Ob Ptcl Final Report
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FINAL PROJECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
PAKISTAN TELECOMMUNICATION COMPANYTOPIC Motivational Theories
Submitted to Sir Abbas
Submitted by Sidra Safdar Jafferi Sadaf Safdar Jaffery
TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface. Acknowledgment.
Overview of the organization: PTCL (vision and mission). Core values Objective Brief introduction and historical backgrounds Current situation of organization SWOT analysis Competitors Subject of the report Methodology of survey Our project Motivation Motivational thoughts Executive summary Purpose of motivation Islamic and western view Western theories of motivation Research based questions Implication of motivational theories Employee motivation at PTCL Motivation and gender at PTCL Self motivation Recommendations & Suggestions Conclusion
PREFACEThis report is the practical part of the most vital practice of our MBA program. The sole objective is to familiarize the student with the practical manipulation of business organization. This report has been written to know how big organizations like PTCL manage their teams to achieve their common goals. In the first phase of the report there is the general introduction about the company and then different terms have been explained, then the mission, values, different services, motivational theories along with their implications and different strategies of the organization have been explained. In the next part, SWOT analysis of the firm have been done by the help of which it is identified that what are the strong areas of the company and where it lacks so that it can improve. At the end most importantly we have explained our findings and then we have concluded the report.
AcknowledgementIn the name of Almighty Allah who is most merciful, and who has given us the strength to write this project report in a different way. I extend my heartiest thanks to my teachers who have assisted me on every occasion to enable me to write this report. My parents, classmates, friends come next in the list of those whom I have to thank.
Overview of the organization:Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) is the largest Telecommunication company in Pakistan. This company provides telephony services to the nation and still holds the status of backbone for countrys telecommunication infrastructure despite arrival of a dozen other Telcos including telecom giants like Telenor and China Mobile.
VisionIt is our vision to be the leading ICT service provider in the region by achieving
Customers satisfaction and maximizing shareholders value.
MissionOur mission is to achieve our vision by having: 1) An organizational environment that fosters professionalism, motivation and quality; 2) An environment that is cost effective and quality conscious; 3) Services that are based on the most optimum technology; 4) Quality and time conscious customer service; and 5) sustained growth in earnings and profitability.
Core ValuesIn achieving our mission and making our vision a reality, we will practice the values of professional integrity, customer satisfaction, team work and company loyalty.
IntroductionTen years in to a new century, the telecom sector of the world finds itself at cross roads after changing itself almost beyond recognition over the last 25 countries having adopted these policies to advance their telecom sector. The results have been impressive; the industry has grown at unprecedented pace. Although there has been a phenomenal growth in Pakistan, especially in the cellular mobile communication and in the internet, yet the late density remains almost stagnant. So far PTCL is the sole land line service provider of Pakistan. PTCL is the giant of Pakistan telecommunication industry and enjoying the monopoly. This part of the report contains a brief introduction of PTCL. This introduction is divided into two parts, History and current situation.
BRIEF HISTORYOver the years, technology has changed the concept of communication and what was thought to be a fictional only a decade ago, has actually made its way through to our hands today. This is the future we dreamt of so fondly. Welcome to the modern age, of telecommunication, which have become complementary to our lives. But there must also be an anchor to introduce, allow, improve and channelize all these services and innovations sweeping through the globe. In Pakistan same anchor is Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited from the humble beginnings of posts & Telegraph Department in 1947 and establishment of Pakistan Telephone & Telegraph Department in 1962, to this very day, PTCL is a story of commitment and vision. Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation (PTC) set sails for its voyage of glory In December 1990, taking over operations and functions from Pakistan Telephone and Telegraph Department under Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation Act 1991. This coincided with the Governments competitive Policy, encouraging Private Sector participation and resulting in award of licenses for Cellular, card-operated Payphones, paging and, lately, data communication Services. Pursuing a progressive policy, the Government in 1991, announced its Plans to privatize
PTC, and in 1994 issued six million vouchers exchangeable into 600 million shares of the would-be PTCL in two separate placements. Each had a par value of Rs.10 per share. These vouchers were converted into PTCL Shares in mid 1996.In 1995, Pakistan Telecommunication (Reorganization) Ordinance Formed the basis for PTCL monopoly over basic telephony in the country. It also paved the way for the establishment of an independent regulatory regime. The Provisions of the Ordinance were lent permanence in October 1996 through Pakistan Telecommunication (Reorganization) Act. The same year, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited was formed and listed on all stock Exchanges in Pakistan. Since then, PTCL has been working vigorously to meet the dual Challenge of telecom development and socio-economic uplift of the country. This is characterized by a clearer appreciation of ongoing telecom scenario where in convergence of technologies continuously changes the shape of the Sector. A measure of this understanding is progressive measures such as Establishment of the companys mobile and Internet subsidiaries (U-fone & Paknet) in 1998. As telecommunication monopolies head towards and imminent end, services and Infrastructure providers are set to face even bigger challenges. Pakistan also entered postmonopoly era with deregulation of the sector in January 2003. On the Government level, a comprehensive liberalization policy for Telecom sector has already been announced now. Now PTA have issued License to two new telecom companies in Pakistan TELENOR international and WARID TEL this act will put some challenges for PTCL to cope with. PTCL is in process of enhancing organizational and business Proficiency through Vertical integration and horizontal diversification. At the same time, cross-national ownerships, operations and partnerships are being evaluated with a view to developing and diversifying the business.
