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Transcript of MDA Framework - Nenagame- · PDF file Aesthetics - MDA framework - MDA in game design -...

  • MDA Framework Mechanics - Dynamics - Aesthetics

  • Lecture

    This lecture focuses on the MDA framework

    ● A solid basis for reasoning about games ● Most other lectures are connected to this ● Important in assignment 2 and 3

    Mechanics, Dynamics, Aesthetics

  • MDA Overview

  • Aesthetics Aesthetics - MDA framework - MDA in game design - Assignment 2

  • MDA Framework

    The MDA framework defines 8 aesthetics By Robin Hunicke, Marc LeBlanc, Robert Zubek (2004)

    A type of fun is called an aesthetic - Has nothing to do with nice visuals

    1. Sensation 2. Fantasy 3. Narrative 4. Challenge

    5. Fellowship 6. Discovery 7. Expression 8. Submission

  • MDA Framework

    The aesthetics are not strictly defined - They are categories to think with

    Let’s investigate the first four

    1. Sensation 2. Fantasy 3. Narrative 4. Challenge

    5. Fellowship 6. Discovery 7. Expression 8. Submission

  • 1. Sensation

    Game as sense-pleasure

    Explosions! (pleasure for your visual sense)

  • 2. Fantasy

    Game as make-believe

    An FPS would be very different with abstract visuals

  • 3. Narrative

    Game as drama

    dramatic unfolding of a plot

  • 4. Challenge

    Game as obstacle course

    problem solving

  • Aesthetics

    Which distinct types of sense-pleasure can games bring?

    Which popular types of make-believe are present in games?

    What dramatic experiences do you know from games?

    What types of challenge are present in games?

    For each question write down 3 types

    And an example game for each type

  • 1. Sensation - Sense-pleasure

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oswSfkHAYkg

  • 1. Sensation - Sense-pleasure

    Visuals Audio

    Body movementTouch

  • Aesthetics

    Which distinct types of sense-pleasure can games bring?

    Which popular types of make-believe are present in games?

    What dramatic experiences do you know from games?

    What types of challenge are present in games?

    For each question write down 3 types

    And an example game for each type

  • 2. Fantasy - Make-believe

  • Aesthetics

    Which distinct types of sense-pleasure can games bring?

    Which popular types of make-believe are present in games?

    What dramatic experiences do you know from games?

    What types of challenge are present in games?

    For each question write down 3 types

    And an example game for each type

  • 3. Narrative - Drama

    Choice

    Linear, explicit Implicit

    Player generated

  • Aesthetics

    Which distinct types of sense-pleasure can games bring?

    Which popular types of make-believe are present in games?

    What dramatic experiences do you know from games?

    What types of challenge are present in games?

    For each question write down 3 types

    And an example game for each type

  • 4. Challenge - Obstacle course

    Generally problem solving

    Many types of challenges

    Challenge ≠ difficulty

  • MDA Framework

    The aesthetics are not strictly defined

    - They are categories to think with

    Let’s investigate the last four

    1. Sensation 2. Fantasy 3. Narrative 4. Challenge

    5. Fellowship 6. Discovery 7. Expression 8. Submission

  • 5. Fellowship

    Game as social framework

    Interaction with others

  • 6. Discovery

    Game as uncharted territory

    “What happens when I put this on fire?”

  • 7. Expression

    Game as self-expression

    Finding an original solution you think is interesting

  • 8. Submission

    Game as pastime

    Mining in Minecraft

  • Aesthetics

    In which ways can games facilitate fellowship?

    Which types of discovery can games bring?

    In which ways can games stimulate expression?

    In which ways can games be relaxing?

    For each question write down 3 types

    And an example game for each type

  • 5. Fellowship - social framework

    Cooperation

    Clans / Community Helping out

    Inviting friends

  • Aesthetics

    In which ways can games facilitate fellowship?

    Which types of discovery can games bring?

    In which ways can games stimulate expression?

