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  • Page 1

    Issue 122


    01 April 2013 07 April 2013

    Turks have high Profile in Global Water Institutions

    Longest Water Pipeline Being Built in Turkey, Zaman Says

    Northern Cyprus Sees Hope in Water Pipeline

    Mideast Region Must Address Water Concerns

    Iraqs historic Lake Sawa suffers from neglect

    Fifteen new dams to come on stream in Iran

    Ahmadinejad Inaugurates Large Dam in Northeastern Iran

    Iran: More farmers' protests over water shortages

    25% Rise in Water Reserves of Dams

    Syria refugees draining water resources in Jordan: Aid group

    Will Syrias Refugee Crisis Drain Jordan of Its Water?

    Iraq Energy Profile: Has Surpassed Iran In Producing Crude Oil

    'Israel cuts water to Palestinian villages'

    Entrepreneurs Take on MENA's Water and Energy Challenges

    St. Agatha Academy students argue case for Palestinian's water rights

    Palestinians building $1.5bn settlement - without water

    Egypt: Israel responsible for sewage on Sinai coast

    JD5.5 million project to rehabilitate Karaks water network

    $108m project to revamp Zarqa water network launched

    Cairo, Khartoum cooperating on Nile issue: Sudanese FM

    Egypts Morsi says no Nile River crisis, fears abound

    Egypt Wants to Fortify Ties with Sudan

    Qat in the middle

    Water rationing to stay: WRA

    Septage: Keralas Looming Sanitation Challenge

    Political risk deters action to avert famine report


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    Ending Open Defecation, Not by Evidence Alone

    China dams wont affect flow to India

    China projects not to affect Brahmaputra's flow: Rawat

    Environmentalists struggle to stop Chinese dam project

    Indian states fight over river usage

    Check dams to recharge water table

    One river, two countries, too many dams

    Rethinking Food Security: the Right to Food in the Mekong

    Mekong region facing six degree-warming, climate extremes

    ADB - Asian Development Bank: Mekong Countries Seek Greater Cooperation on

    Green Agriculture

    Climate change to affect Mekong production

    Laos: Development wins; human rights, environment lose

    Water use rife with externalities, use conflicts

    Waterpod solution to desert nomads water woes

    Top water issues focus for Dubai summit

    Saudi Water Signs Contract to Treat Industrial Wastewater

    Amazon tribe threatens to declare war amid row over Brazilian dam project

    Blocked Migration: Fish Ladders On U.S. Dams Are Not Effective

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    Turks have high profile in global water institutions

    As is well known, both the quality and the quantity of water resources are adversely affected by the

    fast-growing population of the world, climate change, increasing urbanization and the development

    of agriculture and industry.

    There is a total of 1.4 billion cubed kilometers of water in the world and 97.4 percent of this amount

    is salt water while only 2.6 percent is fresh water. The majority of the fresh water is located in the

    polar regions.

    Water availability becomes more and more important every single day, and especially so in arid

    regions. The establishment of institutes and organizations focusing on water studies started in the

    1970s in conjunction with a general emphasis on environmental policies to preserve water resources

    and ensure their efficient use. The earliest were large international organizations such as the United

    Nations Economic Commission for Europe, the World Bank and the United Nations Environment

    Programme. Some of the other principal international organizations that specialize in this area are the

    International Water Resources Association (IWRA), established in 1971; the International Water

    Management Institute (IWMI) and the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI). The IWRA is

    a leading, reliable, education and development-oriented, international non-profit, non-political and

    nongovernmental organization well known for improving understanding on water issues and as a

    defender of the management of the worlds water resources in general. The IWRAs goals include

    addressing problems related to international water resources as well as building and enhancing

    related partnerships and mechanisms.

    In addition, the World Water Council was established in 1996 -- four years after the 1992 Rio Earth

    Summit -- along with the Global Water Partnership (GWP), which was established in the same year

    jointly by the World Bank, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Swedish

    International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA). The mission of the World Water Council,

    which is known as an international policy think tank, is to ensure global sustainability of critical life

    resources and the protection, development, planning, management and use of water in all its

    dimensions with the aim of promoting awareness of the fair use of water at the highest decision-

    making level. Moreover, the World Water Council organizes the World Water Forum every three

    years. Turkey hosted the World Water Forum successfully in 2009 in stanbul and this achievement

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    was followed by the creation of the stanbul International Water Forum, held every two years. The

    first of these was organized in 2009 and the second in 2011. The aim of the stanbul International

    Water Forum is to provide a platform for more cooperation and coordination among international and

    local water stakeholders in Turkey and around Turkey in order to address regional water issues more

    deeply and come up with joint solutions.

    Due to its geography and water resources, Turkey is one of the countries at the forefront when it

    comes to water studies and trans-boundary water resources in particular. A regional development

    project, the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), realized by Turkey in the Euphrates and Tigris

    basin, known in history as Upper Mesopotamia, is one of the main issues on the agenda within the

    scope of water studies.

    Engineers, specialists, officials and other professionals from Turkey have begun to take on important

    roles at these institutions that shape the worlds water agenda and policies. Dr. Olcay nver, GAP

    Regional Development Agency director from 1991 to 2003, has been working as UN World Water

    Assessment Programme coordinator since May 22, 2007. The World Water Assessment Programme

    was established in order to ensure coordination among institutions within and outside the UN on the

    management of world water resources. In addition, this organization prepares the World Water

    Development reports as well.

    Turkey more active in worlds water agenda, policies

    Professor Doan Altnbilek became the president of the executive board of the International Water

    Resources Association as of Jan. 1, 2013, for the 2013-2015 term. Professor Altnbilek, who also

    served as president of the International Hydropower Association (IHA) from 2004 to 2008, was also

    a member of the executive board of IHA from 2002 until Feb. 15, 2013, and he is still an honorary

    member. Professor Altnbilek organized the International Hydropower Association World Congress

    in 2007 in Antalya, in which former President and Prime Minister Sleyman Demirel also

    participated. In addition, Professor Altnbilek was elected vice president of the bureau of the board of

    governors of the World Water Council (WWC) for a two-year term beginning in 2013. In the same

    elections, Dr. Akif zkald, general director of the State Waterworks Authority (DS), and rfan Aker

    from Dolsar Engineering were elected to serve as governors on the board, and Haluk Bykba,

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    secretary-general of the Turkish Contractors Association, was elected to be an alternate governor, to

    name just a few of those representing Turkey in this international assembly. The WWC is the agency

    that organized the 5th World Water Forum in stanbul. The Turkish Water Institute, which took part

    in organizing the forum as well, serves as an observer on the board of governors of the WWC for

    three years until 2018. In light of this information, one can easily say that Turkey has a strong level

    of representation on the WWC.

    On Nov. 2, 2011, the Turkish Water Institute (SUEN) was established. The priority of SUEN, the

    most recent actor in Turkish water management policy, is to guide and monitor water studies for the

    future; to develop the short-term and long-term water management strategy of our country and to

    ensure coordination among institutions and organizations working for water management. In

    addition, as one of the organizers of the 5th World Water Forum, SUEN represents our country at

    international water events. The president of SUEN, Professor Ahmet Mete Saati, is the term

    president of the International Network of Basin Organizations (INBO)-Europe and SUEN serves as

    the secretariat for the European INBO conference, as well.

    In 2012, Dr. Hseyin Gndodu was elected vice president of the International Commission on

    Irrigation and Drainage (ICID), a nongovernmental organization established in 1950. ICID is a

    scientific and technical organization working on the issues of irrigation and drainage, techniques for

    efficient and productive irrigation, improving water and increasing the efficiency of water use as well

    as disseminating these developments throughout the world. ICID cooperates with water-related

    institutions in cooperating countries, which in Turkey is the DS.

    There are experts from our country participating in the work of these institutions which play an

    important role in the protection and efficient use of water resources as well as shaping global

    environmental policies. This has eliminated the shortcoming of not having experts in the

    management of these institutions from our country, which is significant because trans-boundary

    water resources are a critical element of foreign policy. This shortcoming previously meant that

    Turkey could not take part as a decision-maker in drafting legal texts on water and that Turkey had

    difficulties explaining its case on water to the world. Now, taking part in the work of these

    institutions will provide the opportunity for Turkey to promote its experience and its knowledge of

    water policies widely and in a more efficient manner so that they can be used extensively. Turkish

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    experts experience and participation in international organizations devoted to water issues will be

    key to establishing new water policies.

