Medical Writting

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    Medical WritingMedical Writing

    Dr. Sarwar J Zuberi

    Ziauddin Medical University&

    Pakistan Medical & ResearchCouncil

    Synops

    is

    Disser

    tation

    Thesis

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    Types of MedicalTypes of Medical

    WritingWriting

    x Editorial

    x Original Article

    x Review Articles

    x Short Papers

    x Case Reports

    x Letter to Editor

    x

    Personal Viewsx Special Communication

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    The Basic Structure ofThe Basic Structure of

    ArticleArticle

    TITLE

    (S)Summary (Structured Abstract)

    (I) Introduction (What Question was asked?)

    (M)Methods (How was it Studied?)

    (R)Results (What was Found?)(A)Analysis (How data was analysed?)(D)Discussion (What Do the Findings Mean?)

    Acknowledgements

    References

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    TitleTitle

    x Should be specific But comprehensive

    x Short But sufficiently descriptive

    x No abbreviations

    x Should be easy To catalogue

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    Structured abstractStructured abstract

    Objective Design Setting

    Patients and methods Results Conclusions Key words

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    IntroductionIntroduction

    Existing state of knowledge

    Gaps in knowledge which research will fill.

    State what you Intend to do

    Give pertinent references

    It does not

    Review the history of the subject

    Does not identify all the other gaps in knowledge

    Don not include methods, results and discussion

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    MethodsMethods

    x What Subjects/patients/animals/specimens

    techniques were used?

    x Reason for selecting the experimental design

    of the study

    x Statistical methods used for analysis

    x The section should be called "Materiel and

    Methods" only if inanimate specimens have

    been used.

    (continue)

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    Methods

    Patient / Animals / Specimens

    Numbers How are they grouped

    (cases /controls)

    Criteria Informed consent obtained

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    TechniquesTechniques

    x Give enough details for readers to assess the

    validity of the results, and repeat the studyx If standard techniques is used, give appropriate

    reference,any modifications should be clearlyexplained

    x If drug trial- clear description of trial

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    StatisticsStatistics

    Clearly mention the statistical methodsused for appropriate verification of

    reported results.

    (consult a statistician before startingthe study)

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    ResultsResults

    x Communication of facts, measurements,

    and observations gathered by the author

    x Start with the results that are easier tointerpret

    x Results should be set out in tables and

    figures

    x Do not duplicate illustrations

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    DiscussionDiscussion

    x What gaps in knowledge remain to be filled?

    x Main results should be summarised at the

    beginning of discussion

    x Only mention previous results or comments which

    illuminate or which are illuminated by the present

    results.

    (continue)

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    DiscussionDiscussion

    Final paragraph in which the message of the article is

    firmly stated.

    Point out where further gaps in knowledge could usefullybe filled instead of "further research is needed".

    Intention of author to explore the "Gaps" further.

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    Acknowledgements (SilentAcknowledgements (Silent

    partners)partners)

    We wish to thank - all those who deserve

    recognition for their contribution but who have

    not made a significant intellectual contribution

    and are therefore not included as authors

    (Colleagues,Institutions, Organizations providing

    financial help, laboratory and secretarial staff)

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    ReferencesReferences

    1.Standard journal article

    Vega K., Pina I., Krevisky B. Heart transplantationis associated with an increased risk forpancreaticobiliary disease. Ann Intern Med 1996Jun 1: 124(11): 980-3

    2.Books and other monographs

    Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke.In: Laragh JH, Bremier BM, editors. Hypertension:pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. 2nd

    ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995. P.465-78.

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    ReferencesReferences

    3.Disertation

    Kaplan SJ. Post-hospital home health care: the

    elderly's access and untilizaiion (dissertation]. St.

    Louis (MO): Washington Univ: 1995.

    4. Unpublished materialLeshner AL. Molecular mechanisms of cocaine. NEngl J Med. In press 1996.

    5. Electronic material

    Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectiousdisease. Emerg Inftect Dis [serial online] 1995 Jan-Mar (cited 1996 Jun 5]; 1(1): [24 screens].Available from URL:http:/www.cdc.gov/ncdod/EID/eid.htm

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    Summing UpSumming Up

    In the words of Stephen Lock,

    A good article has a definite structure. Make itspoint and then shuts up

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    Sending Manuscript to theSending Manuscript to the

    JournalJournal

    x Required number of copies in a heavy envelop

    enclosing figures / photos / photo

    micrographics in card boards in separate

    envelop

    x Covering letter signed by all co-authors

    x Has not been submitted else where

    x Approved by all authors

    x Authors will bear the cost of colour illustration

    i f b i iR i f S b i i

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    Requirements for SubmissionRequirements for Submission

    of Manuscriptof ManuscriptMust Read Instructions to Authors

    (Uniform requirements for manuscriptssubmitted to biomedical Journals 1997)

    Preparation

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Methods

    Materials

    Subjects

    Patients

    Results

    Discussion

    Typing

    White bond paper

    (8.1/2 x 11 or A4 with 1

    margins

    Typing - Double space

    Number pagesconsecutively beginningwith title page (upper or

    lower right hand corner)

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    Requirements forRequirements for

    Submission of ManuscriptSubmission of Manuscript

    Manuscript on DISC

    x Include a printout version

    x Name the file clearly

    x Label the disc with format of the file

    and file name

    x Provide information on hardware and

    software used.

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    Title Page (1st Page)Title Page (1st Page)

    x

    Title of the article (concise information)x Name of author(s)

    x Highest academic degree(s)

    x Affiliation

    x Departmentx Institution

    x Disclaimers if any

    x Name and address of author for correspondence

    about the manuscriptx Source of support in the form of grants,

    equipment, drugs

    x Short running head or foot line of no more than

    40 characters

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    Abstract and Key Words (2Abstract and Key Words (2ndndPage)Page)

    x 150 words for unstructured abstract

    x 250 words for structured abstract

    x Abstract should be

    x Purpose of the study

    x Basic procedures (selection of subjects,observational and analytical methods)

    x Main findings (Data and its significance)

    x The principal conclusions

    x 3-10 Key words

    x Assist indexer and cross indexing

    x Terms from medical subject heading (MeSH)

    should be used

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    Introduction (3rdIntroduction (3rd

    Page)Page)

    x State purpose of the article

    x Summarize the rationale for study or observation

    x Give Strictly pertinent reference

    x Do not include data or conclusion

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    Method (4Method (4thth Page)Page)

    x Describe selection of the observational,

    Experimental subjects including controls

    x Experimental method (reference for standard

    methods)

    x

    Statistical methods

    x Ethics

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    Results (5Results (5thth Page)Page)

    x Logical sequencex Text

    x Tables

    x Illustrations

    x Do not repeat in the text all the data in tables /figures emphasize, summarizing importantobservations

    x Tables - Number tables separate sheets

    x

    Figures - Legends5 x 7 or 8 x10 glossy prints

    (Black & white / coloured)

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    Discussion (6Discussion (6thth Page)Page)

    x Emphasize new and important aspects of the studyand conclusions that follow

    x Do not repeat the data

    x

    Include implications of the funding, theirlimitations and implications for future Research

    x Relate observations with other relevant studies

    x Recommendations when appropriate may be

    included

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    Acknowledgement (7Acknowledgement (7ththPage)Page)

    x Those who do not justify to be Authors should be

    Acknowled