Historical BackgroundPakistan Telecom Corporation 1990-91: ALIS: 850,000 Waiting list: 900,000 Expansion Program of 900,000 lines initiated (500,000 lines by Private Sector Participation 400,000 lines PTC/GOP own resources).-51947: Posts &Telegraph Dept. established 1962: Pakistan Telegraph &Telephone Deptt. 1599 : About 5 % of PTC assets transferred to PTA, FAB & NTC. 1996 : PTCL Formed listed on all Stock Exchanges of Pakistan 1998 ; Mobile & Internet subsidiaries established 2000: Telecom Policy Finalized 2003 : Telecom Deregulation Policy Announced 2005 : 26 % Shares by Etisalat UAE through open bidding.
CURRENT SITUATION OF ORGANIZATIONAfter having brief introduction from past end of PTCL now we move towards the
current situation of the company. In this part focus will be on the:
Structure of the organizationPresidents (EVPs) like EVP (Finance Central), EVP (Marketing), EVP (HR Central),EVP (Accounts), EVP (Operation), EVP (Information Technology, Training &Research), and EVP (Revenue). All these are appointed at Pakistan Telecommunication Company, Headquarters at G-8/4, Islamabad. Apart from these EVP, there are also EVP (Operation), EVP (HR) etc who are heading the other regions of PTCL in major cities country wide. Then there are Chief Engineers and General Managers at H/Qs who report to their relevant EVP .Then there are Senior Managers, Deputy Directors, Assistant Directors, Account Officers, Assistant Account Officers, Financial Analysts, Marketing Managers, Computer Programmers, and IT Specialists etc. There are also Regional Heads (General Managers) to head PTCL Regions then come the Senior Managers (Operations), Senior Engineers (Operations), Engineers to look after the telecom system of Regions. There are also Senior Managers Finance, Account Officers and Accountants to Handle Regional account and billing matters. Manager HR & his staff are responsible to take care of Personnel affairs at Regional Level. In non-gazette staff there are Engineering Supervisors Operations /Switching /Power plant /Optical Fiber system/M.W Media, Account Assistants, Stenographers, Assistants, Key Punch Operators, Telecom Technicians, Upper Division Clerks, Lower Division Clerks, Line Men, Wire Men, Drivers, Exchange Cleaners, Naib Qasids and Peons etc. All the staff is recruited by the HR Department headed by SEVP HR. The HR experts are responsible for hiring & to further streamline its recruitment process.
COMPETITORS OF PTCLThere is no major competitor of PTCL in landline but with the growth of Telecommunication industry of Pakistan competition increasing specially in mobile Phone sector. In total there are more then 800 million subscribers of mobile phone. There are 03 big players in mobile phone industry but 3 of them are the competitor of PTCL:> MobiIink > Warid > Ufone
SWOT ANALYSIS OF PTCLNow we move towards the SWOT Analysis. =>STRENGTH >PTCL enjoys monopoly State Of The Art International Gateway Exchanges & Satellite Earth Stations. PTCL have largest net work with its state of art technology and new digital exchanges. These are the few important characteristics of PTCL network. International Submarine Cables. High Capacity National Fiber Optic Backbone Ring. 36 Transit Exchanges with easy Facility of Expansion.