    Turks have high profile in global water institutions, 07/04/2013, Tuba Evrim Maden, online at:




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    Longest Water Pipeline Being Built in Turkey, Zaman Says

    Turkey is working to finish a 9,300- kilometer (5,800-mile) water pipeline in the Harran Plain that

    when done later this year will be the worlds longest, the Todays Zaman newspaper reported.

    The pipeline in southeastern Turkey, most of it installed 1.6 meters (5.2 feet) underground, is part of

    the 200 million- lira ($111 million) Harran Plain Closed Drainage Project, the paper said, citing

    Gursel Kusek, an official from the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Animal Husbandry.

    Kusek told the paper that the project is taking place to help address high levels of total dissolved

    solids in the shallow groundwater due to logging, irrigation, rising water tables and drainage


    Longest Water Pipeline Being Built in Turkey, Zaman Says, 04/04/2013, online at:




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    Northern Cyprus Sees Hope in Water Pipeline

    ISTANBUL Even as the Cypriot government struggles to ward off financial disaster, the

    authorities in the northern part of the divided island are quietly pushing ahead with a project to link

    their territory, physically and economically, more closely with Turkey, their powerful neighbor and


    Under the ambitious project, expected to cost at least 1 billion Turkish lire, or $550 million, Turkey

    would sell water to the northern sector, which it calls the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, using

    an experimental technology: a pipeline in the Mediterranean Sea.

    The pipeline is under construction, scheduled to start delivering Anamur River water from Turkeys

    southern province of Mersin next March. But environmental experts question the sustainability of

    transferring water out of its natural basin, and outside engineers are watching to see how the

    government project works out in practice.

    The project calls for Turkey to transfer 75 million cubic meters, or 19.8 billion gallons, of water a

    year to Northern Cyprus.

    The transfer agreement between Turkey and Northern Cyprus is valid for 30 years and can be

    renewed for an additional 5 years, said Ayhan Taskin, director of water supply at the Turkish State

    Hydraulic Works. The water will be collected at the new Alakopru Dam, transferred via the undersea

    pipeline, then deposited into a reservoir behind the Gecitkoy Dam, also new, near the coastal city of


    Transfers of water from one basin to another and other engineering projects are favored by some

    governments as a quick-fix solution to meet growing demand in drier regions. Proposals for such

    projects are on the rise, but environmentalists say there are alternatives, including the ability to

    increase conservation and recycling before turning to these long-distance transfers. Water use

    worldwide in the 20th century grew at more than twice the rate of the global population, according to

    a U.N. report in 2011.


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    Denis Landenbergue, freshwater program manager for World Wildlife Fund International in Gland,

    Switzerland, said by telephone last month that the group applied a precautionary approach to these

    kinds of projects.

    Such projects have actually been shown to increase demand for water rather than satiate it. Consider

    the Tagus-Segura pipeline, running 286 kilometers, or 178 miles, that opened in Spain in 1978.

    The water it delivered to the Segura region led to an expansion of irrigated land and urban

    development on the coast, according to a WWF report on water transfers. The pipeline multiplied

    the initial water deficit that it was supposed to solve, the report asserted.

    On both sides of Cyprus, climate change and population growth are increasing demand. Precipitation

    decreased by more than a quarter over the past 96 years, said Huseyin Gokcekus, vice rector at Near

    East University in the Turkish sector of Nicosia, and general coordinator for water in Northern

    Cypruss Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Water mismanagement further exacerbates

    the problem, he said. For decades, residents have pumped out more groundwater than nature could

    replace. That has allowed saltwater to enter aquifers along the islands coast.

    Ninety-two percent of the countrys water is obtained from groundwater, he said, adding that

    Northern Cyprus lacks both public education on conservation and infrastructure for water recycling.

    On the southern side of the island, the Republic of Cyprus will receive no water from this project. It

    is turning instead to recycling and desalination.

    Were determined to use desalination and recycled water to augment our supply of water, Kyriacos

    Kyrou, water director for the republics Water Development Department, said by telephone.

    The country has five desalination plants that together can process 250,000 cubic meters of water a

    day, he said. Still, the country aims to reduce dependency upon fossil fuel-intensive desalination by

    ramping up water recycling, he said.

    In Northern Cyprus, the fresh water bounty from the new pipeline could create a perverse incentive to

    increase farming, as occurred in Spain.


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    Half of the water transferred from Turkey will be used in agriculture, Mr. Gokcekus said. But

    farmable acreage will not be expanded in the first phase of the project, he said. Instead, the

    transferred water will replace the salty groundwater now used by farmers for irrigation.

    To help ensure the best use of the new water supply, Mr. Gokcekus is working with the territorys

    Parliament on a law to address water-wise crop choices, irrigation systems that conserve water,

    public education, rainwater harvesting and infrastructure to recycle domestic water.

    Mr. Landenbergue of the WWF said, however, that such measures should be completed before

    moving forward with a water transfer project. He said he could not speak specifically about the

    Northern Cyprus pipeline because he had not studied it.

    But even if Northern Cyprus can avoid the classic pitfalls of water transfer projects, Mersin Province

    in Turkey could fall prey to donor-basin problems. Reduced water flows have environmental, social

    and economic impacts, according to the WWF. Altering natural flow systems can lower water tables,

    increase saltwater intrusion to coastal areas, and harm fish migration and spawning, it said. But Mr.

    Taskin of Turkeys water agency said by e-mail that his country would be transferring just one-tenth

    of the annual flow capacity of the river. Turkey will not encounter any water shortage due to this

    project, he said.

    The few hundred people who have been displaced by the Alakopru Dam in Turkey have been

    resettled, Mr. Gokcekus said. They will also benefit from the chance to farm some of the 4,000

    hectares, or 9,880 acres, of new irrigated area in Mersin Province and to use some of the estimated 26

    megawatts of electricity generated annually by the dam, he said.

    Water transfers also risk conveying invasive species from the donor basin to the destination. Its

    often underestimated, and there are lots of cases where invasive species are causing huge trouble for

    the ecosystem, biodiversity and the economy, Mr. Landenbergue said.

    Still, the environmental concerns could end up being moot. The pipeline, promoted as the first of its

    kind in the world, is experimental. Some observers wonder what kind of difficulties its builders will

    encounter, or if it will even be built.

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    The underwater section of the pipeline will be approximately 80 kilometers long, Mr. Taskin said. It

    will be made of high-density polyethylene, a material commonly used to transport water. It will cross

    a channel as deep as 1,430 meters, or 4,700 feet, but the pipeline will be suspended 250 meters below

    the surface, according to the Turkish State Hydraulic Works.

    Each 500-meter section of pipe will be tethered to the sea floor far below. Planning engineers also

    considered potential hazards like earthquakes and the high level of submarine traffic in the area.

    The unconventional design was created by the Turkish firm Alsim Alarko, based in Gebze, with

    engineering support from other Turkish and foreign companies. Turkeys water department has

    awarded the construction contract to a joint venture of Malaysian and Turkish companies. Executives

    from the joint venture declined to speak about the project.

    Engineers outside the project are intrigued by it. H.P. van Rossen, manager of installation analysis at

    Saipem France, a construction firm that works in subsea oil and gas but is not involved in the water

    project, said the pipeline was a novel concept.

    This project has little in common with the undersea pipelines used to transmit oil and gas, he said,

    in that most conventional offshore pipelines are made of steel and can be placed at depths up to 3,000

    meters. They usually rest on the sea floor, thanks to water pressure, the weight of the pipe and the

    density of the contents.

    Mr. van Rossen said the fluid dynamics of the water pipeline would be different. Because seawater is

    denser than fresh water, the fresh water effectively floats in the salt. Also, the pipeline material has a

    density close to the water, so the line will be quite neutrally buoyant, he said.

    But the long tethers required for the project could be problematic, he said. Earthquakes could destroy

    anchoring points, or a tsunami could break the floating line. Nevertheless, if the pipeline broke, it

    would not create the same ecological damage as, say, an oil spill, he added.

