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  • Northern Goshawk Inventory and Monitoring Technical Guide

    United States Department of Agriculture

    Forest Service

    Gen. Tech. Report WO-71

    July 2006

    Medicine Lake

    Mt. Shasta Intermountain Great Basin

    Cascade Sierra

    West Coast

    Colorado Plateau and SW Mtns

  • Northern Goshawk Inventory and Monitoring Technical Guide

    Brian Woodbridge and Christina D. Hargis

    Northern Goshawk Inventory and Monitoring Design Team

    Brian Woodbridge Christina D. Hargis Richard T. Reynolds

    James A. Baldwin Gregory D. Hayward Kimberly Titus

    Alan Franklin Sarah R. Dewey Christopher W. Schultz

    Alan L. Williamson Douglas A. Boyce, Jr. John J. Keane

    U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington Office

    Ecosystem Management Coordination Staff

    Watershed, Fish, Wildlife, Air, and Rare Plants Staff

    United States Department of Agriculture

    Forest Service

    Gen. Tech. Report WO-71

    July 2006

  • Proper citation for this document is as follows:

    Woodbridge, B.; Hargis, C.D. 2006. Northern goshawk inventory and monitoring technical guide. Gen.

    Tech. Rep. WO-71. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 80 p.

    Cover Photo: The concept of bioregional monitoring is conveyed through three photos superimposed

    on a digital elevation model of the Western United States, including portions of the Pacific Coast

    and Intermountain Great Basin bioregions. The overlaid images depict three levels of the bioregional

    monitoring design: a sample of contiguous PSUs in northern California (top), a PSU with call point

    transect lines (middle), and a northern goshawk nest (bottom). Photo credit: Brian Woodbridge. Composite

    image designed by Dave LaPlante.

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities

    on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status,

    familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal,

    or because all or part of an individual’s income is derived from any public assistance program. (Not

    all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for

    communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA’s

    TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA,

    Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20250-9410, or call

    (800) 795-3272 (voice) or (202) 720-6382 (TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

  • Northern Goshawk Inventory and Monitoring Technical Guide iii

    Acknowledgments

    We gratefully acknowledge the previous work of several individuals in the realm of

    goshawk monitoring; their ideas, field work, and publications are the basis of this

    technical guide. In particular, we acknowledge the contributions made by S.R. Dewey,

    S.M. Joy, J.J. Keane, P.L. Kennedy, V. Penteriani, R.T. Reynolds, and D.W. Stahlecker.

    The bioregional monitoring design presented in chapter 2 was created by the North-

    ern Goshawk Inventory and Monitoring Design Team, whose members are listed on

    the title page of this technical guide. We give special recognition to J.A. Baldwin for

    contributing substantial time toward developing the bioregional design and preparing

    all the statistical text in chapter 2. We are grateful to D. LaPlante and B. Allison for

    spatial analyses of primary sampling unit (PSU) size and for preparing figures and to

    J. Wilson and H. Wang for preparing the figure in Appendix C. We thank the follow-

    ing individuals who substantially improved the quality of this technical guide through

    their review of earlier versions: D.E. Andersen, P.H. Geissler, T.A. Max, A.R. Olson,

    M.G. Raphael, L.F. Ruggiero, H.T. Schreuder, and J.R. Squires.

    Authors

    Brian Woodbridge is supervisor of the Forest Resources Branch, U.S. Fish & Wildlife

    Service, Yreka, CA.

    Christina D. Hargis (name changed to Christina D. Vojta) is a wildlife ecologist,

    Watershed, Fish, Wildlife, Air, and Rare Plants Staff, USDA Forest Service,

    Washington Office, Washington, DC.

  • iv Northern Goshawk Inventory and Monitoring Technical Guide

  • Northern Goshawk Inventory and Monitoring Technical Guide v

    Contents

    Acknowledgments ......................................................................................iii

    Contents .........................................................................................................v

    Chapter 1. Overview .................................................................................1-1 1.1 Overview ..................................................................................................... 1-1

    1.2 Background and Business Needs ................................................................ 1-1

    1.3 Key Concepts ............................................................................................... 1-3

    1.4 Roles and Responsibilities ........................................................................... 1-5 1.4.1 National Responsibilities ..........................................................1-5 1.4.2 Regional Responsibilities ..........................................................1-5

    1.4.3 Forest Responsibilities ..............................................................1-5

    1.5 Relationships to Other Federal Inventory and Monitoring Programs ......... 1-6 1.5.1 Forest Service Programs ...........................................................1-6

    1.5.2 Programs in Other Federal Agencies .........................................1-6

    1.6 Quality Control and Assurance .................................................................... 1-7

    1.7 Change Management ................................................................................... 1-7

    Chapter 2. Bioregional Monitoring Design .........................................2-1 2.1 Objective ...................................................................................................... 2-1

    2.2 Planning and Design .................................................................................... 2-3

    2.2.1 Goshawk Natural History Relevant to the Bioregional

    Sampling Design ................................................................................ 2-3

    2.2.2 Description and Rationale for Monitoring Design ............................ 2-5

    2.3 Data Collection .......................................................................................... 2-14

    2.3.1 Data Collection Methods and Rationale .......................................... 2-14

    2.3.2 Quality Control/Quality Assurance .................................................. 2-17

    2.3.3 Data Entry Forms ............................................................................. 2-19

    2.3.4 Survey Logistics ............................................................................... 2-19

    2.4 Data Storage and Management .................................................................. 2-20

    2.5 Data Analysis ............................................................................................. 2-21

    2.5.1 Estimating the Bioregional Frequency of Occurrence

    of Goshawks .................................................................................... 2-21

    2.5.2 Assessing Changes in Goshawk Frequency of Occurrence

    Over Time ........................................................................................ 2-22

    2.5.3 Evaluating Change in Occupancy Rate in Relation to Change

    in Habitat or Other Environmental Variables ................................... 2-23

  • vi Northern Goshawk Inventory and Monitoring Technical Guide

    2.6 Reporting ................................................................................................... 2-24

    2.6.1 Expected Reports ............................................................................. 2-24

    2.6.2 Reporting Schedule .......................................................................... 2-24

    Chapter 3. Goshawk Survey Techniques ............................................... 3-1 3.1 Objectives .................................................................................................... 3-1

    3.2 Planning and Design .................................................................................... 3-1

    3.2.1 Aspects of Goshawk Natural History Related to Survey

    Methodology ..........................................................................................3-1

    3.2.2 Sampling Designs .............................................................................. 3-5

    3.3 Data Collection ............................................................................................ 3-6

    3.3.1 Survey Methods ................................................................................. 3-6

    3.3.2 Quality Control/Quality Assurance .................................................. 3-18

    3.4. Data Storage .............................................................................