Large EarningsAs described earlier that PTCL with more then 4 million users having greeted revenues ,this is another strength of the company.
About 99%Digitization of Country Network Strong Platforms & Exchanges for Value added Services
Government supportAs you know PTCL is government organization so it has great support and it is strength for PTCL.
=> Weakness> Image Government organization. => Opportunity > Growth in telecommunication industry, =>Threat > Strong competitors.
Subject of the report: Motivational theories and their practice in PTCL. Methodology of surveyWe conducted interviews of the supervisor, manager and the director of PTCL; Rawalpindi branch. Interview was based upon both open ended and closed ended questions and have done an extensive research via internet as well. Also we had detailed telephonic conversations with the area manager of Rawalpindi region and some employees who are working in call centers or as CSRs. Our focus had been on face to face communication and for that purpose we visited PTCL offices several times.
Our project: MotivationMotivation Is Any Emotion or Desire Which So Conditions Ones will that The Individual Is Propelled To Action. Motivation continues to be a well-researched topic both by academics and commercial firms. The aim of work motivation is to have well-motivated employees as well as having managers with the possibility to motivate others. The focus is on the factors managers use to motivate employees and the differences. The purpose with the study is to provide a better understanding of the employee motivation issues in Pakistani enterprises. In order to reach this purpose, several research questions were asked. Managers have a hard task motivating their employees. Today employees are more motivated by intrinsic factors rather than extrinsic which dominated in the past, but none of the two can be overlooked by managers when motivating their employees. The most revealing finding
concerning gender and age is that managers do not motivate their employees differently concerning these two variables.
About Motivation of employeesManagers in an organization accomplish tasks through other people; they oversee the activities of the organization and are responsible for reaching goals. (Robbins, 2005). The key components of a managers work involve leadership, negotiation role, decision making, and communication. Managers have formal authority over the Organizational units which are divided into interpersonal, informational and decision role categories. Managers work has a lot of varieties and the interaction with personnel is considered to be the core of management. Managers are struggling with changes at work and are actively engaged in a reinvention of management and work. In the past, managers were able to manage with their technical skills alone, but todays competing and demanding workplace this is not enough, managers also need to have good skills with people. Organizations are facing a more complex world with more competition, individuals are now better to manage themselves, take responsibility and make decisions. The role of manager has changed and today managers guide, support and encourage their Employees. Knowledge and skills of employees are the main productive element in todays economy and these human assets derives from job satisfaction, commitment and motivation which enable the ability to perform. In order to motivate employees managers has to recognize thepatterns that orient and direct behavior of his or her employees. What defined work in the past are not the same today as work has become more dynamic, the employer-employee relationship is less hierarchical and more transactional. Employees have moved away from long-term employment relationships and long-term rewards and the effort are focused on short-term rewards The workplace has also undergone radical changes and organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, and sexual Orientation. The workforce is becoming more diverse and includes women, people of color, the physically disabled, senior citizens, sexualities, and managing the diversity has become a global concern. Managers need to recognize that people bring their cultural values, lifestyles preferences and differences with them when they come to work. Some organizations have tried to make changes, but most are still struggling to understand the new work environment. The truth for most of them is that organizations do not know what has to be changed in order to increase the motivation of workers and every organization has some source from where their employees motivation spring. Motivating employees is not the same today as it was in the past and employee motivation present one of the last frontiers for organizational influence. It is becoming more difficult for organizations to find, manage and motivate the employees. Managers cannot really motivate anyone, but they can create a situation to which individuals will respond because they choose to. The aim of managers is to motivate employees and make them feel that they are working with the manager and not for the manager.