    Contractors began building the Alakopru dam in Turkey in 2011 and the Cyprus dam in March of last

    year. Construction work on both dams is continuing, Mr. Taskin said. Alakopru was 75 percent

    complete in late March, and Gecitkoy was 40 percent complete, said Mr. Gokcekus, who has visited


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    the work sites and attended meetings with the construction firm. With work under way on each end

    of the line, the construction team planned to lay the pipes for the sea crossing later this year, he said.

    Both the Turkish State Hydraulic Works representative and Northern Cyprus water coordinator say

    the project is on schedule to be completed by March 2014.

    Emphasizing caution, the WWF report said a project like this usually reflects ignorance of the social

    and environmental costs and a failure to adequately consider better, local alternatives, such as

    improved management of local demand.

    But Mr. Gokcekus disagreed, citing climate change and population growth as inexorable strains on

    water supplies. Water transfers between countries have become inevitable, he said.

    Otherwise, he cautioned, territorial disputes over water could surpass current disagreements over

    rights to deposits of oil and natural gas.

    Northern Cyprus Sees Hope in Water Pipeline, 03/04/2013, online at:





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    Mideast Region Must Address Water Concerns

    Turkey is now in the midst of an unprecedented peace process. The decisiveness shown by the parties

    is promising, but the road is long. The process is complicated and requires maximum sensitivity and

    care. A climate of peace is important not only for Turkey but for the region as well. There will

    definitely be changes in the economic and social structures of the region.

    I want to look at this new era from an old viewpoint, namely that of water balances in the region.

    Recently, research released by NASA drew attention to new possible dangers in the region because

    of problems arising from misuse of the regions water resources. This research seems to agree with

    expert commentary that from now on wars in the Middle East will be about water instead of oil.

    NASAs research revealed that the loss of fresh water in the region has reached dangerous levels.

    One of the most important findings was the loss of 144 cubic kilometers of fresh water reserves in the

    Tigris and Euphrates basins of Turkey, Syria and Iran.

    The NASA research, which goes back to 2003, determined that fresh water reserves approximately

    the size of the Dead Sea have been lost because of bad management, increasing demand for

    underground water and the 2007 drought. The research found that 60% of this loss is caused by

    pumping water out of underground reserves. While regional demand is growing fast, countries of the

    region are unable to coordinate water management because of their conflicts.

    The NASA research is once again pointing to an important reality: drinking water in the Middle East

    is rapidly becoming scarce and some countries are likely to have water problems. During the UN

    Climate Conference in Doha last year, the World Bank issued serious warnings that reduced water

    resources could become a serious problem in the Middle East and North Africa.

    According to the predictions of several organizations, water conflicts will be a major issue in the

    coming years and will emerge as the primary cause of wars in the region. One prediction that requires

    careful attention is that after 2022, access to water resources in the Middle East, Asia and North

    Africa might be used as an instrument of war.

    Data obtained by the NASA research therefore concluded that one-fifth of lost water is because of the

    soil drying out and a snowfall reduction. Evaporation of lakes and water reserves results in the loss of

    another fifth. The rest of the loss is because of a 90 cubic kilometer reduction in underground water

    reserves. Such a loss used to meet the needs of nearly 100 million people.


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    While the Middle East is undergoing this rapid water loss due to misuse and climate change, what is

    Turkey doing? It continues with controversial policies that disrupt ecosystem balances and disrespect

    nature. While hydroelectric dams and reservoirs are being built carelessly, rivers and streams are

    drying up and the death warrant of underground water reserves is signed with every wrong drilling.

    Another misguided policy is to encourage farmers to resort to irrigated agriculture, even in areas

    where dry agriculture is possible.

    In light of the latest NASA data, Turkey and regional countries have to develop and apply an

    emergency plan of action for the correct use of water resources. Policies are not always decided by

    parties sitting around a table. If we do not pay attention to phenomena such as climate change,

    drought and misuse of natural resources today, one day these issues will reach desperate levels if

    necessary measures are not put in place.

    Mideast Region Must Address Water Concerns, 01/04/2013, online at: http://www.al-




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    Iraqs historic Lake Sawa suffers from neglect

    One of the most well-known lakes in Iraq, Lake Sawa, is a large closed body of salt water situated in

    the desert between Baghdad and Basra.

    The lake is dubbed by some as the Pearl of the South for its beauty and unique composition. It is

    surrounded by a cliff of piled sand dunes, providing a natural levee that keeps the water above

    ground level. And as the lake has no proven link to either river or sea, the source of its water has been

    a mystery to researchers for centuries.

    There are those who believe that the lake is linked to the red sea or to other remote lakes, while

    some people believe that the water of the lake come from rains of al-Dammam basin or from the west

    desert. There are different opinions, but the most likely is that the water of the lake comes from

    groundwater in this location, says Dr. Ali Hussein, head of the Research and Studies Centre in

    Samawah University.

    Four species of small fish and other aquatic organisms have been found in Lake Sawa, which

    stretches about four kilometers long and one kilometer wide, says Hussein.

    The studies proved that there are four species of small fish that grow to a certain size of 15 cm or 20

    cm. The purpose of the fish and aquatic organisms in the lake is to feed migratory birds, but the fish

    themselves are not fit for human consumption [due to high fat content], explains Hussein.

    Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur, chlorine and carbonates are the essential elements

    that make up Lake Sawas water and, with further studies, could prove useful in treating skin

    conditions, says Hussein.

    There are many people who suffer from skin diseases in this area and in the surrounding areas. They

    come and swim in the lake for it [their condition] to improve, diseases, skin diseases. Yes, part of the

    answer is that yes it can be used as a natural cure for skin diseases. But this needs more research and

    studies to reach certain facts for it to be offered as a place that can treat certain types of skin

    diseases, he says.

    Lake Sawa was once a popular tourist destination attracting visitors from the nearby city of Samawah

    and all over the country. But years of neglect has turned the resort into a dilapidated ghost town, just

    like many other touristic and historic destinations in Iraq.

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    There was a resort and it was teeming with tourists. There were also installations as you see. But it

    had been stolen and vandalized after the first Gulf War in 1990. The same thing happened in 2003,

    laments geomorphologist Saed Jassim.

    The Iraqi Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities is currently seeking investors to help with tourism

    projects in al-Diwaniyah province, according to local media, in an attempt to revive tourism in local

    landmarks including Lake Sawa.

    Iraqs historic Lake Sawa suffers from neglect, 01/04/2013, online at:




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    Fifteen new dams to come on stream in Iran

    Fifteen new dams will be inaugurated across Iran by the end of the current Iranian calendar year,

    which began on March 21, IRNA News Agency quoted Managing Director of Iran Water Resources

    Management Company Mohammad Haj-Rasouliha as saying.

    The dams will have a total water storage capacity of 6 billion cubic meters, he added. The existing

    dams gave a total storage capacity of 52 billion cubic meters, he noted.

    In August 2012, Haj-Rasouliha said that according to the fifth five-year development plan, which

    started in March 2011, one dam should be built each month.

    Some 36 billion rials (around $3 billion) has been allocated for dam building, he noted.

    Some 3 billion cubic meters of surface waters in Iran are being reserved behind dams, Energy

    Minister Majid Namjou said in June 2012.

    He told the IRNA News Agency that 75-80 percent of surface waters are poured into the dams.

    Iran ranks first in the region and third in world in terms of dam construction industry, First Vice

    President Mohammad Reza Rahimi announced last year.

    He added that currently contractors are building 135 new dams across the country and also doing

    several projects in other countries.

    In July 2011, Iran celebrated self-sufficiency in dam construction by inaugurating the Karun-4 dam,

    the largest concrete dam in Iran, which has been completely designed and constructed by domestic


    Fifteen new dams to come on stream in Iran, 06/04/2013,online at: http://www.payvand.com/news/13/apr/1036.html



  • Page 18

    Ahmadinejad Inaugurates Large Dam in Northeastern Iran

    TEHRAN (FNA)- A large reservior dam, constructed by Iranian experts, was inaugurated in the

    Northeastern Khorassan Razavi province in a ceremony attended by President Mahmoud


    The Aradak reservoir dam is located about 70 km to the Northwest of Mashhad. The 410-meter-long

    dam is constructed on Aradak River.

