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Transcript of Oncology emergencies - GP Partners Australia 2019-03-26¢  Abnormal LFTs On routine bloods...

  • Oncology emergencies: Dr Dainik Patel

    Medical Oncologist

    Lyell McEwin Hospital

    Adelaide Cancer Centre ( Tennyson Centre, 480 specialist centre)

  • Agenda:

    Background

    cancer related emergencies

    Chemotherapy related emergencies

    Immunotherapy related emergencies

  • Background:

    Cancer patients present to the ED with poorly managed symptoms or treatment related toxicities

    • Most common : fever, infection, GI toxicity, pain ,respiratory illness

    Some particular syndrome need to be promptly recognized to avoid long term consequences

    • Multidisciplinary approach is necessary

  • GP’s role:

    Early

    • Recognize red flags

    • Prevention

    • Education

    • Close monitoring

    presentation

    • Assessment and initial treatment

    • Communication with team and ED

    Post

    • Follow up visits and investigations

  • Agenda:

    Spinal cord compression

    Superior ven-cava syndrome

  • Cancer related emergencies: spinal cord compression

    5% of all cancer patients

    • Common problem in prostate, lung, breast and RCC. Other includes hodgkin’s lymphoma, myeloma as well.

    Thoracic: 60%, lumber: 25% and cervical 15%

    • Always image whole spine MRI as third of the cases have multi-level metastasis

    Survival is limited in patients with multiple spinal metastasis with cord compression

  • Cancer related emergencies: spinal cord compression

    • Commonly,presenting symptoms is pain

    • Muscle weakness (60-86%)

    • 2/3 not ambulatory at time of diagnosis

    • Sensory loss is less common

    • Bladder and bowel dysfunction: late

    • Functional capacity is the single most

    predictor of outcome

  • spinal cord compression ; CT vs MRI

    MRI Gold

    standard

  • Cancer related emergencies: spinal cord compression (ESMO guidelines)

    Recognize and expedite

    Start early treatment

  • Cancer related emergencies: Superior Vencava Syndrome

  • Cancer related emergencies: Superior Vencava Syndrome

  • Cancer related emergencies: Superior Vencava Syndrome

  • Cancer related emergencies: Superior Vencava Syndrome (ESMO guideline)

  • Chemotherapy related emergencies

    Febrile neutropenia

    Diarrhea

  • Chemotherapy related emergencies : Febrile neutropenia

    10%–50% of patients with solid tumours and >80% of those with hematological malignancies

    • The degree and duration of neutropenia closely correlate with the risk of serious infectious complications.

    Clinically documented infections occur in 20%–30% of febrile episodes.

    GCSF has reduced significantly rate of FN

  • Chemotherapy related emergencies: Febrile neutropenia

    Neutrophils in the activation and regulation of innate and adaptive immunity,Alberto Mantovani, Marco A. Cassatella, Claudio Costantini & Sébastien Jaillon,Nature Reviews Immunology

    Volume,11,pages 519–531 (2011)

    Responsible

    for fungal

    and viral

    infection

    after

    prolong

    duration

  • Chemotherapy related emergencies : Febrile neutropenia

  • Chemotherapy related emergencies : Diarrhea

    • Common problem

    • Chemo: many but not all

    • TKI: any ( sunitinib, pazopanib)

    • Preventable and treatable

    • Could lead to ICU admission

  • Chemotherapy related emergencies : Diarrhoea

    Mechanism of diarrohea

    • Decrease surface area (secretory)

    • Increase motility (like irinotecan)

    • Decreased enzyme activity (osmotic)

    • Bacterial overgrowth

    • Increase mucous secretions

    • Over-treated constipation

  • Chemotherapy related emergencies : Diarrhoea

  • Chemotherapy related emergencies : Diarrhoea management

  • James Allison, of the

    University of Texas MD

    Anderson Cancer Centre, and

    Kyoto University's Tasuku

    Honjo

    Immunotherapy side effects: background

  • Immunotherapy related emergencies : Background

    https://grandroundsinurology.com/immunotherapy-for-prostate-cancer/

  • Immunotherapy: current landscape

  • Immunotherapy related emergencies: striking differences from

    chemotherapy

    • Minimal infusion related reaction

    • Patients stay on these treatment longer

    • Side effects:

    • Fewer than chemotherapy

    • Not predictable

    • Not dose dependent (no dose reduction)

    • Can arise at any time (even after stopping)

    • Any system of body get involved

    • Could be life threatening

    • Need a team to manage side effects

  • MA Postow et al. N Engl J Med 2018;378:158-168.

