Managing Priority Pest & Diseases of RTB Crops

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    19-Feb-2017
  • Category

    Science

  • view

    470
  • download

    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Managing Priority Pest & Diseases of RTB Crops

  • Theme 3 Managing Priority Pest & Diseases of RTB Crops

    James Legg & Theme 3 Team

    RTB Annual Planning Meeting

    December 8-10, Lima, Peru

  • Research Highlights

    Overview

    James Legg

    Development and registration of AdiosMacho-Po and AdiosMacho-St:

    a new public-private-partnership for the benefit of small scale potato

    farmers

    Jrgen Kroschel

    RTB-led international alliance for banana bunchy top disease control

    in Africa: progress and prospects

    Lava Kumar

  • CROSS-CUTTING

  • Complementary Projects: The Framework

    for Cross-Center Collaboration

    Project Lead Center RTB Partners Other

    Partners

    Location

    Degenerative

    Diseases

    CIP Bioversity,

    CIAT, IITA

    NRI, KSU/UF,

    Aarrhus Univ.,

    NARS

    Global

    Pest Risk

    Assessment

    CIP Bioversity,

    CIAT, IITA

    FERA, CABI,

    OSU, NARS

    Great Lakes

    Region of E

    Africa

    Banana

    Bunchy Top

    Virus

    Bioversity IITA, CIRAD NARS East, Central,

    West Africa

  • Predicting the Effects of Seed Degeneration Sara Thomas et al

  • 23/9/2015 https://yanruxing.shinyapps.io/SDAppvX1

    https://yanruxing.shinyapps.io/SDAppvX1 1/1

    Init ialproportion ofhealthyseed

    (1=onlyhealthyseed used,0=only

    infected seed used)

    1

    Externalinoculumaround farm

    (50=high levelofexternalinoculum,

    0=absenceof externalinoculum)

    5

    Maximumseasonaltransmission

    rate(Maximumrateofdisease

    transmission during theseason

    when thereareno limitationsfor

    diseaseto spread)

    0,02

    Weatherconducivenessfordisease

    (1=highlydiseaseconducive

    weather,0=weathercompletely

    restrictsdiseasespread)

    0,8

    shinyapps.io Poweredby

  • Pest Risk Assessment and Climate Change Impacts Target Sites along Altitudinal Gradients

    Rusizi Basin, Burundi

    Climate gradient Burundi, Rusizi Basin: 900 to 2600 m asl Rwanda, Ruhengeri: 1400 to 2600 m asl

  • BXW & Fusarium wilt

    CMD, CBSD &

    whiteflies

    Altitude Effects on RTB Pest/Diseases

  • Collaboration to model pest/disease risk

    Cropland connectivity as a risk factor for invasion and saturation by pathogens and pests: the case of banana, cassava, potato, sweetpotato, and yam

    John Hernandez Nopsa et al. - 2015

  • PRA Training Oct 8-16: Kigali, Rwanda

    PRA Draft Documents Completed for: Tuta absoluta

    Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW)

    Fusarium oxysporum fsp. cubense TR4

    Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV)

    Cassava Brown Streak Viruses (CBSVs)

  • BBTD management: Pilot sites and stages of recovery

    Pilot sites set up

    in 8 countries

  • Understanding gender relations in banana cropping systems and their implications

    for BBTD management

    Gender distribution of tasks Land clearing: Mostly men (Burundi

    64%) Weeding: Mostly women (DRC 87%) Many activities: Men and women

    Knowledge of BBTD Very low among both men and women In Gabon over 80% men and women not

    able to accurately identify BBTD

    Community mobilization for BBTD control Women play a key role in Nigeria

    Cross-sectional study carried out by gender specialists using standard protocol in all 7 pilot sites

  • Nematode damage to yam: Meloidogyne spp.