    In which ways can games be relaxing?

    For each question write down 3 types

    And an example game for each type

  • 6. Discovery - Uncharted territory

    New game mechanics

    New surprising areas Secrets and Easter eggs

    Emergent behavior

  • Aesthetics

    In which ways can games facilitate fellowship?

    Which types of discovery can games bring?

    In which ways can games stimulate expression?

    In which ways can games be relaxing?

    For each question write down 3 types

    And an example game for each type

  • 7. Expression

    Creation Being original

    Customization

  • Aesthetics

    In which ways can games facilitate fellowship?

    Which types of discovery can games bring?

    In which ways can games stimulate expression?

    In which ways can games be relaxing?

    For each question write down 3 types

    And an example game for each type

  • 8. Submission - Pastime - Abnegation

    Grinding

    Zone out

    Repeating the same action

    Performing easy tasks

  • Aesthetics

    Most games offer a combination of aesthetics

    ● Some aesthetics have more focus than others

    Some aesthetics can be seen in nearly any game

    ● For example discovery, sensation, and challenge ● This does not mean that they are important in the game

    The perception of an aesthetic depends on the player

    ● Some players are only interested in some aesthetics

  • Aesthetics

    The list of aesthetics is not necessarily complete

    ● Think of more aesthetics which don’t fall in the existing categories

  • Aesthetics

    Let’s compare to the Bartle taxonomy

    1. Sensation 2. Fantasy 3. Narrative 4. Challenge 5. Fellowship 6. Discovery 7. Expression 8. Submission

  • Aesthetics

    Let’s compare to the Bartle taxonomy

    1. Sensation 2. Fantasy 3. Narrative 4. Challenge 5. Fellowship 6. Discovery 7. Expression 8. Submission

  • Aesthetics

    The list of aesthetics is not necessarily complete

    ● Competition ○ Superiority over others (killers in Bartle taxonomy)

  • Aesthetics

    The list of aesthetics is not necessarily complete

    ● Collection ○ Gathering and completing a collection (achievers in

    Bartle taxonomy)

  • Aesthetics

    The list of aesthetics is not necessarily complete

    ● Collection ○ Gathering and completing a collection (achievers in

    Bartle taxonomy)

  • MDA framework Aesthetics - MDA framework - MDA in game design - Assignment 2

  • Abstraction

    Aesthetics are very abstract

    ● We have explored various types for each aesthetic, making it a bit more concrete

    We want to create an experience

    ● Requires a very concrete plan ● This is a major challenge for

    the game designer

    Aesthetics

    Abstract

    Concrete

    Implementable game elements

    What is here?

  • MDA Framework

    The MDA framework states:

    The concrete elements of a game form the behavior of the game which produces the experience

    These stages have names in the MDA Framework: Confusing: “mechanics” are not just about rules.

    Elements (e.g., rules, images)

    Behavior (e.g., system, meaning)

    Experience

    Mechanics Dynamics Aesthetics

  • MDA Framework

    Mechanics, dynamics, and aesthetics are at various abstraction levels

    ● This makes it easier to bridge the gap ● But there are still gaps…

    The exact abstraction level of dynamics is not clear

    Aesthetics

    Abstract

    Concrete

    Mechanics

    Dynamics

    Dynamics

    Dynamics

  • Perspectives

    Describes perspectives of players and developers

    Opposite perspectives

    ● In contrast to what you initially might think

  • Designer perspective

    Players and developers have opposing perspectives

    ● The player experiences the aesthetics, which are caused by the dynamics, which arise from the mechanics

    ● The developer creates mechanics to form dynamics which result in aesthetics

  • Designer perspective

    Useful way of thinking for designers

    ● Mechanics are not the goal ● The aesthetics are created indirectly through mechanics and

    dynamics ● The designer should keep focus on the experience

  • MDA

    Multiple mechanics can create a dynamic

    Multiple dynamics can create an aesthetic