Motivational thoughtso A winner never quits, and a quitter never wins, is a valuable application in every situation.
o The value of knowledge is qualified and quantified only, when knowledge is put into action
Executive summaryOrganizational or individual achievement is not accomplished when motivation is used to manipulate and control individuals. In 1920 research on motivation increased among researchers and certain motivational factors were of greater importance than others. Today other factors are of significant due to environmental changes at the Workplace. Although, motivation has been studied for almost a century it still remains in the heart of modern parenting, teaching and stimulating effort on the job. Over 500 articles are published annually in mainline business journals and 400 in mainstream academic journals. An employee who knows that they will be rewarded for something at work has to question themselves whether it is worth doing and those who desire the reward will perform as stimulated. This demonstrates that the desired behavior organizations want employees to perform is accomplished through manipulation and everybody knows it. Today it is important to maximize the engagement and motivation of employees to the organization through assessment, regular feedback, ongoing support and experience based initiatives. Organizations might perceive motivation as a strategic issue since it has an Impact directly on organizational cost, productivity and business performance. Keeping employees motivated can be done by increasing salaries, benefits or education, but it is important to recognize that individuals are motivated differently and most often it is a complex situation to know what motivates employees. Cash is not the only motivational factor and ignoring potential motivators is naive since communication need to occur on a continuously basis in order to know what motivates employees. Motivation is fundamental to human behavior and theorists and practitioners continue to look for universal laws or motivational techniques that can be applied among the different cultural groups in the world. Managers discuss how to motivate their employees in order to increase productivity as well as the moral at the workplace. Each individual is different and motivated differently and it also depends on what stage in life a person is at. Motivation have been defined as the amount of effort that an employee is willing to put into work to accomplish an organizationally valued task Motivation is such a vast area and no clear answer exist why certain individuals are motivated differently, it all depends on the individual and therefore research will continue to be conducted on motivation all over the world. Based on the above discussion it is obvious that there still exist research to be done on motivation and since most theories are based in the United States it would be interesting to investigate how people in Pakistan are motivated, if the theories are valid here or if other motivational variables apply. This will gain additional dimension when it is pointed out that motivational issues are mostly investigated in larger companies and small and medium-sized companies are often neglected.
Purpose The purpose of the report is to provide a better understanding of employee and Investigate and analyze how company leaders today can motivate their key employees. How can the provision of key human resources develop a long-term relationship that makes top employees stay in the company? The study aims to establish the procedure leaders apply to motivate employees. Throughout the study we will concentrate on the leaders perspective which hopefully brings that a more determined analysis is created. The purpose is to illustrate the leaders view of motivating employees.
Islamic and western view
The relationship of these concepts related to the behavior and mental processes of human being. As a Muslim, we will thank Allah for giving us to fulfill these needs. We believe Allah gives us all the biological needs to survive in this world or else we will feel hunger and fear. Here the soul played its important role by performingsawn (fasting) during Ramadhan to show that the Muslim thanked Allah for the needs that Allah gives to us. By performing the sawn, we learn to control our desire and ournaf. Fasting is the best way of experiencing hunger and developing sympathy for the less fortunate and learning thankfulness and also appreciation for all Allahs bounties. The other beneficial of fasting is learning the self control. Due to the preoccupation with the satisfaction bodily appetites during daylight hours fasting a measure of ascendancy is given to ones spiritual nature, which becomes a means of becoming closer to Allah. Iman also played its important part in choosing the needs based on the concept of halal andhar am. The concept of halal and haram is the lacking of physiological theory from conventional. The conventional theory never mentioned about this concept at all. The Muslim that reaches the level of iman, they will choose of halal food to eat. They are forbidden to eat haram food such as pig unless it is really in emergency where there is no food to be eaten. The human being has dual natures that are body and soul. The existence of human soul influences the human behavior. As the soul influences the human behavior it is also related to the certain level ofim an and also the potential of iman based on the behavior perform by the human being.
The element of soul concerned about aqidah and also the concept ofhalal andhar am. The soul bind iman will perform the behavior according to the law stated in Al-Quran and mentioned by Allah. Based on Imam Ghazali, human not only consist of body and soul but also consist of Qalb (heart), Ruh (spirit) and Agl (intellect). All these elements play important role to determine the level of iman inside someone. Walter Bradford Cannon (October 19, 1871 October 19, 1945) was an American physiologist. Cannon presented four tentative propositions to describe the general features of homeostasis: 1. Constancy in an open system, such as our bodies represent, requires mechanisms that act to maintain this constancy. Cannon based this proposition on insights into the ways by which steady states such as glucose concentrations, body temperature and acid-base balance were regulated. 2. Steady-state conditions require that any tendency toward change automatically meets with factors that resist change. An increase in blood sugar results in thirst as the body attempts to dilute the concentration of sugar in the extracellular fluid. 3.The regulating system that determines the homeostatic state consists of a number of cooperating mechanisms acting simultaneously or successively. Blood sugar is regulated by insulin, glucagons, and other hormones that control its release from the liver or its uptake by the tissues. 4. Homeostasis does not occur by chance, but is the result of organized selfgovernment. He put forward the Dry Mouth Hypothesis, stating that people get thirsty because their mouth gets dry. He did an experiment on two dogs. He cut their throats and inserted a small tube. Any water swallowed would go through their mouths and out by the tube, never reaching the stomach. He found out that these dogs would lap up the same amount of water as control dogs. Based on the experiment done by Cannon, we can conclude that human needs nutrition food to survive and maintain their healthy body. These also mentioned in Prophets Hadith when the Prophet visited the sick man and asked the man what he want. As the man said he wanted the bread. The Prophet told the others to find the food needed by the sick man. Even thought the man was sick he still needed nutrition food to overcome his sickness. As what Cannon found from his experiment already been mentioned in AlQuran and Hadith in earlier fourteen century ago.