    In July 2012, Iran inaugurated its highest roller-compact concrete (RCC) dam in the Southwestern

    province of Khuzestan in a ceremony attended by President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.

    President Ahmadinejad inaugurated the Upper Gatvand Dam, which is located five kilometers from

    the city of Gatvand and has the country's second largest reservoir after the Karkheh Dam.

    Iran is a leading country in dam construction and many countries, including Sri Lanka, Syria, and

    Tajikistan as well as several African states, have entered either dam construction or consultation

    projects with Tehran.

    Earlier this year, Managing-Director of Iran's Water Management Company Mohammad Haj-Rasouli

    praised Iran's eye-catching progress in area of dam construction in recent decades, saying Iran is now

    among the world's top dam-builders and enjoys the most advanced technology in the field.

    Iran is among five major dam-constructor countries in the world, Haj-Rasouli said in Southern city of

    Bandar Abbas in February, and added that the country has currently 145 operational dams with the

    total capacity of 50 billion cubic meters.

    Referring to the fact that dry and semi-dry climate has dominated some 75 percent of Iran's soil, he

    said that during the past decade, the country has faced severe climate situation and lack of rainfalls.

    However, he added that the crisis was successfully overcome to some extent through appropriate

    management and planning.

    Iran is now viewed as a leading country in dam building. Iranian specialists now provide consultation

    services for the design and construction of various dams in different sizes.

    Ahmadinejad Inaugurates Large Dam in Northeastern Iran, 04/04/2013, online at:




  • Page 19

    Iran: More farmers' protests over water shortages

    NCRI - Furious farmers angry at water shortages have this week staged more demonstrations near the

    city of Isfahan.

    The latest protests come after the regime brutally crushed gatherings of farmers in February this year.

    Violent scenes erupted two months ago in the city of Varzaneh when protesters set fire to three buses

    carrying state security forces.

    Several farmers were killed and injured, and at least 160 arrested, by the state's SSF anti-riot squad

    troops at the time.

    They had accused the regime of turning the Zayandehrood River into a parched valley.

    The Zayanderood begins on the central plateau of Iran and supplies water to people in the central

    Iranian provinces of Isfahan and Yazd - but it has dried up over the past four summers.

    Iran: More farmers' protests over water shortages, 05/04/2013, online at: http://www.ncr-iran.org/en/news/iran-




  • Page 20

    25% Rise in Water Reserves of Dams

    Water reserves in dams stand at 25 billion cubic meters, which has grown by 25 percent, said

    the head of Water Resources Management Company.

    Mohammad Haj-Rasouliha put the average precipitation rate at 178 millimeters, Fars News Agency


    He said 15 dams will be made operational across the provinces of Khorasan Razavi, North Khorasan,

    South Khorasan, Fars, Isfahan, Sistan-Baluchestan, Zanjan and Khuzestan by the end of the current

    Iranian year (March 2014).

    Close to 124,000 hectares of irrigation and drainage networks have been established under the Mehr-

    e Mandegar Project (which plans to complete semi-finished projects) since last year.

    Haj-Rasouliha expressed hope that 52,000 hectares would be added to the network in the first six

    months of the current Iranian year.

    A large reservoir dam, constructed by Iranian experts, was inaugurated on Wednesday in the

    northeastern Khorasan Razavi province in a ceremony attended by President Mahmoud


    The Aradak Reservoir Dam is located 70 km to the northwest of Mashhad. The 410-meter-long dam

    is constructed on Aradak River.

    Iran is a leading country in dam construction and many countries, including Sri Lanka, Syria, and

    Tajikistan as well as several African states, have undertaken joint dam construction or consultation

    projects with Tehran.

    "Iran is among five major dam builders in the world," he said in the southern city of Bandar Abbas in

    February, adding that the country currently has 145 dams with a total capacity of 50 billion cubic


    25% Rise in Water Reserves of Dams, 06/04/2013, online at:




  • Page 21

    Syria refugees draining water resources in Jordan: Aid group

    AMMAN Hundreds of thousands of Syrian refugees in Jordan are stretching the kingdoms meagre

    water resources to the limit, two British aid agencies warned on Friday, calling for international


    The Syrian refugee emergency is highlighting one of Jordans most pressing problems - water, said

    Christian Snoad of Oxfam, in a joint statement with the British Red Cross.

    Solutions need to be found to deal with Jordans water scarcity and this will need to be done as a

    matter of urgency.

    The Jordanian government will need... large-scale help from governments around the world to

    address this critical issue, said Snoad.

    Jordan has taken in waves of Palestinian and Iraqis refugees who fled conflicts over the past few

    decades, and now hosts more than 450,000 Syrians, including 120,000 in the sprawling northern

    border camp of Zaatari alone.

    The kingdoms water supply system, already under severe strain, is being stretched to the limit by

    the large influx of refugees fleeing conflict in Syria, the statement said.

    Faced with chronic water shortages, Jordan, whose own population has been growing at an annual

    rate of 3.5 per cent, has been forced to extract more water from the ground since the mid-1980s.

    More than 3,500 cubic metres of water are delivered each day into Zaatari, providing refugees with

    clean water for drinking, cooking and cleaning, said the statement.

    Its just a matter of time before the main sources run out. In some areas, groundwater extraction is

    nearly three times the recharge rate, it added.

  • Page 22

    Syrian refugees could afford to buy filtered water in Jordan, one of the worlds 10 driest countries,

    where desert covers 92 per cent of its territory.

    Syria refugees draining water resources in Jordan: Aid group, 07/04/2013, online at:




  • Page 23

    Will Syrias Refugee Crisis Drain Jordan of Its Water?

    Now that spring has arrived in the Middle East, Syrias estimated 1.2 million refugees in Turkey,

    Lebanon and Jordan can hope for relief from the snow, the rain and the bitterly cold nights of winter.

    But that relief will be as short-lived as the regions balmy weather. Summer is fast on its way, and in

    Jordan in particular, life for Syrian refugees, and the border communities that support them, is about

    to get a lot worse.

    Jordan is one of the most water-stressed countries in the world, subject to an ongoing drought that

    has devastated agricultural prospects in the countrys northern areas for nearly a decade. The large

    and rapid influx of Syrian refugees into the border cities of Ramtha and Mafraq, home to the Zaatari

    refugee camp, has strained water supplies to the breaking point for two weeks in February, parts

    of Mafraq town had no water whatsoever. Summers soaring temperatures will put additional

    demands on a poor region that can hardly support its own population, let alone the surge of new

    refugees that are expected as the war in Syria grinds on. When the peaceful Syrian uprising evolved

    into a bloody conflict nearly two years ago, residents of Mafraq welcomed refugees fleeing the

    violence. That hospitality is starting to wane. Competition between Syrian refugees and local

    residents over limited resources, from water to electricity, food, schooling, housing and health

    care could boil over, potentially causing unrest in one of the few stable countries left in the Middle

    East. As temperatures rise, so too will tensions, says Nigel Pont, Middle East Regional Director

    for Mercy Corps, an international development agency actively involved with the Syrian crisis.

    Resentment among the Jordanians is palpable, he adds, and could easily escalate into violence if

    the underlying issues are not addressed.

    Some 3,000 Syrians are crossing the Jordanian border every day, and aid agencies working with the

    363,000 refugees already in the country anticipate that at this rate they will see another million in

    Jordan alone by the end of the year. Border towns like Mafraq have seen populations double since the

    start of the Syrian conflict, driving prices for rent, food and utilities sky-high. At the same time, the

    Jordanian government is considering reducing its historically generous subsidies on fuel. So costs are

    rising along with demanda perfect storm for the Jordanian economy that has many grumbling

    about unwelcome guests.


  • Page 24

    International assistance can help with food, housing and even fuel to supply Jordans burgeoning

    refugee population to a certain extent. Water, however, is the one thing that cant be airlifted in. For

    decades Jordan has relied on extracting groundwater to supply its own growing population, but those

    supplies are dwindling. According to antipoverty charity Oxfam, which is also involved with the

    Syrian conflict, groundwater extraction is nearly three times the recharge rate in some areas, which

    means that wells are quite literally going dry. To make things worse, Oxfam estimates that 50% of

    water in Mafraq district is lost through leaks in aging pipes or by people illegally siphoning water

    from the municipal system.

