Motivation and Emotion - Dr. Martin ... 1/3/18 2 Arousal Approaches S Belief that we try to maintain

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Transcript of Motivation and Emotion - Dr. Martin ... 1/3/18 2 Arousal Approaches S Belief that we try to maintain

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    S

    Motivation and Emotion Chapter: 8

    Instinct Approaches

    S  Motivation: Factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms S  Includes behavioral, cognitive, and social aspects

    S  Instincts: Inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically determined rather than learned.

    S  Provides the energy that channels behavior in appropriate directions.

    Drive-Reduction Approaches

    S  Suggests that a lack of some basic biological need produces a drive to push an organism to satisfy that need S  Drive: Motivational tension, or arousal, that energizes

    behavior to fulfill a need S  Primary drives – related to biological needs of the body or of the

    species as a whole

    S  Secondary drives – related to behavior that fulfills no obvious biological need.

    Drive-Reduction Approaches

    S  Homeostasis: Body’s tendency to maintain a steady internal state S  Underlies primary drives S  Uses feedback loops S  Operates the need for food, water, stable body temperature,

    and sleep

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    Arousal Approaches

    S  Belief that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation and activity S  If stimulation and activity

    levels become too high à seek to reduce

    S  People vary in the optimal level of arousal they seek out S  Daredevil sportsmen,

    high-stakes gamblers, and criminals

    Yerkes-Dodson Curve – Optimal Arousal

    Incentive Approaches

    S  Suggest that motivation stems from the desire to attain external rewards, known as incentives

    S  External incentives “push” and “pull” behavior

    Cognitive Approaches

    S  Suggest that motivation is a result of people’s thoughts, beliefs, expectations, and goals S  Draws distinction between:

    S  Intrinsic motivation - Causes individuals to participate in an activity for their own enjoyment Extrinsic motivation - Causes individuals to do something for money, a grade, or some other actual, concrete reward

    Maslow’s Hierarchy: Ordering Motivational Needs

    S  Places motivational needs in a hierarchy

    S  Suggests that before meeting higher-order needs certain primary needs must be satisfied S  Self-actualization: State

    of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential in their own way

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    Other Approaches

    S  Suggested by Richard Ryan and Edward Deci (2011) S  Considered human needs in

    terms of psychological well- being

    S  Proposed self- determination theory - People have the basic needs of: S  Competence S  Autonomy S  Relatedness

    Major Approaches

    Instinct

    Drive reduction

    Arousal

    Incentive

    Cognitive

    Hierarchy of needs

    Human Needs and Motivation: Eat, Drink, and Be Daring

    S  What biological and social factors underlie hunger?

    S  How are needs relating to achievement, affiliation, and power motivation exhibited?

    Motivation Behind Hunger and Eating

    S  Obesity: Body weight is more than 20% above the average weight for a person of a certain height S  Body mass index (BMI) - Based on a ratio of weight to

    height

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    Biological Factors in Regulation of Hunger

    S  Changes in the chemical composition of the blood S  Glucose levels S  Insulin S  Ghrelin

    Biological Factors in Regulation of Hunger

    S  Hypothalamus S  Monitors glucose levels S  Regulates food intake S  Injury affects the weight set point

    S  Weight set point: Particular level of weight that the body strives to maintain

    S  Metabolism: Rate at which food is converted to energy and expended by the body

    Social Factors in Eating

    Societal rules

    Cultural influences

    Individual habits

    Operant conditioning

    Roots of Obesity

    S  Oversensitivity to external eating cues

    S  Insensitivity to internal hunger cues

    S  Higher weight set points

    S  Higher level of the hormone leptin

    S  Fat cells in the body S  Rate of weight gain during the first four months of life is related to

    being overweight during later childhood

    S  Settling points

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    Eating Disorders

    S  Anorexia nervosa: Refusal to eat while denying that their behavior and appearance are unusual

    S  Bulimia S  Binging on large quantities of food, followed by efforts to

    purge the food through vomiting or other means

    Striving for Success

    S  Need for Achievement: Stable, learned characteristic in which a person obtains satisfaction by striving for and achieving challenging goals S  People with high need for achievement are selective in

    picking challenges S  Avoid situations with success coming too easily or unlikely to

    come S  People with low achievement motivation tend to be

    motivated primarily by a desire to avoid failure

    Measuring Achievement Motivation

    S  Thematic Apperception Tests (TAT)

    Examiner shows a series of ambiguous

    pictures

    Tells participants to write a story that describes

    what is happening

    Researchers use a standard

    scoring system to determine the

    amount of achievement imagery in

    people’s stories

    Striving for Friendship

    S  Need for affiliation: Interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people S  Gender is a great determinant of how much time is spent

    with friends

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    Striving for Impact on Others

    S  Need for power: Tendency to seek control or influence over others and to be seen as a powerful individual S  Significant gender differences exist in the display of need

    for power

    Understanding Emotional Experiences

    S  Emotions: Feelings that generally have both physiological and cognitive elements S  Influence behavior

    Functions of Emotion

    Preparing us for action

    Shaping our future behavior

    Helping us interact more effectively with others

    Determining the Range of Emotions: Labeling Our

    Feelings

    S  Basic Emotions S  Happiness S  Anger S  Fear S  Sadness S  Disgust

    S  Broader list of emotions include: S  Surprise S  Contempt S  Guilt S  Joy

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    Hierarchy of Emotion Do People in All Cultures

    Express Emotion Similarly?

    S  Facial-affect program S  Activation of a set of nerve

    impulses that make the face display the appropriate expression

    S  Facial-feedback hypothesis S  Hypothesis that facial

    expressions not only reflect emotional experience but also help determine how people experience and label emotions

    Roots of Emotions

    S  The James-Lange theory S  Emotional experience is a

    reaction to bodily events occurring as a result of an external situation

    S  Drawbacks S  Visceral changes would have

    to occur relatively quickly S  Physiological arousal does

    not invariably produce emotional experience

    S  Internal organs produce a relatively limited range of sensations

    Roots of Emotion

    S  The Cannon-Bard theory S  Physiological arousal and

    emotional experience are produced simultaneously by the same nerve stimulus

    S  Rejects the view that physiological arousal alone leads to the perception of emotion

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    Roots of Emotion

    S  The Schachter-Singer theory S  Emotions are determined

    by a nonspecific kind of physiological arousal and its interpretation S  Based on

    environmental cues S  Supports a cognitive view of

    emotions

    Comparison of the Three Models

    Roots of Emotion

    S  Contemporary perspectives on the neuroscience of emotions S  Different emotions produce

    activation of different portions of the brain

    S  Amygdala, plays an important role in the experience of emotions S  Provides a link between

    the perception of an emotion-producing stimulus and the recall of that stimulus later

    S

    Health Psychology: Stress, Coping, and

    Well-Being

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    Health Psychology

    S  Health psychology: Investigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems

    Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI): Study of the relationship among psychological factors, the immune system, and the brain

    Stress: Reacting to Threat and Challenge

    S  Stress: Person’s response to events that are threatening or challenging S  Stressors

    S  Circumstances and events in life S  Stressors produce threats to our well-being

    The Nature of Stressors:

    S  Stress varies according to individuals S  Bungee jumping

    S  For people to consider an event stressful, they must: S  Perceive it as threatening or challenging S  Lack all the resources to deal with it effectively