9 emerging and reemerging diseases

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Emerging and Re-emerging DiseasesEmerging, re-emerging DiseasesAn emerging disease is one that has appeared in a population for the first time, or that may have existed previously but is rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range -WHO

The annual cause-specific mortality estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO) Respiratory infections: 4.3 million deaths Diarrheal diseases: 2.5 million deaths HIV/AIDS: 1.8 million deaths Tuberculosis: 1.3 million deaths Malaria: 0.8 million deaths Meningitis: 0.3 million deaths Pertussis: 0.2 million deaths Measles: 0.2 million deaths Hepatitis B: 0.1 million deaths Other infectious diseases: 1.2 million deaths

Examples of recent emerging diseases

Factors Contributing To EmergenceAgentHostEnvironment

Examples of Emerging Infectious DiseasesHepatitis C- First identified in 1989In mid 1990s estimated global prevalence 3%

Hepatitis B- Identified several decades earlierUpward trend in all countriesPrevalence >90% in high-risk population

Examples of Emerging Infectious Diseases

SARS: The First Emerging Infectious Disease Of The 21st Century (China, 2003)

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)CJD is called a human form of mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathyor BSE).

Dengue Fever

Leptospirosis

AIDSAIDS(Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a disease caused by a virus called HIV(Human Immunodeficiency Virus).

TuberculosisTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs.

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1)

Swine Flu Influenza A (H1N1)

Pneumonic Plaguein India (1994)

Bubonic Plague

Septicemic Plague

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV)This strain of coronavirus that causes MERS was first identified in 2012 in Saudi Arabia.

Meningococcemia

Ebola Hemorrhagic FeverEbola (5 species) Sudan Zaire Ivory Coast Reston Agent Uganda First appearance in 1976 Sporadic outbreaks

CountryTotal Cases (Suspected, Probable, and Confirmed)Laboratory-Confirmed CasesTotal DeathsGuinea317527812101Liberia926531534057Sierra Leone1134183083479Total237811424296372014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa - Case Counts

MarburgVarying pathogenicity (mortality ranging from 21-80%) Responsible for 1967 outbreak in Europe Outbreaks in 2000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo and 2005 in Angola

Thank You!!!

SARS Cases 19 February to 5 July 2003
China (5326)
Singapore (206)
Hong Kong (1755)
Viet Nam (63)
Europe:10 countries (38)
Thailand (9)
Brazil (3)
Malaysia (5)
South Africa (
Canada (243)
USA (72)
Colombia (1)
Kuwait (1)
South Africa (1)
Korea Rep. (3)
Macao (1)
Philippines (14)
Indonesia (2)
Mongolia (9)
India (3)
Australia (5)
New Zealand (1)
Taiwan (698)
Mongolia (9)
Russian Fed. (1)
Total: 8,439 cases, 812 deaths, 30 countries in 7-8 months
Source: www.who.int.csr/sars