Microbiology Part 1 -- Microbiology & Immunology Pare 2 -- Pharmaceutical Microbiology

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Transcript of Microbiology Part 1 -- Microbiology & Immunology Pare 2 -- Pharmaceutical Microbiology

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MicrobiologyPart 1 -- Microbiology & ImmunologyPare 2 -- Pharmaceutical Microbiology

1Text BookPharmaceutical Microbiology By Hugo W.B.& Russell A.D.

6th edition (1998) Blackwell Science

Part 2pharmaceutical Microbiology## introduction to pharmaceutical Microbiology

## biology of microbes (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites), with their Pathogenicity

## recombinant DNA technology

## antibiotics & synthetic antimicrobial agents with the mechanism of their action & the clinical uses of antimicrobial agents.

## dynamics of disinfection, antiseptics, & evaluation of preservatives

## microbial spoilage

## preservation of pharmaceutical products

## sterility control of pharmaceutical productsFirst exam. = 20 marks

Second exam. = 20 marks

Quiz & reports = 20 marks

Final exam. = 40 marks

Total = 100 marks5IntroductionPharmaceutical Microbiology

## is one of the many facts of applied Microbiology === aspects of Microbiology in Pharmacy industry

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Is a part of Microbiology which has a special bearing on Pharmacy in all its aspects.

It ranges from the manufacture & quality control of Pharmaceutical products in general to an understanding of the mode of action of antibioticsDrug safety

Modern Pharmaceutical Microbiology developed after World War II , with the introduction of the production of antibiotics

All antibiotics were originally the products of microbial metabolism &/or microbial fermentationStreptomyces hygroscopius ** has different strains that make 200 different antibiotics

Antibiotics are made industrially by inoculating a solution of growth medium with bacteria or mold-----after the antibiotic reaches a satisfactory concentration it is extracted & precipitated with standard industrial procedures Vaccines are a products of industrial Microbiology

Steroids are a very important chemicals that include cortisone = which used as an anti-inflammatory drugEstrogens & progesterone = used in oral contraceptivesMicroorganisms can synthesize steroids from sterols or from related compounds 10Most of amino acids used in medicine & foods are produced by bacteria = lysineCorynebacterium glutamicum produce == Lysine & glutamic acidAspergillus niger === citric acid

Enzymes & Vitamins used in medicines & food are produced by bacteria Scope of MicrobiologyThe role of Microorganisms in the production of antibiotics & other pharmaceutical productsAntibiotics = are substances produced by microorganisms (bacteria & fungi) and are capable of inhibiting the growth of other microorganisms

Bacteriostatics = inhibit the growth of bacteriaBactericidal = kill the bacteria Scope of MicrobiologyAlexander Flaming (1928)

Penicillin ===== Penicillium notatum

List of some bacteria which produce antibioticsName of bacteriaName of antibioticStreptomyces aureofaciensTetracyclineStreptomyces venezuelaeChloramphenicolStreptomyces rimosusOxytetracyclineStreptomyces erythraeusErythromycinStreptomyces fradiaeNeomycinStreptomyces kanamyceteus kanamycinStreptomyces griseusStreptomycinBacillus subtillisbacitracinList of some fungi which produce antibioticsName of fungiName of antibiotic

Penicillium notatumPenicillinPenicillium chrysogenumPenicillinClaviceps purpureaErgotPenicillium griseofulvumGriseofulvinScope of MicrobiologyIn alcohol industry = yeast is used in the fermentation of carbohydrate to produce alcohol

C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + energy glucose ethyl alcohol

Clostridium acetobutylicum== manufacture of butyl alcohol yeastScope of MicrobiologyIn vinegar industry= the production of vinegar (acetic acid) takes place with the help of bacterial actions in two stepsFirst step

C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + energy glucose ethyl alcohol

yeastSecond step aerobic bacteria oxidize the alcohol into acetic acidAcetobactor aceti & Mycoderm aceti

C2H5OH + O2 CH3COOH + H2OEthyl alcohol acetic acidAcetobacter Scope of MicrobiologyVitamin productionVitamins obtained from bacteria:Riboflavins - B2 = Clostridium butylicumCobalamins - B12= Pseudomonas denitrificans

Vitamins A,C,D,& E are mostly found in algaeFungi (yeast) have high content of vit.B1,B12,& CScope of MicrobiologyProduction of Acids & EnzymesName of acid or enzymeName of microorganism Citric acid MucorAmylaseAspergillus oryzaeProteaseBacillus subtilisInvertaseSaccharomyces cerevisiaeStreptokinaseStreptococcus pyrogensScope of MicrobiologyUsed in cosmetics & perfumesSome species of lichens (= combination of green algae & fungus rocks & trees) are used to make perfumery goods & soaps

Carrageenin is extracted from sea weeds and used in the manufacture of ice cream, paints, & shampooScope of MicrobiologyUsed in Baking industryYeast is used in the manufacture of bread

Starch sugars alcohol + CO2 bread becomes spongy & light weight yeastzymaseScope of MicrobiologyUsed in the production of dairy productsAll milk products are manufactured from bacterial activity

Name of productName of bacteriaCheeseLactobacillus lactisYoghurtLactobacillus vulgaricusCurdStreptococcus lactisButterStreptococcus lactisButter milkStreptococcus lactis & streptococcus cremorisScope of MicrobiologyUsed in agriculture or soil fertilityNitrogen is an essential for the synthesis of protein, nucleic acids & other nitrogen containing compounds

Plants take nitrogen in the form of nitrates Nitrogen fixation is done by many organismsScope of MicrobiologyUsed as foodMany algae produce agar-agar (=a jelly-like substance) used in the manufacture of ice cream

Some seaweeds contains a lot of iodine which is an important mineral in the thyroid gland

Food for cattle & domestic animals