Minimalist Mars Mission Establishing a Human Toehold on the Red Planet

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Minimalist Mars Mission Establishing a Human Toehold on the Red Planet. January 2011 Review DevelopSpace MinMars Team. Agenda. Introduction and motivation Overall architecture Transportation: cargo and crew Surface infrastructure and mobility Life support, ISRU, and resupply logistics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Minimalist Mars Mission

    Establishing a Human Toehold on the Red PlanetJanuary 2011 Review

    DevelopSpace MinMars Team

  • AgendaIntroduction and motivationOverall architectureTransportation: cargo and crewSurface infrastructure and mobilityLife support, ISRU, and resupply logisticsLaunch manifestNotional net-present-cost analysisExpanding the toehold into a colonyImpact of new technologies on the architectureInteresting topics for future work

  • AgendaIntroduction and motivationOverall architectureTransportation: cargo and crewSurface infrastructure and mobilityLife support, ISRU, and resupply logisticsLaunch manifestNotional net-present-cost analysisExpanding the toehold into a colonyImpact of new technologies on the architectureInteresting topics for future work

  • Project MotivationFor manifold reasons, it is our destiny as humans to expand our presence:Since the existence of our species, we have expanded our habitat over almost the entire EarthThis expansion was enabled by using technology (e.g. living in central Europe or northern Minnesota and surviving the winter)The next logical step is to go beyond EarthRequires more significant reliance on technologyIn addition to expanding our presence, there may be numerous other benefits from this:Rekindling of frontier spirit, societal invigorationGeneration of new technologies, now knowledgeBackup of our species and its achievementsThere are people who want to make it happen

  • Why Mars?Why would we want to expand to Mars, instead of other destinations such as the Moon?Of all the bodies of the inner solar system eligible for near-term colonization, Mars is the most suitableMars has an atmosphere, specifically a CO2 atmosphere (GCR / SPR protection, feedstock for ISRU)All the other elements necessary for sustained human existence are present in one for or another on the Martian surfaceNitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, iron, aluminum, etc.From a mass / energy perspective, the Martian surface is about as hard to reach as the lunar surfaceHigher gravity level than on the MoonMajor challenges of Mars are that it takes longer to get there and aeroentry / aerocapture is required

  • AgendaIntroduction and motivationOverall architectureTransportation: cargo and crewSurface infrastructure and mobilityLife support, ISRU, and resupply logisticsLaunch manifestNotional net-present-cost analysisExpanding the toehold into a colonyImpact of new technologies on the architectureInteresting topics for future work

  • MinMars Outpost Architecture OverviewInitial crew size: 4Location:20-40 deg northern latitude Longitude not specified, preferably close to sites of scientific interestSurface altitude < -2 kmOutpost initial operational duration: 20 opportunitiesBuild-up of a colony should be possible during that timeUse of commercial launch vehicles (e.g. Falcon 9 Heavy) for deployment and re-supplyUse of Mars in-situ resources (in particular the Mars atmosphere) as a means of reducing re-supply needsUse of existing technologies or near-term extrapolations thereof (in particular for Mars EDL)Use of solar power generation

  • Mars Surface Water ContentWhile in-situ production of water is not planned for the initial stage of the MinMars outpost operations, it may be essential for a full colonyWithin the outpost location zones dictated by solar power generation and Mars EDL considerations there seems to be a minimum water mass fraction of 4% in the Mars surface soil

  • Overall MinMars Outpost ArrangementHabitat and ISRU equipmentSolar array deployment areaLanding zoneApproach corridor1-2 km

  • AgendaIntroduction and motivationOverall architectureTransportation: cargo and crewSurface infrastructure and mobilityLife support, ISRU, and resupply logisticsLaunch manifestNotional net-present-cost analysisExpanding the toehold into a colonyImpact of new technologies on the architectureInteresting topics for future work

  • Cargo TransportationEarthMarsLow Mars OrbitHighly Elliptic Earth Orbit (e.g. GTO)1-13 months of loiteringDirect Mars entry (lifting) using an extension of Viking EDL technologyCommercial Earth launch (e.g. on a Falcon 9 Heavy)Trans-Mars coast (~ 6-8 months)2 mt of useful payload on the surface of Mars; 1 km landing accuracyPre-deployed beacon

  • Mars EDL ConceptAnalyses indicate that existing Mars EDL technology can be extended to a payload mass of 2000 kgSee NASA Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0Existing Mars EDL technology was developed for Viking=> Extension of the MSL EDL system (however, no skycrane, lander stage instead):MSL ballistic coefficient: 115 kg/m2MSL reference area (4.6 m diameter): 16.62 m2 Payload mass fraction on entry: 775 kg / 2800 kg = 0.28 MSL hypersonic drag coefficient: 2800 kg / (115 kg/m2 x 16.62 m2) = 1.46MSL propellant mass estimate: 8 x 50 kg = 400 kgMinMars EDL system characteristics:Entry mass: 2000 kg / 0.28 = 7143 kgReference area: 7143 kg / (1.46 x 115 kg / m2) = 42.54 m2Aeroshell diameter: 7.36 mLander propellant mass: 2000 kg / 775 kg x 400 kg = 1032 kgEDL system dry mass (including the cruise stage): 8000 kg 2000 kg 1032 kg = 4968 kgBallistic coefficient:MSL scaled up7.36 mMinMars aeroshellPayload envelope (cylinder):1.5 m diameter, 2.5 m height

