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chant study guide for mus 351a

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Music in AntiquityI. The Earliest MusicA. Prehistoric musical cultures1. limited understanding, lack of written recordB. Historical traces1. physical remains: instruments, performing spaces2. visual images of musicians, instruments, performances3. writings about music and musicians4. music itself: notation, oral tradition, recordingsC. Prehistoric music-making1. Stone Age, oldest surviving instruments: bone flutes, 40,000 B.C.E.2. Paleolithic cave paintings show musical instruments3. Neolithic era: pottery flutes, rattles, and drums4. sixth millennium B.C.E.: Turkish wall paintingsa. drummers play for dance and the hunt5. Bronze Age (fourth millennium B.C.E.)a. metal instruments: bells, jingles, cymbals, rattles, hornsb. plucked string instruments: shown in stone carvingsD. Invention of writing1. end of prehistoric period; history of music beginsII. Music in Ancient MesopotamiaA. Mesopotamia: land between Tigris and Euphrates1. first true cities and civilizations emerge fourth millennium B.C.E.2. Sumerians developed first known forms of writinga. cuneiform (wedge-shaped) impressions on tabletsb. adopted by later civilizations: Akkadians, Babyloniansc. many tablets mention musicB. Archeological remains and images1. pictures: how instruments were held, played, circumstances2. surviving instruments reveal details for reconstruction3. 2500 B.C.E. royal tombs at Ur (Sumerian city): lyres and harps founda. lyres: strings run parallel to resonating soundboard, attached to crossbar supported by two armsb. harp: strings perpendicular to soundboard, supporting neck attached to soundboxc. bull lyre: distinctly Sumeriani. soundbox features bulls head, religious significanceii. variable number of strings run from bridge on soundbox to crossbariii. strings knotted around sticks, change of tension allows for tuningd. other instruments: lutes, pipes, drums, cymbals, clappers, rattles, bellsC. Uses for music in Mesopotamian cultures1. best evidence for music from elite classes; rulers, priestsa. resources to make instruments; hire musicians, artists, and scribes2. similar to todays usesa. wedding songs, funeral lamentsb. military music, work songsc. nursery songs, dance music, tavern musicd. entertainment at feastse. songs to address the gods, accompany ceremonies and processionsf. epics sung with instrumental accompanimentD. Written sources1. ca. 2500 B.C.E. word lists/terms: tuning procedures, performers, techniques, genres2. Enheduanna (fl. ca. 2300 B.C.E.) earliest composer known by namea. Akkadian high priestess at Urb. composed hymnsc. texts survive on cuneiform tablets3. 1800 B.C.E. Babylonians wrote down musica. writings describe tuning, intervals, improvisations, techniquesb. genres include love songs, laments, hymnsc. 7-note diatonic scales: parallels in ancient Greek musicd. earliest known musical notation ca. 14001250 B.C.E.i. tablet found at Ugarit, Syrian coaste. music played from memory or improvisedf. notation used as written recordE. Other civilizations1. India and China developed independently from Mesopotamia2. rich Egyptian musical traditions: artifacts, paintings, hieroglyphs in tombs3. ancient Israel: scant images and musicIII. Music in Ancient Greek Life and ThoughtA. Ancient Greece1. Greek peninsula, islands in the Aegean, much of Asia Minor, southern Italy and Sicily, colonies ringing the Mediterranean and Black Seas2. numerous images, few surviving instruments, writings, forty examples of musicB. Instruments and their uses1. sources: writings, archeological remains, hundreds of clay pot images2. aulos: two-piped reed instrumenta. finger holes, mouthpiece with reed, long tube with beating tongueb. images suggest unison playingc. used to worship Dionysus, god of fertility and winei. Dionysian festivals in Athens: Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripidesii. accompanied choruses and other musical portions3. lyre: seven strings strummed with a plectruma. tortoise shell soundbox with stretched oxhideb. right hand strummed with plectrum, left hand fingers touched stringsc. associated with Apollo, god of light, prophecy, learning, and the arts, especially music and poetryd. learning to play lyre, core element of education in Athense. used to accompany dancing, singing, recitation of epic poetryi. HomersIliadandOdysseyf. provided music for weddings, played for recreation4. kithara: large lyrea. used for processions, sacred ceremonies, theaterb. played while standing5. music learned primarily by ear, played from memory or improvised despite well-developed notation by fourth century B.C.E.C. Greek musical thought1. two kinds of writings on musica. philosophical doctrinesi. Plato (ca. 429347 B.C.E.)RepublicandTimauesii. Aristotle (38422 B.C.E.)Politicsb. systematic descriptions of the materials of music (music theory)i. Pythagoras (d. ca. 500 B.C.E.)ii. Aristides Quintilianus (4th century C.E.)2. music in Greek mythologya. music