    Meloidogyne spp. View under light microscope of extract from infected yam peel (e), Juvenile(f), Juvenile anteror end (g)

    e

    f

    g

    Galled tubers

  • Nematode damage to yam: Scutellonema bradys

    Scutellonema bradys View under light microscope of extract from yam peels (a), Male (b) female (c), Female anterior end (d)

    a

    b c d

    Dry rotted tubers

  • Species composition of 42 samples of Meloidogyne

    populations isolated from yam in Nigeria

    3% 2%

    70%

    14%

    2% 7%

    2%

    M. arenaria

    M. enterolobii

    M. incognita

    M. javanica

    M. arenaria & M.

    incognita

    M. enterolobii & M.

    incognita

    M. enterolobii, M.

    incognita & M. javanica

    This is a first report of Meloidogyne enterolobii on yam

  • Management of Yam Nematodes

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    Ame Ame Dan Akuki Ame Dan Akuki Pepa Ame Dan

    Ilorin Kwali - Abuja G/lada - Abuja Kubwa - Abuja

    Tu

    ber w

    eig

    ht (K

    g)

    varieties within the sites

    Tuber weight of seed yam varieties produced from treated and untreated setts in Ilorin and Abuja

    Treated

    Untreated

    Farmer treatment

    (wood ash) Pesticide

  • Visualizing CWB distribution

  • CWB impact on cassava yields

  • J. Legg - IITA

    Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease (CMD)

    CMD Lake Zone, Tanzania

    Cassava Virus Pandemics in Africa

    Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD)

    Whitefly Vector (Bemisia tabaci)

  • Phytosanitation to Control CBSD

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    CB

    SD

    In

    cid

    en

    ce

    (%

    )

    10 PRG

    farmers

    10 SRG

    farmers

    CBSD Clean Seed Systems Community Action

  • The Fruits of Effective CBSD Management

    Improved Local

    Virus-free cv. Mkombozi: Chato Community phytosanitation yield data: Mkuranga

    Chato

    Mkuranga

    Introduction of virus-free CBSD-tolerant

    varieties to communities in Lake and Coast Zones

    Chato

    CBSD incidence < 10% after 3 seasons 110% yield increase cw local material

  • Management of banana Xanthomonas wilt

    (BXW)

    Regional Approach to

    BXW Containment and Control

    Diagnostic tools for BXW detection and surveillance

    Appropriate refinement and scaling

    models

    Best practices for

    producing disease-free

    planting material Gender

    sensitive cultural

    practices for field

    eradication of BXW

    Resistant and

    infection-escaping varieties

    National BXW

    containment and control strategies

    and measures

  • BXW Field

    Detection:

    How the

    Lateral Flow

    Device works

  • District 0 plant 1-20 plants 20-100 plants >100 plants

    Baseline

    August

    2012

    Jan 2013 August

    2012

    Jan 2013 August

    2012

    Jan

    2013

    August

    2012

    Jan

    2013

    Mbarara 0 97

    55 188

    130 0

    100 0

    Isingiro 0 20

    0 180

    0 0

    200 0

    Ntungamo 0 1

    0 67

    58 0

    10 0

    Rubirizi 0 17

    0 170

    155 0

    32 0

    Sheema 0 15

    7 50

    95 0

    56 0

    Buhweiju 0 33

    19 66

    30 0

    50 0

    Kiruhura 0 6

    0 83

    50 61

    100 0

    Mitooma 0 0

    0 12

    90 88

    20 0

    Ibanda 0 0

    15 71

    56 25

    35 10

    Bushenyi 0 0

    0 23

    90 70

    12 9

    Impact: Effect of cultural practices

    on BXW disease incidence

  • Future Perspectives

    Programme Structure. Themes to FPs.

    Two complementary projects (PRA and

    BBTV) fall within FP3, one (Degen.

    Diseases) is in FP2

    Most of the current Theme 3 portfolio will

    be housed under FP3

    Greatest challenge.

    Resources. Is there scope for greater

    cross-centre discussion about resource

    mobilization? Site integration as a focus?

  • Acknowledgements

    Jrgen Kroschel Kris Wyckhuys

    Lava Kumar

    Charles Staver

    Eldad Karamura Greg Forbes Kiddo Mtunda

    Donors & Partners

    Danny Coyne Norbert Maroya