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  • 1

    UNDP/GEF "COAST" PROJECT PREPARATION

    CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIODIVERSITY IN THE DALMATIAN COAST THROUGH GREENING COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

    Sectoral Study

    PROTECTED AREAS

    REPORT

    Anamarija Frankic

    Center for Coastal Resources Management Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences

    USA

    February, 2005

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    Table of Contents

    I. Introduction 5 II. Protected Areas (PAs) in the Project Area

    1. General info on PAs 6 2. General issues in PAs

    A) National 8 B) County and local 10 C) PAs Management 12

    3. Potential Solutions and Recommendations 15

    III. County PAs Assessment 1. County of Zadar 22 2. County of Sibenik-Knin 27 3. County of Split-Dalmatia 29 4. County of Dubrovnik-Neretva 32

    IV. Appendices

    1. Small Grants Program – Draft 34 2. Establishment of MPAs network in the Adriatic region 39 3. Report from the PAs Workshop 50

    V. References 45

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    Acknowledgements This Report would not be possible without inputs from many people who took part in different ways. The PAs staff had filled up the survey that has been distributed, others provided their opinions both orally and in written form, and some had been participants at the PAs thematic workshop held in Split in January 11, 2005. My special thanks go to Minsters K. Grabar-Kitarovic and B. Biskupic for their support of this project and for meeting with me at the Croatian Embassy in Washington DC (November 20, 2004 and February 3, 2005). My special gratitude goes to the Center of Coastal Resources Management at the Virginia Institute of Marione Science for their continuous support of my work in Croatia. I would like to extand my special thanks to all these wonderful people for their continuos efforts in fields of environmental conservation:

    - Vladislav Mihelcic, NP Kornati - Gojko Pintur, head of the Vrasnko jezero Nature Park - Vlatka Dumbovic, Vrasnko jezero Nature Park - Nodilo Jakov, head of the NP Mljet - Margus Drago, NP Krka - Gvido Piasevoli, Public institution for PAs, Split-Dalmatian County - Nikolina Bakovic, Telascica Nature Park - Meri Rogosic, leader of the REC office, Metkovic - Branka Martinovic -Vukovic, County Department of communal affairs and

    environmental protection - Marina Radic, NGO Sunce - Slavko Ružanovic, NP Kornati - Dijana Juric, Biokovo Nature Park - Jasminka Radovic, State Institute for Nature Protection (SINP) - Davorin Markovic, SINP - Radenko Dezalic, Nature Protection Division of MoC - Kornelija Pintaric, Project Manager, KEC project - Vlasta Franicevic, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries - Bozo Biskupic, Minister, Ministry of Culture (MoC) - Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovic, Minister, Ministry of EU Integration - Marijan Gubic, Croatian Embassy in the USA, Washington DC - Lidija Gnjidic, Jurnalist, Slobodna Dalmacija, Split - Vesna Rajkovic, Senior adviser, Ministry of Tourism - Bojana Markotic-Krstinic, Lovinac

    Note: The UNDP/GEF grant fuded all the visits to the Project area, as well as the Protected Area Workshop in Split, which made this Report possible.

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    Acronyms CCA Carrying Capacity Assessment EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone EIA Environmental Impact Assessment EU European Union GIS Geographyc Information System IUCN The World Conservation Union (French) IMO International Maritime Organisation KEC Karst Ecosystem Conservation MEPP Ministry for Environmental Portection and Physical Planning METAP Mediterranean Environmental Techical Assistance METT Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool MoC Ministry of Culture MPA Marine Protected Areas NGO Non Government Organization NP National Park PAs Protected Areas PI Public Institution (Javna Ustanova) REC Reginal Environmental Center SGP Small Grants Programme SINP State Institute for Nature Protection UN United Nations UNDP United Nations Dvelopment Programme UNESCO Unitaed Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization US United States USAID United States Agency for International Development WWF World Wildlife Fund