    The Syrian refugee emergency is highlighting one of Jordans most pressing problems water,

    says Christian Snoad, Oxfams water, sanitation and hygiene coordinator in Zaatari, in a recently

    released statement. Solutions need to be found to deal with Jordans water scarcity, and this will

    need to be done as a matter of urgency. As it is, towns that used to have running water one day a

    week are now only getting it once every two weeks. And with more than half of the Syrian refugees

    living in towns like Mafraq, its all too easy for Jordanians to blame the newcomers for the shortages.

    To fill in the gaps residents must rely on water delivered by private tanker companies, a costly

    alternative that is fueling further resentment.

    Aid agencies such as Oxfam and Mercy Corps have dug wells in the Zaatari refugee camp to

    assuage shortages there, but its a short-term solution, especially as numbers grow. To help residents

    and refugees outside the camp, the U.S. Agency for International Development has partnered with

    Mercy Corps on a $20 million project to refurbish Jordans ailing water system where the influx of

    Syrian refugees has disrupted supplies.

    These initiatives will only help if the incoming numbers stay stable, all the more unlikely considering

    the worsening violence across Syria. The U.K.-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights says

    6,000 Syrians were killed in March, making it the deadliest month since the start of hostilities in

    2011. On Tuesday, rebel forces attacked a Damascus suburb in an attempt to reach the heart of

    President Bashar Assads stronghold. The regime retaliated with a barrage of rockets, mortars and air

    strikes on northern suburbs allied with the opposition. It is impossible to predict where the war will

    go next: the rebels are determined; so too is the regime. But if Damascus does fall, or any of Syrias

    southern cities for that matter, a surge of Syrians heading for the Jordanian border is a given. Instead


  • Page 25

    of 3,000 refugees a day, Jordan might find itself forced to accept hundreds of thousands a

    catastrophic burden for any country, not least one already on edge because of its own dwindling


    UPDATE: Jordans Prime Minister-designate, Abdullah Ensour, warned in parliamentary debate that

    an increased influx of Syrian refugees would be catastrophic for the country. In a subsequent

    conversation with journalists, he suggested that the government was considering alternatives,

    including the establishment of buffer zones in southern Syria that would serve the dual purpose of

    protecting Jordan from spillover from the ongoing conflict, as well as house would-be refugees

    seeking safety across the border. On 5 April the United Nations warned that it would soon have to

    start cutting aid to Syrian refugees across the region, due to inadequate funding. The needs are rising

    exponentially, and we are broke, Marixie Mercado, a spokeswoman for Unicef, told reporters in

    Geneva according to the New York Times. Across the region, a lot of our operations are going to

    have to start scaling down unless we get money. Unicef warned that it had received only a quarter of

    requested funds, and as a result would be forced to stop deliveries of 3.5 million liters of water to

    100,000 Syrian refugees by June just when demand will peak.

    Will Syrias Refugee Crisis Drain Jordan of Its Water?, 06/04/2013, online at: http://world.time.com/2013/04/04/how-




  • Page 26

    Iraq Energy Profile: Has Surpassed Iran In Producing Crude Oil

    Iraq has the fifth largest proven crude oil reserves in the world, and it passed Iran as the second

    largest producer of crude oil in OPEC at the end of 2012.

    Iraq was the worlds eighth largest producer of total petroleum liquids in 2012, and it has the worlds

    fifth largest proven petroleum reserves after Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Canada, and Iran. Just a

    fraction of Iraqs known fields are in development, and Iraq may be one of the few places left where

    much of its known hydrocarbon resources has not been fully exploited. Iraqs energy sector is heavily

    based on oil. Over 90 percent of its energy needs are met with petroleum (2010 estimate), with the

    rest supplied by natural gas and hydropower.

    Iraq has begun to develop its oil and natural gas reserves after years of sanctions and wars, but it will

    need to develop its infrastructure in order to reach its production potential. According to estimates by

    Iraqs Deputy Prime Minister for Energy, capital expenditures of $30 billion per year in Iraqi energy

    infrastructure are required to meet Iraqs production targets. Progress has been hampered by political

    disputes and the lack of a law to govern development of Iraqs oil and gas. The proposed

    Hydrocarbon Law, which would govern contracting and regulation, has been under review in the

    Council of Ministers since October 26, 2008, but has not received final passage.


    Despite having large proven oil reserves, increases in oil production have fallen behind ambitious

    targets because of infrastructure constraints and political disputes.


    Iraq revised its estimate of proven oil reserves from 115 billion barrels in 2011 to 141 billion barrels

    as of January 1, 2013, according to the Oil and Gas Journal. Iraqs resources are not evenly divided

    across sectarian-demographic lines. Most known hydrocarbon resources are concentrated in the

    Shiite areas of the south and the ethnically Kurdish region in the north, with few resources in control

    of the Sunni minority in central Iraq.

    The majority of the known oil and gas reserves in Iraq form a belt that runs along the eastern edge of

    the country. Iraq has five super-giant fields (over 5 billion barrels) in the south that account for 60

  • Page 27

    percent of the countrys proven oil reserves. An estimated 17 percent of oil reserves are in the north

    of Iraq, near Kirkuk, Mosul, and Khanaqin. Control over rights to reserves is a source of controversy

    between the ethnic Kurds and other groups in the area. The International Energy Agency (IEA)

    estimated that the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) area contained 4 billion barrels of proven

    reserves. However, this region is now being actively explored, and the KRG stated that this region

    could contain 45 billion barrels of unproven oil resources.


    Iraqi crude oil production averaged 3 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2012, and Iraq passed Iran as

    OPECs second largest crude oil producer at the end of the year. About three-fourths of Iraqs crude

    oil production comes from the southern fields, with the remainder primarily from the northern fields

    near Kirkuk. The majority of Iraqi oil production comes from just three giant fields: Kirkuk, the

    North Rumaila field in southern Iraq, and the South Rumaila field.

    The Ministry of Oil oversees oil and gas production and development in all but the Kurdish territory

    through its operating entities, the North Oil Company (NOC) and the Midland Oil Company

    (MDOC) in the north and central regions, and the South Oil Company (SOC) and the Missan Oil

    Company (MOC) in southern regions. Production in the northern region controlled by the Kurdistan

    Regional Government (KRG) fluctuates because of disputes with the central Iraqi government, but

    independent assessments by FACTS Global Energy and the Middle East Economic Survey suggest

    that crude oil production capacity in the KRG could reach about 400,000 bbl/d by the end of 2013.

    Development plans

    Iraq has begun an ambitious program to develop its oil fields and to increase its oil production.

    Passage of the proposed Hydrocarbon Law, which would provide a legal framework for investment

    in the hydrocarbon sector, remains a main policy objective. Despite the absence of the Hydrocarbons

    Law, the Iraqi Ministry of Oil signed long-term contracts between November 2008 and May 2010

    with international oil companies.

    Under the first phase, companies bid to further develop giant oil fields that were already producing.

    Phase two contracts were signed to develop oil fields that were already explored but not fully

  • Page 28

    developed or producing commercially. Together, contracts for both phases cover oil fields with

    proven reserves of over 60 billion barrels. If these fields were developed as initially planned, they

    would increase total Iraqi production capacity to almost 12 million bbl/d, or about 9 million bbl/d

    above 2012 production levels.

    The contracts call for Iraq to reach this production target by 2017. However, these contracts are being

    re-negotiated to more modest levels, and Iraq is revising its production targets to 9.5 million bbl/d by

    2017. However, even these revised targets may be overly optimistic, given delays in developing its

    energy infrastructure. Iraq has since held a third bidding round for natural gas fields, and a fourth

    round (with few bids submitted) for fields that contain predominantly crude oil. A fifth round has

    been scheduled in 2013 for the development of the 4-billion-barrel Nasiriya oil field in Thi-Qar

    province, together with the construction and operation of a new 300,000-bbl/d refinery.

