Phase I -Identifying the Organizational Culture, Leadership, 2011-05-07¢  Phase I...

Click here to load reader

download Phase I -Identifying the Organizational Culture, Leadership, 2011-05-07¢  Phase I -Identifying the Organizational

of 243

  • date post

    18-Mar-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    0
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Phase I -Identifying the Organizational Culture, Leadership, 2011-05-07¢  Phase I...

  • Wildland Firefighter Safety Awareness Study

    Phase I -Identifying the Organizational Culture,

    Leadership, Human Factors, and Other Issues

    Impacting Firefighter Safety

    October 1996

  • Wildland Firefighter Safety Awareness Study

    Phase I -Identifying the Organizational Culture,

    Leadership, Human Factors, and Other Issues

    Impacting Firefighter Safety

  • ii

    October 1996

    121296

  • iii

    Dedicated to the over 1000 federal and state wildland firefighters

    who contributed their time and heartfelt thoughts to this project.

  • iv

    CONTENTS

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xix

    CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Study Goals and Phases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Scope of Phase I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Organization of the Report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

    CHAPTER 2. METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Literature Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Face-to-Face Interviews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Focus Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 National Random Survey of Firefighters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Data Analysis and Validity Consideration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Uniqueness of Viewpoint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 A Framework for Discussing Organizational Culture, Leadership, Accountability, and Human Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36

    CHAPTER 3. STRENGTHS OF THE SYSTEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Attitudes Toward the Overall System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Specific Strengths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Other Strengths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42

    CHAPTER 4. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Attitudes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Composition of the Workforce. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Experience of Workforce. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Certifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Symbols and Insignia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Information Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Reasons for Poor Information Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Dispatching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 Equipment and Protective Clothing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 Equipment of Non-Federal Crews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Transportation to Fires. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Reporting and Investigating Safety Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 Rescues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 Ethnic and Gender Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85

  • v

  • vi

    CHAPTER 5. LEADERSHIP AND ACCOUNTABILITY 93 FIRE MANAGEMENT POLICY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 SITUATIONAL AWARENESS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 APPROPRIATE USE OF VARIOUS CREWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 STRATEGY AND TACTICS ISSUES AFFECTING SAFETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCE AND COMPETENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 BRIEFINGS AND PLANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 ACCOUNTABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130 CHALLENGING ONE’S ASSIGNMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 SAFETY OFFICERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134

    CHAPTER 6. HUMAN AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135 SELF IMAGE, SELF-ESTEEM, SELF-ASSURANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135 PERSONNEL PRACTICES: REWARDS, PENALTIES, FEEDBACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 TRAINING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144 CREW SUPERVISORS AND FIREFIGHTERS ABILITY TO COPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 FATIGUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 OVER-RELIANCE ON TOOLS AND SHELTERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163 CREW DYNAMICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 PHYSICAL FITNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170

    CHAPTER 7. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES ON SAFETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173 POLITICAL PRESSURES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177 PUBLIC AWARENESS AND CODE REQUIREMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180 FUEL BUILD-UP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181

    CHAPTER 8. SUMMING UP − THE HIGHEST PRIORITY AREAS TO ADDRESS182 THE CULTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182 ISSUES FACING THE CULTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 GENERAL AREAS OF HIGHEST PRIORITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 HIGHEST PRIORITY SPECIFIC ISSUES/QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 OTHER ISSUES AND COMMENTS WRITTEN IN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

    APPENDIX A - SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE AND RESPONSE FORM . . . . . . . . .203

    APPENDIX B - FIREFIGHTER AND FIRE MANAGER QUOTES FROM THE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204

    APPENDIX C − STATISTICAL CONFIDENCE LIMITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205

    APPENDIX D − LITERATURE REVIEW AND INITIAL EXPERT INTERVIEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Detached

  • vii

    APPENDIX E − BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Detached

    APPENDIX F − STATISTICAL RESULTS OF THE SURVEY . . . . . . . . . . . . Detached

  • viii

    PROLOGUE

    Comments From the Field

    "We understand the science of fighting fires, but we do not understand the science of

    people fighting fires" – Montana hotshot.

    "The least qualified people [seem to] go to the worst fires."

    "We're hiking kids to exhaustion a hundred times more often than we're exposing them to

    flame" – California firefighter.

    "Some of my most harrowing experiences on fires have been the bus drivers."

    "The dying western forests pose a great risk to firefighters..."

    "Controlled burns are not given adequate [safety] attention. It's like we think those fires

    don't burn as hot as others."

    "Fatigue is a particular problem on campaign-type fires . . . It creates the walking dead."

    "I need to focus on my saw, and let the squad boss tell me if the fire is coming."

    "It's a short distance from okay to 'oh sh--.'"

    "One in five division superintendents is really scary."

    "Training is being used as a substitute for experience. You used to work your way into

    each position. Now you take a course."