Maslow Hierarchy of Needstated about the physiological needs need by human. Maslow mentioned that psychologicalneeds are those required to sustain life such as water, air, nourishment, shelter and sleep. All these needs should be fulfilled and satisfied by the human. If the human being unable to fulfill these needs, they will not feel the other level of need such as self esteem and self actualization. They will meet and feel the other needs after they have met the needs basic to ones bodily functioning. Islam already mentioned about these needs based on the Prophet Hadith stated there are four things should be fulfill by Adams son; shelter, clothes that can cover their body bread and water for drink. These needs are considered as the biological motives. The biological motives are basic needs needed by the human being. There is also the concept of sharing other biological needs such as water, grass and fire. Islam also recognizes the human needs for oxygen, sleep and rest. The Prophet helped the human being to recognize their needs and fulfill the basic biological needs such as hunger, thirst, oxygen and sex. The recognition of these basic needs by the human being will contribute to the concept o of tawhid and hidayah.
Western theories of motivation
1.Maslows Hierarchy of needs:A hierarchy of needs, phsyiological, safety, social, esteem and self actualization.In which as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.
2.Alderfers ERG Theory:A theory that posits three groups of core needs:existence, relatedness, and growth.
3.Theory X:The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be corected to perform.
4.Theory Y:The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility and can exercise self direction.
5.Two Factor Theory:A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and assosiates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction.Also called motivation Hygiene theory.
6.McClellands Theory of needs:A theory which states that achievement, power and affiliation are three importand needs that help explain motivation.
7.Cognitive evaluation theory:A theory that states that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation.
8.Goal setting theory:A theory that says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance.
9.Self Efficacy:An individuals belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
10.Equity Theory:A theory that says that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities. 11.Expectancy theory: A theory that says that the strength of a tendencya to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
Research based questionsEach question has been asked from the relevant persons working in the organization but we are mentioning the questions along with their answers all together. 1. Names and designations of the interviewees? Mr.Dolat Nazir,Director Mr.Mansoor,Supervisor Mr.waqas anwar,CSR Mr.Mohsin ali,area manager.
2. What is the primary aim of your company? Customer satisfaction & employee welfare. 3. How clear are the employees about your companys principles, priorities and mission? The top management is very well aware of all such things but the lower level staff is usually ignorant about these factors. 4. What obstacles stop the employees performing to best effect? If their performance is ignored and proper feedback isnt given to them. 5. What really motivates your staff? Incentives like bonuses,salary increments and timely propmotions are really effective in motivation of our employees. 6. Do employees feel empowered? No, they dont feel empowered. 7. Are there any recent changes in the company that might have affected motivation? Issues raised by the employees during their strikes were seriously taken into consideration by the top management and company accepted their demands. 8. What are the patterns of motivation in your company? Monetary rewards are considered to be the chief motivators in our organization. 9. Are the employee goals and company goals alligned? No,they are not alligned, every employee has his own goals. 10. How do employees feel about the company? Company gets to know about this by the employees attitude and his performance in the organization. 11. How involved are the employees in the company development? This is represented by each employees attitude and performance at the workplace. 12. Is the companys internal image ,cocsistent with the external one No,its not, as its impossible for a large company like PTCL to keep each and every one satisfied. 13. What are the key cosequencies between leaders and employee motivation Usually the difference in mindsets and ways of thinking are the key consequences. 14. What is the leaders role when it comes to motivating employees Leader has a significant role in employee motivation,he is a person who sets the direction. 15. Is it necessary that if the phsiological and the safety needs are not fullfilled the employee wouldnot move towards the esteem,social needs or self actualization No, its not necessary, as two needs can be operating at the same time, e.g. a person who needs a good salary might also be in need of his familys safety.