    Infrastructure constraints

    Iraq faces many challenges in meeting the planned timetable for oil production. One of the major

    obstacles is the lack of an outlet for significant increases in crude oil production. Both Iraqi refining

    and export infrastructure are severely constrained, with bottlenecks preventing more crude oil

    processing. Iraqi oil exports are currently running at near full capacity in the south, while export

    capacity in the north has been restricted by sabotage, deteriorating pipelines, and the inability to

    receive more oil from the south of Iraq via a deteriorated Strategic Pipeline. Pipeline capacity would

    need to be expanded in any case to export significantly higher volumes. Progress has been slow

    because of political disputes between factions within Iraq, especially those between the central

    government in Baghdad and the Kurdistan Regional Government. Iraq also has disagreements

    regarding shared oil fields with Kuwait and Iran.

    Production increases of the scale planned will also require substantial increases in natural gas and/or

    water injection to maintain oil reservoir pressure and boost oil production. Iraq has associated gas

    that could be used, but it is currently being flared. According to a report issued by the U.S. National

    Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Iraq was the fourth largest natural gas flaring

    country in 2010.

  • Page 29

    Another option is to use water for re-injection, and while locally available water is currently being

    used in the south of Iraq, fresh water is a scarce commodity in the Middle East. Large amounts of

    seawater will likely have to be pumped in via pipelines that have yet to be built for the Common

    Seawater Supply Facility. It was estimated that 10 to 15 million bbl/d of seawater could be necessary

    for Iraqs original production expansion plans, at a cost of over $10 billion. ExxonMobil, which was

    originally assigned to lead the project, dropped out in 2012, putting these plans behind schedule. The

    engineering company CH2MHill was subsequently awarded management of the project in December

    2012, but the final scope of the project wont be known until Iraq decides what its re-negotiated

    production targets will be. The IEA estimates that the project will not come online before 2017 at the


    Furthermore, Iraqs oil and gas industry is the largest industrial customer of electricity in Iraq. Large-

    scale increases in oil production would also require large increases in electric power generation.

    However, Iraq has struggled to keep up with the demand for electricity, with shortages common

    across the country. Significant upgrades to the electricity sector would be needed to supply additional

    power. Although over 20 gigawatts (GW) of new generating capacity are planned by 2015, delays in

    meeting projected targets would mean insufficient supply to meet the projected demands of the oil



    Iraqi refineries produce too much heavy fuel oil relative to domestic needs, and not enough other

    refined products such as gasoline. To alleviate product shortages, Iraq set a goal of increasing

    refining capacity to 1.5 million bbl/d. Iraq has plans for four new refineries as well as plans for

    expanding the existing Daura and Basrah refineries.

    Kurdistan regional government issues

    The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), the official ruling body of a federated region in

    northern Iraq that is predominantly Kurdish, has been involved in disputes with national authorities

    related to sovereignty issues. The plan by Iraqs North Oil Company to boost production at the

    Kirkuk field in North Iraq at the edge of the KRG region has been met with objections by the KRG,

    which insists that development plans at this field require KRG cooperation and approval.

  • Page 30

    More generally, the Iraqi Oil Ministry insists that all hydrocarbon contracts must be signed with the

    national government, and that all oil produced in the KRG region be shipped via SOMO, Iraqs oil

    exporting arm. However, the KRG passed its own hydrocarbons law in 2007 in the absence of a

    national Iraqi law governing investment in hydrocarbons. In late 2011, the KRG challenged the

    authority of the national government when it signed oil production sharing agreements with

    ExxonMobil to develop 6 blocks in northern Iraq, some of which are in disputed border areas. The

    KRG has since signed additional contracts with majors such as Chevron, Gazprom, and Total.

    ExxonMobil withdrew from some of its projects in Iraq, notably the Common Seawater Supply

    Facility, and the company had been asked by the Iraqi government to choose between its involvement

    in the West Qurna 1 oilfield and its projects in the KRG. TPAO of Turkey has also been asked to

    withdraw from its involvement in the Block 9 concession that was awarded during the fourth bidding

    round because of disputes regarding Turkeys involvement in KRG energy projects.

    Another KRG oil dispute has revolved around exports of crude oil produced in the KRG region from

    earlier contracts. The KRG had agreed to send 175,000 bbl/d of crude oil into the Iraqi northern oil

    export pipeline. However, the KRG began reducing their contribution in late 2011, charging that the

    central government failed to make agreed payments to cover foreign oil company development. The

    KRG contributions were halted altogether in April 2012, but they were later re-started in August.

    Oil exports directly from the KRG are another unresolved issue. The KRG began exporting 15,000

    bbl/d of condensate and 20,000 bbl/d of crude oil to Turkey by truck. The KRG is looking at building

    its own pipelines to export crude oil directly via Turkey, bypassing the national export pipeline

    system, although Turkey has not officially agreed to this plan. Genel Energy plans to build the

    420,000 bbl/d Kurdistan Iraq Crude Export (KICE) pipeline that will connect its fields in the Kurdish

    regions in northern Iraq to the border with Turkey. In addition, the KRG has explored supplying

    natural gas to Turkey.

    The KRG has ambitious plans for its crude oil exports. KRG Prime Minister Mr. Barzani suggested

    that crude oil exports from the KRG could average 250,000 bbl/d in 2013 and then rise to 1 million

    bbl/d by 2015 and to 2 million bbl/d by 2019.

  • Page 31

    Oil exports

    Iraq was the sixth largest net exporter of petroleum liquids in the world in 2012, with the majority of

    its oil exports going to the United States and to refineries in Asia.

    Iraq exported 2.4 million bbl/d of crude oil in 2012, according to tanker data from Lloyds List

    Intelligence. About 2.1 million bbl/d of these exports came from Iraqs Persian Gulf ports, with the

    rest exported via the Iraq-Turkey pipeline in the north. The majority of Iraqi oil exports go to the

    United States and to refineries in Asia, especially India, China, and South Korea.

    Iraq crude oil exports (2012)

    Export pipelines

    To the North:

    Iraq has one major crude oil export pipeline, the Kirkuk-Ceyhan (Iraq-Turkey) pipeline, which

    transports oil from the north of Iraq to Turkeys Mediterranean port of Ceyhan. This pipeline route

    consists of two parallel pipelines with a combined nameplate capacity of 1.65 million bbl/d. The Iraq-

    Turkey pipeline has been subject to repeated disruptions, limiting exports from the northern fields.

    Furthermore, the parallel pipelines of the Iraq-Turkey route have deteriorated to the point where

    flows need to be routed back and forth between the two pipelines to bypass deteriorated sections.

    Only one of the twin pipelines is fully operational, with a maximum available capacity of 600,000

    bbl/d, according to the IEA. Finally, in order for this pipeline to reach its design capacity, Iraq would

    need to receive oil from the south via the Strategic Pipeline. However, flows from the Strategic

    Pipeline have been severely limited, as it is also in need of repairs. Iraq and Turkey have held

    discussions on increasing pipeline capacity along this route.

    Proposals have also been made to build a 1-million-bbl/d pipeline to transport heavy oil via Turkey.

    The Kurdistan Iraq Crude Export (KICE) pipeline has been proposed to transport 420,000 bbl/d of

    crude oil from fields in the KRG to the border with Turkey.

  • Page 32

    To the West:

    The Kirkuk-Banias Pipeline, with a design capacity of 700,000 bbl/d, has been closed and the Iraqi

    portion has been unusable since the 2003 war in Iraq. Discussions were held between Iraqi and

    Syrian government officials about re-opening the pipeline. The Russian company Stroytransgaz

    expressed interest in repairing the pipeline, but this plan has not moved forward.

    Iraq has discussed building several new pipelines to reduce its over-reliance on exports from its

    southern ports. The first phase consists of building a 2.25-million bbl/d pipeline from Basrah in the

    south of Iraq northward to Haditha in Iraqs Anbar province. From there, Iraq has proposed building

    a 1-million bbl/d crude oil pipeline from Haditha to Jordans port of Aqaba on the Red Sea, with

    Syria as another potential destination.

    To the South:

    The 1.65-million bbl/d Iraq Pipeline to Saudi Arabia (IPSA) has been closed since 1991 following

    the Persian Gulf War. There are no plans to reopen this line, and Saudi Arabia has reportedly since

    converted it to a natural gas line.


    The Basrah Oil Terminal (formerly Mina al-Bakr) on the Persian Gulf exported a little over 1.5

    million bbl/d of oil in 2012. There are five smaller ports on the Persian Gulf, all functioning at less

    than full capacity, including the Khor al-Amaya terminal.