inventors and practitioners: gods and demigodsi. Apollo, Hermes, Amphion, and Orpheusb. music (Greekmousik) derives from word for Muses3. music pervaded all Greek lifea. music was an art for enjoymentb. science related to arithmetic and astronomy4. music as performing art calledmelosa. surviving music is monophonic (single melodic line)i. pictures show accompaniment with lyre or kitharaii. possible heterophony or polyphonyb. perfect melos: melody, text, and stylized dancei. conceived as a whole5. music and poetry were nearly synonymousa. blend of text, rhythm, andharmoniai. harmonia: unification of parts as orderly wholeii. encompasses mathematical proportions, philosophical ideas, order of the universeb. no name for artful speech that did not include musici. lyric poetry sung to the lyreii. tragedy incorporates noun meaning the art of singingiii. other Greek words for poetry were musical terms, hymn6. Pythagoras: music was inseparable from numbers, key to the universea. rhythms ordered by numbersb. discovered intervals as ratios: octave 2:1, 5th 3:2, 4th 4:37. Claudius Ptolemy (fl. 12748 C.E.): leading astronomer of antiquity, writer on musica. music connected to astronomy, harmoniab. mathematical laws and proportions: movements of planets correspond to notes, intervals, and scalesc. Plato harmony of the spheres: unheard music, revolutions of the planetsD. Music andethos1. music affects ethical character (etho)a. Pythagoras view: music governed by mathematical laws, operated visible and invisible worldi. harmonia could influence other realmsii. human soul kept in harmony by numerical relationshipsiii. music could penetrate the soul, restore inner harmony2. AristotlesPolitics: music affected behaviora. music that imitated ethos aroused same ethos in listenerb. imitation of ethos through use of scale type, style of melody, rhythms and poetic genres3. Plato and Aristotle: gymnastics disciplines body, music disciplines the minda. PlatosRepublic:i. two must be balanced, certain music suitableii. endorsed Dorian and Phrygianharmoniai, fostered temperance and courageiii. musical conventions must not be changediv. lawlessness in art led to licenses in manners and anarchy in societyb. AristotlesPolitics:i. less restrictive than Platoii. music for enjoyment and educationiii. negative emotions purged through music and dramaiv. menial and vulgar to play solely for pleasure or othersE. Greek music theory1. earliest theoretical works: Aristoxenus, Harmonic ElementsandRhythmic Elements(ca. 330 B.C.E.)a. pupil of Aristotle2. important later writers: Cleonides (ca. second or third century C.E.), Ptolemy, Aristides Quintilianus3. Aristoxenusa.Rhythmic Elements: musical rhythm closely aligned with poetic rhythmb.Harmonic Elements: continuous movement and diastematic (intervallic) movementi. melodies consist of notes, interval, scaleii. definitions establish basis for all later music theory4. tetrachord: four notes spanning P4tha. outer notes stationaryb. genera (classes) of tetrachordsi. diatonic genus: oldest and most naturalii. chromatic: most recent iii enharmonic: most refined, difficult to hear5. Greater Perfect System: tetrachords combined to cover larger rangea. four tetrachords plus added lowest note, 2-octave spanb. conjunct: shared notec. disjunct: separated by whole toned. middle note called mesee. tetrachords named to indicate place in systemi. meson tetrachord 4th below the meseii. hypaton (first), lowest tetrachordiii. diezeugmenon (disjunct), above the meseiv. hypabolaion (of the extremes)f. not based on absolute pitchg. Lesser Perfect System: spanning octave plus a 4th6. species of consonancesa. Cleonides: limited number of ways P4th, 5th, and octave divided into tones and semitones in diatonic genusb. seven species of octave; division of octave into species of 4th and 5thi. Mixolydian, Lydian, Phrygian, Dorian, Hypolydian, Hypophrygian, Hypodorianii. octave species parallel Babylonian diatonic tuningsiii. octave species lack principal notec. Dorian, Phrygian, and Lydian: ethnic namesi. music styles of different regions of Greek worldii. Plato and Aristotle used these names forharmoniai, scale types or melodic stylesiii. prefixes (e.g. Hypo-) multiplied number of namesd. tonos, scale or set of pitches within a specific range i. Fifteen different tonoiii. transpose system of tones up or downiii. tonoi associated with character and moode. harmonia, tonoi, Dorian: meanings defined by contextF. Ancient Greek music1. forty-five fragments survive from fifth century B.C.E. to fourth century C.E.a. Greek texts, when Greece was dominated by Romeb. most recovered in twentieth centuryc. notation: notes and duration placed above textd. two fragmentary choruses, plays by Euripides (ca. 48506 B.C.E.)2. later pieces more completea. two complete Delphic hymns to Apollo, 12827 B.C.E.b. epigram to Seikolos, epitaph on tombstone, first century C.E.c. four hymns by Mesomedes of Crete, second century C.E.d. consistencies, correspondence between theory and practice3. style example:Epitaph of Seikolos(NAWM 1)a. di