company has to consider his issues and problems,so that he could be relax and work properly. 16. Is that possible for two needs to be existing at the same time yes, as I mentioned earlietr two to three needs can be operating at the same time. 17. As a manager what is your point of view about your employees Employees are the assets of the com[pany. If any of the employee is not working properly then there is need to discuss with him about his issues. Everyone wants to work but the problem lies where the right person is not working at the right job. He might want to do something else and forcefulyy working on particular task. He can be asked to do what he wants and then he will be able to give his best. 18. How to motivate the employees who are lazy Their needs are assessed and then they are rewarded accordingly. 19. How to get maximum outcome from the employees who are efficient already They are given immediate feedback and are frequently appreciated for their performance. 20. Do you believe that different employyees will be having different needs to be motivated Yes,I do agree. But in underdeveloped country like Pakistan,the main issue is salary. 21. If the extrinsic factors are allocated for the behaviour that had been Intrinsically rewarded,it will decrease the motivation level yes, it will decrease the motivation level,but we cant ignore such employees so they are given certificates,or cups with companys logo on them,other small gifts and most of the time they are simply appreciated for their performance. 22. Do you agree with this statement that togh goals yield better performance yes, is definitely true. In this way maximum efoortd are applied by the employees. 23. How those employees are handeled who are overconfident and they believe That organisations success is inevitable without them they are frequently transferred,and are given tough tasks, if they dont get able to fullfil them then they are asked to leave the company. Pakistani laws are very strict so a person cannot be directly expelled. We need to follow a particular procedure. 24. Employees compare themselves and the rewards they are receiving from the employees in the same organisation and also with the employees working in any other organization,how such issues are handeled Same sort of tasks are assigned to such employees by the managers, the one who will be able to accomplish that task will be rewarded accordingly. 25. Does the expectations of the employees regarding their growth in the organization affect their performance Yes,they really affect their performance. Positive expectations yield good performance vice versa. 26. Does the expectations of the employee regarding the fullfillment of the targets affect their performance Yes, if they believe that the goal would be accomplished then they will put their efforts,otherwise they wont if the target seems to be impossible.
27. Does the faith of the employees in the organization and the management affect their performance Yes, it does. 28. There are many well qualified persons who are working in your organizations in the postions which dont match their qualification levels,why is that so Because we cannot expell the senior and experienced workers that easily, so to compensate this we offer attractive salary packages to youngsters. 29. How you manage to motivate such employees because they are not getting What they expected and deserved By handsome salaries. 30. Why the older age employees are their on the seats which the yuong tallent deserves Because their experience is valueable asset for the company. 31. Do you believe that their experience is sufficient to cope up with the rapid technological reforms and the tough competition No, I dont believe so. 32. How you deal with the employees with high self efficacy They are assigned projects, are given resources and autonomy in decisions.
Implication of motivational theories in ptclExcept the theory of hierarchy of needs all other theories are implemented in PTCL. The theory of hierarchy of needs is right upto the extent that the physiological needs must be fullfilled for an individual to move on towards the next need. But its not necessary that two needs cant exist at the same time. The theory has defined some fixed levels and rigid hierarchy i.e, an individual cant have self esteem if his social and phsiological needs are not fullfilled. It defines a step by step process. Although, in reality a person who is not earning well can have the safety ,social and esteem needs occuring at the same time. In Islamic perspective and according to our culture and values even if a person is not so wealthy he is always ready to help others and to do something for his or her muslim brothers and sisters and also for the mankind. So its not necessary that a person needs to be at a very high level or according to this theory he will think to help others only of all other needs are fullfilled. Its not necessary that a person whose physiological,safety,social,esteem needs are fullfilled can only think about self actuallization. According to our research ERG is a much better approach for uinderstanding the employee motivation as compared to theory of hierarchy of needs and erg is more closer to reality. Managers do have different point of views about their subordinates as well as employees. It depends upon the perception, personaity and thoghts of the manager.Mr Mansoor believes that the staff working is not lazy or inefficient but they might not be getting their desired jobs or working environment. So proper meetings shall be called upon with such employees to understand their problems and to help them in solving such issues to retain them in the organization and also to improve their performance.
