NEW EMERGING AND REEMERGING DISEASES •

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NEW EMERGING AND REEMERGING DISEASES •. Definitions • New Emerging infectious diseases newly identified or previously unknown infections • Re-emerging infectious diseases re-appearance of, or increase in number of, infections from a disease previously known. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of NEW EMERGING AND REEMERGING DISEASES •

  • NEW EMERGING AND

    REEMERGING DISEASES

  • *Definitions New Emerging infectious diseases newly identified or previously unknown infections

    Re-emerging infectious diseases re-appearance of, or increase in number of, infections from a disease previously known

  • *New Emerging Infectious Diseases:

    Definition Diseases of infectious origin whose incidence in humans has increased within the recent past or threatens to increase in the near future,

    including: previously unknown infectious diseases; known but appearing in new geographic areas; or increase abruptly;

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  • *Infectious Diseases: A World in Transition

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  • *The human species Continues to change and to change its surroundings: the ways we live, work, relax; the places we go; the foods we eat ...

    The changing nature of our interactions with each other and with our environment alters the dynamics of disease epidemiology and exposes us to new threats.

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  • *ENVIRONTMENT

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  • *EMERGING DISEASES ARE NOT NEW TO MANKIND

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  • *1973 Rotavirus 1975 Parvovirus B19 1976 Cryptosporidium parvum 1977 Ebola virus, Legionella pneumophilia, Hantaan virus, Campylobacter jejuni 1980 HTLV-1 1981 Staphylococcus toxin 1982 E. coli O157, HTLV-2, Borrelia burgdoferi 1983 HIV virus, Helicobacter pylori 1988 HHV-6, Hepatitis E 1989 Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Hepatitis C NEWLY IDENTIFIED PHATOGENS(1973- 1989)

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    1990 Guanarito virus 1991 Encephalitozzon hellem 1992 Vibrio cholerae O139 1992 Bartonella henselae 1993 Sabia virus 1995 Hepatitis G virus 1995 Human herpesvirus-8 1996 TSE causing agent (nvCJD) 1997 Avian influenza (Type A H5N1) 1999 Nipah virus, Avian Influenza H9N1, Stealth viruses Newly identified pathogens (1990 - 1999)

  • *1998 Nipah encephalitis 2003 SARS 2004 Avian influenza H5N1 2006 Chikungunya- re-emergence 2009 Pandemic influenza A H1N1 Newly identified pathogens (1997 2009)

  • *Since 1973 39 newly identified pathogens, examples :

    1973 Rotavirus 1977 Ebola virus, Hantaan virus 1980 HTLV-1 1983 HIV virus H pylori 1988 Hepatitis E 1992 Vibrio cholerae O139 1996 Avian influenza A (H5N1) 1999 Nipah virus 2003 SARSOthers re-emerged

    Dengue/DHF Cholera Malaria Chikungunya J. Encephalitis Leptospirosis N.meningitidis

  • * Current estimates- 1,415 microbes are infectious for human.

    Of these, 868 (61%) considered zoonotic.

    70% of newly recognized pathogens are zoonoses.

  • * Current estimates- 1,415 microbes are infectious for human. Of these, 868 (61%) considered zoonotic. 70% of newly recognized pathogens are zoonoses.

  • *Risk factors for emerging zoonoses: close human animal interface in Asia

  • *Examples of recent emerging and re-emerging diseases

  • *Emergence of HPAI (H5N1) 2003-June 2008 a total of 385 cases with 243 deaths

  • *GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF PROBABLE CASES

  • *SARS: THE FIRST EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE OF THE 21ST CENTURY

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  • *EMERGENCY DENGUE FEVER/DENGUE HAEMORRHAGIC FEVER

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