    Iraqi oil production has been limited by the lack of sufficient export capacity. To address this

    problem, Iraq initiated the Phase 1 Crude Oil Export Expansion Project (ICOEEP), which envisions

    expanding Iraqi export capability to 4.5 million bbl/d by building three single-point mooring systems

    (SPM) with a capacity of 850,000 bbl/d each. The first two mooring systems were completed in

    2012. However, exports have increased far less than anticipated because pumping to the SPMs is not

    coming from the refurbished Fao terminal as planned, but rather from a stop-gap diversionary

    pipeline. In addition, inadequate storage tank capacity has limited pumping from storage. Another

    SPM has since been planned to further increase export capacity.

  • Page 33

    Natural gas

    The majority of Iraqi natural gas production is flared and Iraq was the fourth largest natural gas

    flaring country in the world in 2010. Iraq is taking steps to reduce flaring and to use its natural gas

    resources in power generation and for re-injection to increase oil recovery.


    Iraqs proven natural gas reserves as of January 1, 2013 were the 12th largest in the world at 112

    trillion cubic feet (Tcf), according to the Oil and Gas Journal. Over 60 percent of these reserves lie in

    the south of Iraq. Three-fourths of Iraqs natural gas resources are associated with oil. The majority

    of non-associated reserves are concentrated in several fields in the North, including Ajil, Bai Hassan,

    Jambur, Chemchemal, Kor Mor, Khashem al-Ahmar, and al-Mansuriyah.


    Iraqi gross natural gas production rose from 81 billion cubic feet (Bcf) in 2003 to 660 Bcf in 2011.

    Some of this natural gas is used as fuel for power generation, while a portion of it is re-injected to

    enhance oil recovery. However, the majority of Iraqi natural gas production is flared. Flaring losses

    in some months have exceeded 60 percent of production, or more than 1 Bcf per day, due to a lack of

    sufficient pipelines and other infrastructure to transport it for consumption and export. As a result,

    Iraqs five natural gas processing plants, which can process over 773 Bcf per year, sit mostly idle.

    To reduce flaring, Iraq signed an agreement with Royal Dutch Shell to create a new joint venture,

    Basrah Gas Company, to capture flared gas in Basrah Province. The 25-year project costing $17

    billion has a planned production capacity of up to 2 Bcf per day. Under the agreement, processed gas

    would go to the state-owned South Gas company for domestic use. Any gas not bought for use by

    Iraqi power plants could be exported as LNG. The agreement, which originally was to cover all of

    Basrah province, has been modified to include only the associated gas from the Rumaila, Zubair, and

    West Qurna Phase I projects. Implementation of this agreement is necessary for the new oil

    development projects (which would use the natural gas for re-injection) to go forward.

  • Page 34

    Development plans

    Iraq held its third bidding round in late 2010, for three non-associated natural gas fields (Akkas, al-

    Mansuriyah, and Siba) with combined reserves of up to 7.4 Tcf. Iraq has committed to purchasing

    100 percent of the gas. A fourth bidding round in May 2012 attracted one bid for a gas-prone area.

    The Iraqi Ministry of Oil announced its intention to launch a fifth bidding round for exploratory areas

    with gas prospects in the future.

    Export/Pipeline plans

    Plans to export natural gas remain controversial because natural gas is needed as a feedstock for

    Iraqs electric power plants. The current shortage of adequate gas feedstock has resulted in idle and

    sub-optimally-fired electricity generation capacity in Iraq.

    Prior to the 1990-1991 Gulf War, Iraq exported natural gas to Kuwait. The gas came from the

    Rumaila field through a 105-mile, 400-MMcf/d pipeline to Kuwaits central processing center at

    Ahmadi. The Ministry of Oil has discussed reviving the mothballed pipeline, but no firm plans have

    been made to do this.

    Other possibilities include:

    Developing northern export routes such as the proposed Nabucco pipeline through Turkey to

    Europe. In July 2009, Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki suggested that Iraq could export 530 Bcf per

    year to Europe by 2015.

    Connecting the Iraqi gas grid to the existing Arab Gas Pipeline that connects Egypts gas grid

    with those of Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. Under this plan, gas would be delivered from Iraqs Akkas

    field to the Turkish border and then on to Europe.

    Building liquefied natural gas (LNG) export facilities in the Basrah region.

    Renewing plans to participate in the Friendship Gas Pipeline, which would transport natural

    gas from Iran through Iraq to Syria and then on to Europe.

    Iraqs export plans have been complicated by KRG proposals to export their natural gas

    independently of Baghdad.

  • Page 35


    After years of power shortages, Iraqi efforts to increase generating capacity are moving forward. Iraq

    plans to triple generating capacity to 27 gigawatts by the end of 2015.


    Like many developing countries in the Middle East and North Africa, Iraq faces a sharply rising

    demand for power. For most of the postwar period 2003-2012, Iraq has struggled to meet its power

    needs. Daily outages lasting 16 hours per day have not been uncommon. Although Iraq purchased 74

    turbines, for a total of 10 gigawatts (GW) of capacity in 2008, no progress in installation was made

    until recently because of budgetary, contracting, and political difficulties. In addition, enhancements

    to the transmission and distribution networks are required to bring additional power to customers. A

    further bottleneck is that, while this power expansion is planned to be fueled primarily by natural gas-

    powered turbines, the natural gas infrastructure enhancements to support this expansion have lagged.

    As a result, Iraq has had to import electricity from Iran and from Turkish electricity barges (floating

    power plants) in the Persian Gulf. In addition, there has been a large increase in the number of

    privately-owned generators, with those in Baghdad alone providing an additional 1 GW of capacity.

    Development plans

    The Ministry of Electricity is the Iraqi agency responsible for electricity generation, transmission,

    and distribution. Dr. Abd Abd al-Satter, Director General at the Ministry, said that Iraq could triple

    its generating capacity to 27 GW by 2015. Most of the turbines for this expansion were purchased

    several years ago, and over 20 new contracts have been signed for construction of power plants. In

    addition, Iraq plans to spend an additional $27 billion over the next five years, with about half of the

    money to be spent on upgrading the transmission and distribution systems. Chinese firms will build

    3.8 GW of the new capacity, followed by South Korean and Turkish companies, with the latter

    dominant in the KRG region.

    The majority of the new power plants will be gas-fired, with about 1 GW of diesel generating

    capacity also scheduled to come online. About 400 megawatts (MW) of wind and solar generating

  • Page 36

    capacity are planned. However, no new hydropower plants are planned because of water shortages.

    Iraq is also looking to convert older existing gas-fired plants to more efficient combined-cycle plants.

    The expansion of generating capacity will be tied to the development of the natural gas industry

    infrastructure, which is currently lagging. Most current Iraqi natural gas production is flared, and

    pipelines will need to be built to bring natural gas, which would otherwise be flared, to future power


    In addition, Iraq will need to enact regulatory and tariff reforms. Iraq will need to re-examine its

    current heavy electricity subsidies in order to prevent future demand growth from out-stripping the

    expansion in generating capacity. New laws for the electric sector have been proposed, but they are

    still waiting for cabinet approval.

    Iraq Energy Profile: Has Surpassed Iran In Producing Crude Oil Analysis, 02/04/2013, online at:




  • Page 37

    'Israel cuts water to Palestinian villages'

    The Israeli regime has completely cut off water to Palestinian villages in the occupied West

    Bank, local media say.

    Palestinian media reported on Monday that Israeli authorities halted the water flow to 10 villages

    located northwest of al-Quds (Jerusalem).

    According to reports, local Israeli officials had already imposed restrictions on the amount of water

    pumped to these villages.

    Reports also indicated that residents were living on very small amounts of water even before the total

    halt of water flow.

    Locals also said that hundreds of Palestinian students are also suffering from the lack of water in their


    The Palestinian NGO, Land Research Centre, also said in a recent report that Israeli settlers from the

    settlements of Yiztar and Baracha have been using water springs in the Palestinian residents of Burin

    in order to raise fish.

    The Palestinian residents lodged a complaint with Israeli authorities, saying that the settlers use their

    only source of water, not only for farming but also for their leisure. This is while the Palestinian

    community suffers water shortages and has to pay extortionate rates for water.