On the other hand and mr. Mohsin,area manager considered the employees to be lazy and inefficient. So the theory x and y is implemented in the organization. The goal setting theory is also implemented in PTCL, the director Mr. Dolat nazir told us that they set tough goals for the employees to get their maximum efforts.the employees who have high self efficacy respond positively even to a negative feedback and they increase their efforts to avoid such circumstances again. We found the director to be a person with very high self efficacy and thats the reason of his success. The employees with low self efficacy need to be encouraged at regular intervals. For such employees the managers try to be very friendly and they are properly trained for improving their performance. They are grouped with the employees having high self efficacy to improve their performance.if the employees have faith in the organization and the management that positively affects their performance. The goals assigned must be tough but only to the extent that they are achieveable, because if the target or the task seems to be impossible then the employees wont do efforts for that. The rewards and the salaries being paid to the PTCL employees are justified with their performance. Achieveable goals,and desirable rewards are the factors which motivate PTCL employees to perform well. hence expectancy theory also exists in PTCL. Employees do compare themselves with other employees of the same rank, in same organization and also with employees of other organization. If they say that such employee in my organization is being paid well althogh I am performng similar task then both of them are assigned same targets the one who achieves the goal gets the reward. If employees make a comparison amogst their incentives with those who are working in other telecom cmpanies then the job of managers is to make them belief that they are working in the best organization having no close competitor. Its the only organization rendering landline,wireless, and broadband services to the people. Its a very lage company having thousands of employees and main objective of the company is to be loyal to the customers as well as the employees. Managers make best efforts to build up the morale of the employees and to retain them in the organization they are not only given handsome salaries but also a healthy working environment is provided to them. They are given autonomy in decision making as well.equity theory has therfore implication in PTCL.the director, managers and the supervisor told us that there are certain employees who are very loyal to the company and they are intrinsiclly motivated to perform the job well, they are not given monetary rewards,obviously they wont be working for free but they are intrinsivlly motivated. They are given certificates or small gifts as a reward. they are motivated even more by simply appreciating them well because they cannot be ignored by the company as they are valuable assets for the company. To maintain their motivation level upto the mark they are given proper feedback. If extrinsic rewards are allocated then their motivation level will fall,this is what cognitive evaluation theory says.there are certain employees who associate succes with their own efforts only and their failure with the defficiencies in management,these employees dont admitt their mistakes usually.
They are transferred frequently and are given tough tasks,if they cannot achieve then they are asked to leave the organization. Because Pakistani laws regarding removal of a person from a job are really tough. So company tries to follow up an indirect process because it cannot expell an employee directly who is always complaining. But if his complains are genuine then they are not at all ignored, infact strict notice is taken by top management to ensure the removal of dissatisfaction of such employees. Two factor theory relates to these facts. According to our research all the theories are implemented in PTCL,exceptMaslows theory of needs. The main reason is that, almost all the theories have been presented after research at the workplaces. The implication of these theories vary from organization to organization and to some extent culture differences have strong impact on their application.
Motivation of employees at PTCL According to Mr. Dolat Since thecompany has to rely on shift work they know that the work performed makes tributes on the employees and their motivation. PTCL have recognized some very common motivational factors such as salary, working hours and benefits. According to manager Mr. Mansoor explains that the salary of the workers is controlled by collective agreements, but PTCL has chosen to pay a salary that is ten percentages higher than the collective agreement as a way to motivate their employees since they know that the work is very demanding. Attempts have been made to improve the shift hours and the company welcomes ideas from employees in order to make improvement of work hours. PTCL wants to engage their employees in health activities, but it is a small number that participate in these activities. PTCL has recognized that good salaries and working schedules are two important motivational factors and the company wants to work with their employees and is very open to suggestions from coworkers for improving matters and the company would like the employees to be able to influence their own working environment. Director Mr. Dolat states that it is very easy for leaders to form an opinion of a certain group. Not all young people entering the work force want to have challenges, but it is very easy to judge the entire group as a unity. Managers at PTCL makes attempt to talk and recognize people who want to work in projects and improve work place. The psychological work environment is considered to be good at PTCL, which includes f`riends, coffee breaks, parties, gifts, etc. The physical environment still needs improvements. Having fun at work is also very important. Leaders are there to support the fun activities that already exist at work and make them even more stable and PTCL has improved well in this area, but in the end it is all up to the individual, each individual is different, but having respect for others as well as for general human values is an important factor. It is important to be respected, respect others and an individual that can show consideration, be present and be confident in one self can be generous with others. When recruiting personnel PTCL looks for managers with the above characteristics. If a leader has self awareness as well as formal knowledge it might be a good leader for the company.
