of atoms line spectrum.
  6. 6. Parts of AAS
  7. 7. Light source Quartz window Pyrex body Anode Cathode The light source is usually a hollow cathode lamp. It contains a tungsten anode and a hollow cylindrical cathode made of the element to be determined. These are sealed in a glass tube filled with an inert gas (neon or argon ). Neon: iron & lead(reddish- orange) Argon: lithium(blue to purple glow) Each element has its own unique lamp which must be used for that analysis. Hollow Cathode Lamp
  8. 8. How it works Applying a potential difference between the anode and the cathode leads to the ionization of some gas atoms . These gaseous ions bombard the cathode and eject metal atoms from the cathode in a process called sputtering. Some sputtered atoms are in excited states and emit radiation characteristic of the metal as they fall back to the ground state . The shape of the cathode which is hollow cylindrical concentrates the emitted radiation into a beam which passes through a quartz window all the way for absorbtion by ground state atoms in the flame.
  9. 9. Burner Elements to be analyzed needs to be in atomic sate. Nebulization :Sample converted to aerosol Atomization: flame, electrothermal (graphite tube) atomizers Flame: it is oldest and most commonly used atomizers in AAS, principally the air-acetylene flame with a temperature of about 2300 C and the nitrous oxide (N2O)-acetylene flame with a temperature of about 2700 C.
  10. 10. Stages in flame Desolvation (drying) the solvent is evaporated and the dry sample nano-particles remain; Vaporization (transfer to the gaseous phase) the solid particles are converted into gaseous molecules; Atomization the molecules are dissociated into free atoms.
  11. 11. Sample is vaporized in the flame. Aspirator tube sucks the sample into the flame in the sample compartment. Light beam
  12. 12. Types of burner I. Total Consumption burner Mixing of gas and sample within flame. Flame is hot enough for molecular dissociations needed for some chemical systems II. Premix long path burner/ Laminar flow burner - Gases are mixed and sample is atomized before being burned.
  13. 13. Advantages of long path burner Larger droplets go waste and only the fine mist enters the flame thus produces less noisy signal Path length through the flame of the burner is longer then the total consumption burner greater absorption and increases sensitivity of measurement. Flame is not as hot as that of total consumption burner - cant dissociate certain metal complexes in flame- Ca- phosphate complexes. Disadvantages of long path burner
  14. 14. Monochromator The monochromater in AAS is placed between flame and detector Used to select the specific wavelength of light which is absorbed by the sample, and to exclude other wavelengths. To allow the single line in the spectrum of analyte. To minimize the emission from the flame itself because detector detects photons over a wide wavelength range.
  15. 15. Detector and Read out Device The light selected by the monochromator is directed onto a detector that is typically a photomultiplier tube whose function is to convert the light signal into an electrical signal proportional to the light intensity. The signal could be displayed for readout, or further fed into a data station for printout by the requested format.
  16. 16. Calibration Curve A calibration curve is used to determine the unknown concentration of an element in a solution. The instrument is calibrated using several solutions of known concentrations. The absorbance of each known solution is measured and then a calibration curve of concentration vs absorbance is plotted. The sample solution is fed into the instrument, and the absorbance of the element in this solution is measured .The unknown concentration of the element is then calculated from the calibration curve
  17. 17. Determining concentration from Calibration Curve A 1.0 - absorbance measured b 0.9 - S 0.8 - . o 0.7 - . r 0.6 - . b 0.5 - . . a 0.4 - . n 0.3 - . concentration calculated c 0.2 - e 0.1 - 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Concentration ( mg/l )
  18. 18. AAS applications The are many applications for atomic absorption: - Clinical analysis (blood samples: whole blood, plasma, serum; Ca, Mg, Li, Na, K, Fe) - Environmental analysis : Monitoring our environment e g finding out the levels of various elements in rivers, seawater, drinking water, air, and petrol. - Mining: By using AAS the amount of metals such as gold in rocks can be determined to see whether it is worth mining the rocks to extract the gold .
  19. 19. Advantages of flame AAS Disadvantages of flame AAS Inexpensive Easy to use High precision -Only solution can be used -Large samples are needed 1-2ml -Less sensitive than graphite furnaces standards are not to achieve due to -flame instability - Variation in composition & temperature.
  20. 20. Flame emission Spectroscopy Flame emission spectroscopy is also an analytical technique that is used to measure the concentrations of elements in samples Principle: atoms of some metals, when given sufficient heat energy (hot flame) become excited & reemit this energy at wavelengths characteristic of the element. The intensity of radiant energy of characteristic wavelength produced by the atoms in the flame is directly proportional to the number of atoms excited in the flame ,which in turn is directly proportional to the concentration of the alkali metal in the sample
  21. 21. Flame emission Spectroscopy The excited atoms decay back to lower levels by emitting light . Emissions are passed through monochromators or filters prior to detection by photomultiplier tubes. Alkali metals are easy to excite by flame Li- red emission Na yellow emission K- red violet emission Rubidium- red emission Mg- blue emission
  22. 22. Flame emission Spectroscopy The instrumentation of flame emission spectroscopy is the same as that of atomic absorption, but without the presence of a radiation source . In flame emission the sample is atomized and the analyte atoms are excited to higher energy levels, all in the atomizer
  23. 23. Flame emission Spectroscopy The source of energy in Atomic Emission could be a flame like the one used in atomic absorption, or an inductively coupled plasma ( ICP ) . The flame ( 1700 3150 oC ) is most useful for elements with relatively low excitation energies like sodium, potassium and calcium. The ICP ( 6000 8000 oC) has a very high temperature and is useful for elements of high excitation energies.
  24. 24. Application of flame emission spectroscopy 1.Electrons of alkali metals like sodium, potassium, lithium become easily excited hence preferentially analyzed by flame photometry. 2.Used in clinical laboratory to determine concentrations of sodium and potassium in biological fluids like serum, urine and sweat. 3.Serum lithium levels therapeutic monitoring.
  25. 25. Comparison Between Atomic Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy - Measure trace metal concentrations in complex matrices . - Atomic absorption depends upon the number of ground state atoms - Measure trace metal concentrations in complex matrices . - Atomic emission depends upon the number of excited atoms . Absorption Emission
  26. 26. Comparison Between Atomic Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy It measures the radiation absorbed by the ground state atoms. Presence of a light source ( HCL ). The temperature in the atomizer is adjusted to atomize the analyte atoms in the ground state only. It measures the radiation emitted by the excited atoms. Absence of the light source. The temperature in the atomizer is big enough to atomize the analyte atoms and excite them to a higher energy level.
  27. 27. Flameless atomic absorption Here flame is not used, but high temperature achieved by carbon rod. temp -2700C 100 times more sensitive than flame methods and are highly specific for the element measured.
  28. 28. Flameless atomic absorption Atomization techniques- electrothermal 1. Drying : Sample is dried on carbon support by removing solvent. 2. Pyrolysis- majority of matrix constituents are removed 3. Atomization: the analyte element is released to the gaseous phase 4. Cleaning- residues in the graphite tube removed by high temperatures
  29. 29. Flameless atomic absorption Advantages Solution and solid samples can be used Efficient atomization Greater sensitivity Small sample size 5 50 microlitres Provides reducing environment for easily oxidised elem