Peer Evaluation Guidebook - Valdosta State University .Peer evaluation of teaching is considered

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Transcript of Peer Evaluation Guidebook - Valdosta State University .Peer evaluation of teaching is considered

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    AGuidebookforPeerEvaluationValdostaStateUniversityCollegeoftheArts

    MikeSavoie

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    ValdostaStateUniversityCollegeoftheArts

    AGuidebookforPeerEvaluation

    PreparedbyMikeSavoie,AssistantDean

    July2010

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    INTRODUCTION ThepurposeofthisguidebookistobetterunderstandthefactorsforeffectivepeerobservationandtoprovideapeerevaluationmodelfortheCollegeoftheArts.Areasonthatteachingisgenerallyundervaluedinhighereducationisthelackofinformationandevidenceinteachingperformance(Centra,2000).Asacomponentinassessingfacultyperformance,thepeerevaluationisoftenoverlookedasanimportantpartoftheevaluationprocess.Thisguidebookwillprovidesuggestedpeerevaluationinstrumentsandproceduresbasedintheliteratureoneffectiveteaching,peerobservation,andreflectivepractice.PeerevaluationofteachingisconsideredanimportantpartofthetenureandpromotionprocessatValdostaStateUniversityandisoneofthecriteriaasevidenceofeffectiveteachinginsummativeevaluation.FACTORSFORPEEREVALUATION Ininvestigatingthefactorsforsuccessfulpeerevaluation,onerequirementisafacultymemberswillingnesstoparticipateintheprocessandtoaddresstherecommendationsofthefindings.Itismoreusefulasaformativetoolbutitalsoprovidesspecificinformationforimprovementgenerallybythecolleagueswhowillinevitablyserveonpersonnelcommittees.AsreferencedinCentrasresearchontheroleofcolleagues,hestatesthatpeersplayaroleinsummativeevaluation(tenuredecisions)butshouldalsohavearoleinformativeevaluation.Wellinformedcolleaguesareinthebestpositiontoassessqualityofinstructionalpractices(1993).Thisroleshouldbeexpandedtoimproveteachingeffectiveness.FurtherjustificationforpeerobservationispresentedinBukalskisGuidetoFacultyAdvancement(2000).Hereferencesthatpeersarebettersuitedthanstudentstoaddressteachingconcerns.Peerevaluationslikelyincludemanymaterialsincludingsyllabi,assignments,handouts,andstatementofteachingphilosophy.Itisalsousualforfacultymemberstohaveatleasttwomajorpeerreviewsbeforecomingupforsummativeevaluation.Thesetworeviewsusuallycoincidewithpretenurereviewsandthesummativetenurereview(Bukalski,2000).PEEREVALUATIONASEVIDENCEOFEFFECTIVETEACHING Inapeerevaluationprocess,thepeerobservationsmustofferpracticalinformationaswellascredibilityintheevaluationofteaching.ThesevenguidelinesestablishedbytheAmericanAssociationforHigherEducation(AAHE)recommendsthefollowingsevenprinciples:

    1. Avoidcasual,unannouncedobservations;2. Makeobservationspartofaconsultationprocessincludingpreandpostmeetings;3. Linkobservationsreviewsofteachingmaterials;4. Conductseveralobservations;5. Useateamapproach;6. Observersmustbeopentolearning;and7. Informstudentsoftheprocess.

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    Theguidelinesforpeerevaluationareoutlinedinabodyofliteraturepartiallypresentedinthisstudy.Inadditiontogeneralizedstepsfortheprocess,anoverviewofthedimensionsofteachingmeritsinvestigation.HartsworkonTeachersObservingTeachers(1987)establishessixinterrelatedcategorieswhenconductingobservationsofcolleaguesteaching.Theyinclude:

    1. TheCognitiveDimensiontheuseofquestionsandactivitiestostimulatedeeperanalysisofthesubjectoramorethoroughunderstandingofthebasics.