According to Gransson managers are very important for motivation, managers are there to help the weaker and the goal is to work together with personnel to solve problems. Sometimes the company has recognized that a leader is not suited for a position and moved them to another area, PTCL does not only need leaders they also need specialists. Good leadership work in strengthening the motivation . managers at PTCL believe that respecting one another matters a lot. Motivation and gender at PTCL Managing employees is a very important task a manager performs and the relationship between manager and employee can be considered a motivational factor. When managers are motivated themselves they are better suited at motivating their employees as well although the companies lack knowledge and experience in the area of motivation the respondents were highly competent. The both wished to improve themselves, but still they seemed a bit afraid of changes, but they wanted to know how to progress their performance and worked very hard with this issue. Today it appears that feedback has gained presence in organizations and the daily feedback has greater importance than having employee conversations each year. Autonomy is also very important since it allows the flexibility to balance work and life and this aspect is even more important for the new generation. Workforce diversity has increased the problems for the management. Nowadays women are working side by side men in almost every field. The motivational tools used for women are slightly different from those used for male employees. The managers shall ensure workplace safety for the female employees and also healthy working environment shall be made available to them. Managers need to understand the psychology of their female employees to motivate them well.
Self motivation Make a deal with yourself Move the goal spots Do something small and create a flow Do the toughest task first Start slow Compare yourself with yourself and not with others Remember your success
Recommendations and suggestionsMy major recommendation is this: PTCL should improve their contact with middle &lower level employees especially supervisory level and establish internal performance appraisal system to avoid the future complications and to evaluate the employee performance and encouraging them. 1. Due to the potential economic problems of the country and the industry employees should be aware of that the organization will acquire them to work
harder. Managers have to communicate that the company is dependent on the workers and their dedication to excellence in every aspect of their work The organization has to have close relationships with managers and key employees to establish a plan for attaining increased excellence in every department. The plan could include special financial incentives or perks, employee recognition awards and employee training. Motivating the staff and have them working together will help them focus on what is important, continue doing a great job. Before organizing and establishing a plan, the manager has to learn all there is about employee motivation. Focus on processes that help to enhance the involvement of employees at the company and inspire feelings of responsibility for the company's overall success. Managers should set up employee suggestion systems, focusing on the topic "How to increase productivity to offset an economic slowdown." Employees are the ones that conduct work tasks on a routine basis and therefore they are the best to suggest improvements and help the company survive hard times. The organization has to encourage managers to step to the front lines and become as pragmatically involved in the day-to-day operations of the business as possible. Many managers view themselves as being somewhat better than other employees and this viewpoint can be disastrous during difficult financial periods. Managers should be creative and encourage creativity among employees in the organization. Search for ways to improve processes and performance so it might become cheaper, faster and more efficiently
Conclusionso o o o o o o o From the above findings the following conclusions can be made: Managers should use both internal and external motivational factors as it is better to focus on both rather than assuming that one is dominating. Companies have different strategies concerning motivating employees, some are focused on their personnel while other focus on the performance of the organization. A steady person seems to be the most appropriate for a managerial position, but since there exists three other individual traits they cannot be overlooked. Do not focus too much on existing incentive profiles, since they may not be suited for all companies. Managers should be motivated themselves before trying to motivate others, otherwise the effort will be a waste of time for the company. All managers are not necessary good managers; therefore an invisible or informal leadership style might be preferred. Certain job characteristic aspects have greater importance on work motivation than others due to individual differences. Feedback and communicating with employees are a great part of the managerial work task, which contributes to increased motivation.
REFERENCES Mr. Dolat Nazir, Director,(PTCL office near social security hospital.) Mr. Mansoor, (supervisor) Mr.waqas Anwar, (CSR) Mr. Mohsin Ali,(Area Manager.)