    Possible Mechanisms Underlying Immune-Related Adverse Events.

  • Immunotherapy related

    emergencies:

    Spectrum of organ

    involvement

    Any system of body get

    involved!

    The Immune Checkpoint

    Inhibitors Unleashed to Fight

    Cancer

    May 17, 2017 • By Dana

    Direnzo, MD, Ami A. Shah,

    MD, MHS, Clifton O.

    Bingham III, MD, & Laura C.

    Cappelli, MD, MHS

  • Management of toxicities from immunotherapy: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment

    and follow-up†

    Ann Oncol. 2017;28(suppl_4):iv119-iv142. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdx225

    Society for Medical Oncology.)

    Immunotherapy: timeline for side effects

    Even after completion of treatment!

  • Annals of Oncology, Volume 27, Issue 4, 28 December 2015, Pages 559–574, https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdv623

    The content of this slide may be subject to copyright: please see the slide notes for details.

    Typical management of side effects (ESMO guideline)

    Steroid sparing agent in

    refractory cases

    Infliximab, mycophenolate,

    azathioprine

  • Phone call from patient or carer

    Need to have 24 hour hot line

    Establish background and treatment regimen

    Recognise red flags

    Urgent vs semi-urgent

    Arrange blood test (if patient has non-specific mild symptoms)

    Initiate therapy (remotely located patient)

    Urgent contact with physician

    • Endocrinopathies

    • Rest of the system

    Immunotherapy: flow of management

  • Immunotherapy related emergencies

  • Immunotherapy related emergencies

  • 58yr old

    ECOG 1

    Metastatic RCC

    Hx of Psoriasis (local Rx)

    On clinical trial with Nivolumab and cabozantinib

    Tolerated well

    During 2nd cycle

    Abnormal LFTs

    On routine bloods

    Started on 1 mg/kg prednisolone

    Immunotherapy case 1: Hepatitis ( only 3 doses of drug)

  • 58yr old

    ECOG 1

    Metastatic RCC

    Hx of Psoriasis (local Rx)

    On clinical trial with Nivolumab and cabozantinib

    Tolerated well

    During 2nd cycle

    Abnormal LFTs

    On routine bloods

    Started on 1 mg/kg prednisolone

    Immunotherapy case 1: Hepatitis ( only 3 doses of drug)

  • No new symptoms

    On routine bloods

    Started on 1 mg/kg prednisolone

    Did not have re-challenge due to severe psoriasis flare

    CT shows excellent response

    Immunotherapy case 1: Hepatitis ( only 3 doses of drug)

  • Immunotherapy case 2: Diabetes and hypothyrodism

    70-Y F, ECOG 1, with metastatic lung cancer, >50% PD-L1

    expression

    3-weekly pembrolizumab (C1 1/5/18) .

    Presenting complaint:Polyuria, polydipsia and dry mouth

    Examination: Unremarkable, stable vitals

    Investigations: BGL 42, Ketones 6.8 mmol/L

    HbA1c 8% TSH 97.6; fT4

  • Immunotherapy case 3: hypopitutarism

    42 yr old lady

    with resected high risk melanoma

    On nivolumab for 4 months .

    Presenting complaint: lethargy and hypotension in chemo suite

    Examination: Unremarkable, hypotensive

    Investigations: Cortisol

  • Immunotherapy case 4: Vasculitis and Pneumonitis

    71 man, metastatic melanoma

    On second line of treatment with

    Combination of Ipilimumab and Nivolumab

    Presented with cough, SOB and fever associated with

    cold hands after 2 weeks of first infusion.

    O/E: Crackles on both lower lobes

  • Immunotherapy case 4: Vasculitis and Pneumonitis

  • Immunotherapy case 4: Vasculitis and Pneumonitis

    Commenced on Prednisolone 1.5mg/Kg with improvement in cough, SOB and fever after 2 days. Septic screen was negative

    Hands got worse!

  • Immunotherapy case 4: Vasculitis and Pneumonitis

    IV methylprednisolone for 3 days

    Reviewed by vascular and rheumatology team

    vasculitis screen and angiogram of UL was normal