  • NASA MSL

  • Launch and Earth Departure for CargoTrans-Mars injection v: 4000 m/s (from LEO); 1500 m/s (from GTO)Falcon 9 heavy payload performance to GTO: 19500 kgTrans-Mars injection payload mass: 8000 kg (including cruise stage)Kick stage designPropellant combination: MMH + N2O4 (hypergolic + storable); Isp = 316 sPropellant mass: 5687 kgStructure mass: 1137 kg (20% of propellant mass)Total Falcon 9 Heavy payload mass to GTO: 14824 kgEarthStorage orbit (GTO)Trans-Mars departure hyperbola

  • Crew Transportation (for 2 Crew)EarthMarsLow Mars OrbitLow Earth Orbit (e.g. GTO)1-5 months of loitering for Earth departure stagesDirect Mars entry (lifting) using an extension of Viking EDL technologyCommercial cargo launch (e.g. on a Falcon 9 Heavy)Trans-Mars coast (~ 6 months)2 crew members on the surface of Mars; 1 km landing accuracyPre-deployed beaconMars landerITHEarth departure stage 2Earth departure stage 1Commercial crew launch (e.g. Falcon 9 / Dragon)Earth departure stages discardedITH discarded

  • Interplanetary Transfer Habitat (ITH)The ITH design is based on a NASA habitat design for a Sun-Earth L2 mission habitat (100-day mission with a crew of 4)The MinMars version of this habitat would house a crew of 2 for 200 days (twice the pressurized volume available per crew member)Habitat total wet mass at launch: 14540 kgHabitat envelope during launch (deflated): 4 m diameter, 10 m lengthMinimum consumables mass: 800 kg (food) + 200 d x 2 p x 3 kg / p / d = 2000 kg=> Conservative estimate of ITH inert mass (for estimating cost): 12540 kgTotal launch mass of ITH and Mars Crew Lander: 14540 kg + 7143 kg = 21683 kgNASA hab design

  • Mars Crew LanderThe crew lander consists of the cargo lander aeroshell, propulsion and landing system, and a 2 mt crew landing module (as payload)The crew landing module design is adapted from an Apollo-era lunar surface shelter designThe crew landing module provides post-landing life-support for 2 crew for 10 days (also includes and airlock)Module may be reused as overnight shelter for excursions (after relocation)

  • Earth Departure Stage: Adapted Centaur V1

  • Earth Departure Propulsive Capability4 Centaur V1 stages3 Centaur V1 stages2 Centaur V1 stages1 Centaur V1 stage

  • AgendaIntroduction and motivationOverall architectureTransportation: cargo and crewSurface infrastructure and mobilityLife support, ISRU, and resupply logisticsLaunch manifestNotional net-present-cost analysisExpanding the toehold into a colonyImpact of new technologies on the architectureInteresting topics for future work

  • Habitation InfrastructureHHHHRRIIII

  • Surface Hab ModuleThe surface hab module design is adapted from an Apollo-era lunar surface shelter designEach hab module provides life-support, thermal control, and crew systemsEach hab module has an airlock and 3 interfaces for connection to other modules (re-supply, inflatable, etc.) 4 hab modules are delivered to the Martian surface and connected linearlyImage credit: NASA

  • Resupply ModuleThe resupply module design is adapted from an Apollo-era lunar surface shelter design (airlock included)Each module has one interface for connection to a hab moduleBased on the adapted design, each module can deliver a total of 853 kg of usable resupply (very conservative estimate)8 modules are required to deliver the press. resupply for one opportunity Modules are also used for storing trash or as shelters for surface excursionsImage credit: NASA

  • Inflatable ModuleAntarctic Habitat Demonstrator8 ft max head roomFloor Area: 384 sq ft (24 ft x 16 ft) [35.7 m2]Packed System: 1000 lbs [455 kg]2 packages (3 ft by 4 ft by 8 ft)Source: Spampinato, P. Expandable Habitat Structures for Long Duration Lunar Missions. 3rd Space Exploration Conference & Exhibit. Feb 2008. ILC Dover.Source: Four Seasons Hotel. Boston. 380 sqft Superior RoomMinMars version assumed to be about 1000 kg per inflatable module (no airlock)

  • Mobility / Offloading ElementsCMC (Crewed Mobility Chassis)NASAs current estimate for the CMC is 969 kg dry vehicle mass (3 mt payload)Source: Culbert, C. Lunar Surface Systems Project Overview. USCC Programmatic Workshop on NASA Lunar Surface Systems Concepts. NASA. Feb 2009.

    LSMS (Lunar Surface Manipulator System)NASAs current estimate for the LSMS is 190 kg (6 mt capability)Source: Culbert, C. Lunar Surface Systems Project Overview. USCC Programmatic Workshop on NASA Lunar Surface Systems Concepts. NASA. Feb 2