    2. TheSocioPoliticalDimensionthebuildingandmaintenanceofrapport.3. TheClassroomStructureandProcedurestheinstructionalmethodsand

    procedures.4. TheCurricularContexttherelationshipbetweenthecourse,curriculum,and

    generaleducation.5. TheEffectsofTeachingthisishowwellstudentsarelearningincluding

    activities,engagement,andassessments).6. TheRhetoricalDimensiontheuseoflanguage,organization,anduseoftime.7. ThePhysicalTemporalDimensionthisincludesthetimeofday,room,and

    physicalcomforts. Thesedimensionsareimportantindevelopinganinstrumentandobjectivesforevaluation.Addressingallsevendimensionsisanimportantconsiderationinaneffectiveformativeevaluation.USINGVIDEOINTHEEVALUATION Inadditionthesedimensions,anotherhelpfultoolinpeerandselfevaluationprocessesistheuseofvideorecordingofteachingperformance.Severalstudieshavebeenconductedontheeffectiveuseofvideorecordingasatooltoimproveteachingperformance.InthestudyUsingdigitalvideotorethingteachingpractices(2007),Girod,Bell,andMishraexaminetheusedigitalvideointeachertrainingtoinvestigatetheeffectonteacherthinkinginfiveareasincluding:

    1. Instructionaloutcomes;2. Instructionaldesign;3. Classroomperformance;4. Processversusproduct;and5. Consideringtheneedsofthelearners

    Theresultsofusingvideorevealedfivethemesfocusedonrethinkingandreworkinginstructionalpracticesanddesignincluding:

    1. Attendingtothedesiredoutcomesandpriorstudentknowledge;2. Instructionaldesignasengaginglayers(mediacomponents);3. Teachingasperformance;4. Rethinkingtheprocess/producttensionasinproducingaproductsuchasa

    paperorvideo;and5. Designasasensitizingexperiencetolearnersneedsorengagement

    Thesethemesareaconcerninvalidatingtheuseofvideoasaninstructionaltoolandforuseinformativedevelopmentandreflectivepractice.(Girod,Bell,&Mishra,2007)

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    Facultyandstudentconsensussupporttheuseofpeerevaluationaspartofacomprehensiveprogramoffacultyassessment.Keigs(2000)FormativePeerReviewofTeachingpresentsfacultyattitudesaboutparticipatinginapeerevaluationprocesstoimproveteachingratherthantomakepersonneldecisions.Thefindingssupportthatfacultyarewillingtoparticipateinpeerassessmentforformativeevaluationbuttheyarereluctanttoutilizevideoasacomponentoftheprocess.Thereissubstantialsupportthatvideorecordingofclassesisinvasiveandintimidatingtomanyinstructors(Keig,2000).Indevelopingguidelinesforapeerevaluationmodel,theinclusionofvideorecordingisrecommendedifthisisacceptabletothefacultymemberbeingevaluated.Ithasbeenproventobeusefulinengagingselfreflectiveevaluationaswellasprovidingevidenceofsuccessfulteaching.Althoughitshouldnotberequiredforallevaluations,itisrecommendedasatoolforeffectiveevaluationandimprovement.GUIDELINESFOROBSERVATIONS Developingapeerevaluationmodelrequiresanunderstandingofthefacultyevaluationprocessspecificallytheflowofinformationtoeveryevaluator.ArreoladetailsanoverviewoftheflowofinformationinanevaluationprocessinaworkshoptitledDevelopingaComprehensiveFacultyEvaluationSystem(2004).Inatraditionalhierarchicalpeermodel,theflowofinformationisprocessedateveryleveloftheevaluationandthereareopportunitiestopresentirrelevantorbiasedinformation.Inacontextualfiltermodel,dataisinterpretedwithcontext(Arreola,2004).Contextisthemissingcomponentfromthetraditionalmodel.Aformativepeerevaluationprocessoffersacontextualfilterwithathoroughassessmentofteachingpracticeaswellasprovidinganopportunityforimprovement.Arreolassuggestedpeermodelrecommends:Atriadcommitteestructurewith:

    1. Onememberselectedbythedepartmenthead,2. Onebythefacultymember,and3. Oneappointedatlarge.

    Thecommitteeprovidesevaluativeinformationon:

    1. Coursestructureandorganization;2. Currencyinthefield;3. Appropriatenessoflevel;and4. Accuracyandappropriatenessofcoursematerial

    Thereshouldbeaminimumoffourconsultationmeetingsforthereviewprocess.Theconsultationsshouldinclude:1. Ageneralfacultymeetingtoclarifyvalues,standards,andcriteria;2. Anindividualpreconferencetoprovideafoundationforobjective,toestablish

    groundrules,toresolveconflicts,andtoclarifyanyambiguity;3. Aprevisitconferencethatestablishestheobservationschedule;and4. Apostvisitconferencesoonaftertheobservationforreflectivefeedback

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    UNDERSTANDINGTEACHINGANDLEARNING Indevelopingaprocedureforevaluatingteachinganunderstandingofteachingpracticeandstudentlearningareimportantconsiderations.Indesigningamodelthatiffocusedonteaching,definingtheroleofateacherisrequisite.Inreferencetotheroleofteachersinhighereducation,Boyersparadigmonthescholarshipofteachingreferencesthatthepracticeinvolvesthedevelopmentofknowledge,skill,mind,character,ortheabilityofothers(1990).Hestatesthat,teachingstimulatesactive,notpassive,learningandencouragesstudentstobecritical,creativethinkers,withthecapacitytogoonlearning.(1990,p.234)Withregardtoteachingaspractice,theseprocedures,aswellaspedagogy,mustbecarefullyplanned,continuouslyexamined,andrelatedirectlytothesubjecttaught.(Boyer,1990,p.24) InKolbsresearchonLearningStylesandDisciplinaryDifferences,hefocusesondimensionsoflearningandhowthesestylesdifferentiatewithregardtothespecificacademicprograms.Hisfindingsreflectafourstagecycleconsistingof1)concreteexperience;2)observationandreflection;3)formationofabstractconceptsandgeneralizations;and4)testingimplicationsofconceptsinnewsituations.Kolbreferstothiscycleastheexperientiallearningtheory(1981).Heextrapolatesonthiscycleoflearningbyidentifyingtwobasicdimensionsconsistingofabstractconcretelearningprocessesandactivereflectivelearningprocesses.ThesignificanceofKolbsfindingswithregardtothisguidebookisthedifferentiationinlearningprocessesintheCollegeoftheArts.Coincidentally,artsprogramsincludingArt,Music,Journalism,Speech,andDramaticArtsarepositionedclosetothecenterofactiveandreflectivelearningwithaslightlyskewedtoreflectiveobservation.OnKolbsabstractconcretecontinuum,artsprogramsarecloselyclusteredinconcretelearning.Thisreflectsthesimilarlearningprocessesinartsbaseddisciplinesasmoreconcreteinfocusandlessorientedtoabstractconceptualization(Kolb,1981).WithregardtodevelopingastandardprocedurefortheCollegeoftheArts,Kolbsfindingssuggestthatthelearningprocessissimilaracrossthedisciplinesinartsbasedprograms.ACTIONRESEARCHINTHEPEEREVALUATIONPROCESS AusefultoolinshapingthereflectivepracticeofthepeerevaluationprocessistheParticipatoryActionResearchmodeldevelopedbyKemmisandMcTaggart(2005).Asanoverview,actionresearchdoesnothaveonespecificapplicationordefinition.Theintentofthisdiscussionofactionresearchfocusesontheadaptabilityandusefulnessoftheconcept.Itaddressesthenotionthatselfreflectivepracticeisatoolforimprovementbutnotmeanttocontrolorrestrictinnovativepractice(Altrichter,Kemmis,McTaggart&ZuberSkerritt,2002). Kemmisprovidesaframeworkforactionresearchasatoolinimprovingpracticebasedpractice.Itdescribesactionresearchasacriticalandselfcriticalp