    'Israel cuts water to Palestinian villages', 02/04/2013, online at: http://www.presstv.ir/detail/2013/04/02/296166/israel-




  • Page 38

    Entrepreneurs Take on MENA's Water and Energy Challenges

    With the Middle East and North Africa's water and energy needs at an all time high, local

    entrepreneurs must contribute to sustainable solutions.

    The World Bank estimates that by 2020 the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) must create 100

    million new jobs. Solutions are needed immediately.

    By definition, entrepreneurs solve problems. They mobilize scant resources to overcome challenges

    and produce big results. In MENA, where regulations for starting and scaling a business can be

    complex, a young crop of startups have been populating the region's markets at a growing rate in

    recent years. In parallel, new support programs such as investment funds and business incubators

    have increased in number. The rising commitment to start, support and invest in new companies have

    many believing entrepreneurship can have a watershed effect on MENA's job creation plans.

    Quickly, entrepreneurs have been positioned as a go-to solution for tackling the region's

    unemployment problems.

    However, job creation is not the only item on the region's development agenda where entrepreneurs

    are urgently needed. Water scarcity in MENA is acute: by 2050 per capita water availability will

    be reduced by half. Further, the United Nations claimed that as of 2007 many MENA countries

    already existed at a level of scarce or stressed freshwater access. Though the region is home to 6% of

    the world's population, it has approximately 1% of global freshwater reserves. Of equal concern, new

    energy sources are essential for MENA's longevity. By some estimates, by 2035 the region will

    increase its current energy consumption by 70%, occurring against the backdrop of diminishing oil

    reserves and access to electricity.. These environmental constraints are just as, if not even more,

    pressing than the employment challenge and they too demand solutions.

    The growing know-how and excitement in MENA's entrepreneurship space must also be channeled

    towards water and energy challenges. Globally, entrepreneurship has played a role in turning

    environmental constraints into opportunities with startups providing a testing ground for new ideas in

    the green economy.


  • Page 39

    A small cohort of MENA entrepreneurs are already working in this space. Identifying them and their

    companies can help provide a blueprint for others to follow and boost support for green startups.

    Saphon Energy was born in Tunisia in 2009 when engineer Anis Aouni and his friend of two

    decades, investment banker Hassine Labaied, hatched an idea for a blade-less wind converter. This

    "zero-blade" technology, an innovation that differs from traditional bladed turbines, was inspired by

    the process sail boats use to capture kinetic energy from wind. The technology has been patented and

    is being registered in 70 different countries.

    Fifteen hundred miles east in Jordan, entrepreneur Mahmoud Shattel's startup Taqetna (Arabic for

    "our energy") is also tackling the wind-energy space with its "Reyah" prototype. Reyah is a vertical

    wind turbine customized to meet MENA's wind speeds. Alternative energy is a critical need in

    Jordan, which currently imports 96% of its energy. Though young, Taqetna is an example of how a

    startup can endeavor to disrupt this field.

    Specializing in both the energy and water sectors is Jordan's Millennium Energy Industries (MEI).

    Launched in 2002, MEI has patented solar desalination and cooling technology with a core focus on

    solar heating solutions. Between 2008 and 2010 MEI grew over 700% and in 2012 was named

    Jordan's fastest growing company. In 2011 in Saudi Arabia it engineered and implemented a 25

    mega-watt solar heating project - the world's largest - and is now rolling out in the European Union

    and Chile. Ennis Rimawi serves as MEI's Executive Chairman through his role as Managing Director

    of Catalyst Private Equity, an Arab region venture capital fund for energy and water technology.

    The need for stable energy and water access in MENA are clear. Rimawi explains the demand as

    both a necessity and a market opportunity. The region's harsh environmental conditions make

    alternative energy and water sources a factor of survival. In parallel, MENA is endowed with

    business opportunities for green companies. According to some estimates, the region holds 45% of

    global potential for renewable energy and experiences roughly 300 days of sunlight per year.

    Similarly, market research company Frost and Sullivan values the region's water treatment sector

    at USD4.7 billion by 2020. These are just a few data points that demonstrate the market opportunity.

    However, few entrepreneurs in MENA are active in the region's energy and water fields. This could

    be due to factors including costs for starting up and minimal exposure and support to incentivize

    more activity. The result is minimal available support for these companies and limited opportunities

    for others to enter this space.


  • Page 40

    A handful of actions can be taken to address these gaps.

    In the words of Labeid, "There needs to be greater synergy between these people who can innovate

    and investors who can take a risk." More funds focusing on clean-tech and renewable energy are a

    must. Business plan competitions and incubators with a focus on these sectors can also spur interest.

    Similar initiatives already exist for Internet startups and these models can be tailored to the energy

    and water sectors. Closer alignment between the academic and private sectors will also enhance

    research and development while simply increasing exposure for players in this field can generate new

    incentives and interest.

    The impact of green startups in MENA could be enormous, playing a pivotal role in bringing new

    dialogue and technologies to the table. Groups like Saphon Energy, Taqetna and MEI could provide

    blueprints for others to follow - tailoring technologies to turn MENA's unique challenges into

    opportunities and demonstrating both why and how young companies can have an impact in this


    Entrepreneurs Take on MENA's Water and Energy Challenges, 03/04/2013, online at:




  • Page 41

    St. Agatha Academy students argue case for Palestinian's water rights

    For some St. Agatha Academy students, a visit to a mock United Nations has turned into an

    opportunity to make a real difference to the world.

    We just thought we could participate in a mock UN assembly and talk about problems in the world,

    and we left with a way to make a real difference, St. Agatha teacher Wendy Berryman said.

    Last month, students from the school attended the YMCAs Kentucky United Nations Assembly

    (KUNA), an event conducted yearly to allow students to participate in a simulated international

    diplomatic three-day conference. The students emulate different cultures and attempt to represent the

    interests of those nations in a mock assembly.

    Finding a way to help

    It was the first trip in four years for St. Agatha students, whose group represented Palestine, an area

    that struggles with a lack of water. The region is considered to have a severe water shortage.

    The students understanding of Palestines plight caught the eye of Joe Bringardner, the youth

    outreach and partnership director for WaterStep, a non-profit organization devoted to helping

    communities have sustainable water solutions.

    He came over and said he saw what we were doing, said Berryman, an advisor for the student

    delegation. Berryman said Bringardner, who was at KUNA to spread the word about his

    organizations purpose, spoke to the students and they developed a strong desire to help.

    Theyve come back with a passionate drive to help, she said.

    WaterStep provides solution to the worlds water crisis, according to the groups website. The group

    brings safe water to developing countries or for disaster relief. WaterStep collects old shoes, which it

    then uses to fund projects such as water purification systems small enough to fit in a backpack.

    Bringardner wasnt sure if WaterStep could get such a purifier into Palestine, but he could get one in

    to any of the other WaterStep nations.


  • Page 42

    We decided we were interested because it was a way to maybe really help the Palestinians, Harper

    Sewalls, a St. Agatha seventh grader, said. This was a way to help and we wanted to do that.

    For every 2,000 shoes collected, WaterStep can provide one water purification system to a needy


    That one system can provide water for about 10,000 people.

    While Bringardner was trying to generate interest in WaterStep with all the KUNA participants, he

    really focused on St. Agathas contingent.

    They were singled out because our kids really understood and conveyed the message of what

    happens to any people that dont have clean, potable water and access to the water they need, said

    Tracy Miller, whose daughter Tessa, took part in the KUNA experience.

    St. Agatha will have drop-off places for old shoes anything from high heels to high top sneakers

    at St. Joseph Hall on South Main, Winchester First Church of God at 2500 Colby Road and the

    Presbyterian Church on Bypass Road. The shoes must be in pairs and tied together or held with a

    rubber band. Even worn out shoes will be taken, as those can be recycled.

    The KUNA experience

    The students dressed as Palestinians and tried to get a resolution passed through the assembly to run a

    water pipeline through Israel to the Dead Sea. While unsuccessful, the students did receive a

    Delegation of Excellence Award for their presentation, which included a dance and a 13-foot dome

    that resembled the Dome of the Rock.

    The students had met