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    I. Introduction

    In general, the purpose of the Project Coast is to provide a long-term direction and a common basis for the development and implementation of integrated and adaptive management plans, strategies and actions for environmental, social, cultural, economic and institutional sustainability. The guiding principles include integrated management, ecosystem-based management, sustainable development, precautionary approach, collaboration and adaptive management. Protected Areas (PAs) are ideal polygons where this complex approach can be implemented and evaluated with the main purpose to achieve Croatia’s long-term sustainable development. In addition, the ‘ecosystem-based management area framework’ should be established and based on the recognition that integrated management and planning must occur in an ecosystem context with the flexibility to address requirements at various management scales and for different ecosystem types. Therefore, the ecosystem-based management, and potential for ‘protected area network’ can be applied at three main geographic scales: 1) Coastal area – inshore/estuarine areas where ‘Green corridor’ could be established based on the CRO-NEN project findings and EU Ecological Network initiative (NATURA 2000). Existing PAs can become part of the ecological network if they are connected with other functional systems by corridors (e.g. protected landscapes, special reserves), while ‘cores’ as no-take zones are protected by buffer areas. Therefore, the KEC project area and the COAST project area would be connected through this effort. 2) Islands and their coastal waters – where only about 300 km² of the marine ecosystem has been protected, mainly as parts of the coastal and island PAs (e.g. Kornati, Mljet NPs). There is a need to identify and select sites that would become part of the potential marine protected areas (MPAs) network established between and connecting existing PAs along Dalmatian archipelago. The participation and involvement of the local community is the key and ‘a major must to be done’ process. Therefore, one of the tasks is to prepare socio- economic assessment and relevant survey addressing community’s needs, and perspective toward PAs. 3) Open sea (Croatian maritime zone has 31,067 km²) – this is an offshore area with no existing protection, and where ‘Blue corridors’ should be established as part of the potential MPAs network, with possible no-take zones (based on the Law on Nature Protection they would be ‘strict reserves’). This initiative is explained in the Attachment 2. MPAs network should include waters within and outside territorial sea! In doing so we could aim to establish representative network of MPAs along the virtual EEZ line. The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea provides the basis for implementing the ‘high seas’ MPAs.

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    II. PAs in the Project COAST - General Assessment Protected areas include three national parks and three nature parks devided between four Counties as presented in the Table 1 and with the Figure 1. All detailed information and data about the PAs can be found on their Internet sites. This chapter presents and adresses identified issues and problems related to PAs on the national, regional and local levels, as well as provide potential solutions and recommendations (summery presented in the Table 2). Table 1. PAs in the Coast Project Area

    Name

    Mljet National Park

    Kornati National Park

    Krka National Park

    Biokovo Nature Park

    Telascica Nature Park

    Vransko jezero Nature Park

    Established 1960 1980 1985 1981 1988 1999

    Area (ha) 5,375 21,800 11,100 19,550 6,706 5,700

    Employees 32 19 92 5 35 7

    Visitors (2003)

    100,000/ 2004

    50,200 515,031 40,000 87,200 10,000

    Settlements

    8 31 23 10

    1 0

    County Dubrovacko- neretvanska

    Sibensko- kninska

    Sibensko- kninska

    Splitsko- dalmatinska

    Zadarska Zadarska / Sibensko- Kninska

    Internet www.np- mljet.hr

    www.kornati.hr www.npkrka.hr

    www.biokovo.com

    www.telascica.hr www.vransko- jezero.hr

    Email:

    np- mljet@np- mljet.hr

    np- kornati@si.tel.hr

    ravnatelj.npk@ npkrka.hr

    park-prirode- biokovo@st.tel.hr

    telascica@ zd.htnet.hr

    pp-vransko- jezero@zd.htne t.hr

    Land-use plan

    2001 2003 Management plan

    in preparation 1990 in preparation

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    Fig. 1. Project Coast Area includes the whole Dalmatia; different colours represent four counties with red points for each PA in the project area.

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    General issues in the project area PAs In a summary, the major issues include inadequate financing, low visitor fees, lack of benefits to local communities, inconsistent enforcement of low and regulations, low environmental awareness and education on all the levels, lack of professional capacity and knowledge. Most of the below identified issues represent potential barriers to COAST Project imp