Long AP World Study Guide Midterm

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    26-Oct-2014
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    112
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

description

Everything you need for your midterm!

Transcript of Long AP World Study Guide Midterm

1

AP World History Feudal Japan Top 10 Feudal Japan 1. Feudalism: Just like the feudal system in Europe: Shogun-hereditary divine emperor (hereditary king crowned by pope,) samurai (knights,) daimyo (lords and barons,) buisido (chivalry-code of conduct). Prince Shotoku: Ruled during the Yamato Period. Sent people to China to bring back their culture to organize Japan; wrote 17 article constitution. Agriculture: A mainly agricultural society, but the production of food on the small, wet island of Japan was hard so food=power. Kanji characters: Japan took the idea from China and made it their own; allowed them to become civilized and record their history. Confucianism and Buddhism: Also taken from China, these beliefs become part of Japanese government, code of conduct, and daily life; Buddhism combines with Japan's ancestor worship to form Shinto. The Tale of Genji: First novel written in Japanese, some say the first novel written ever; author was a woman, Murasaki Shikibu, who invented a new kind of Japanese script to write with called kana. Code of the Bushido: Code of conduct even more strict than those in Europe written during the Kamakura Shogunate period. Influence of Korea: Many Koreans moved to Japan after their relations broke down around 500; the sudden flow of immigrants caused a lot of confusion in Japan, but they brought with them pieces of their culture, such as ancestor worship and other ideas that Korea got from China. Poetry: Comes as a result of literacy and other civilized traits gained by adapting Chinese concepts; poetry flourishes as a common form of expression and develops Japan's unique style. Nara: The first capitol city of Japan; marked the beginning of Japan's classical period and showed the beginnings of a Japanese pattern of administrations and institutions.

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7. 8.

9. 10.

Quotes: "Do not think you will necessarily be aware of your own enlightenment. "-Dogen (1200-1253), Japanese Buddhist monk and philosopher "A flower falls, even though we love it; and a weed grows, even though we do not love it"-Dogen "It is truly regrettable that a person will treat a man who is valuable to him well, and a man who is worthless to him poorly."--Hojo Shigetoki (1198-1261), notable samurai during the first Shogunate. Summary: Feudal Japan was an important point in Japanese history because it helped begin and develop Japan's government, religion, and art and literature by taking and expanding upon concepts found in China. The government in feudal Japan was based off of the Chinese Confucian government, the only modification being that the rulers were nobles instead of scholar gentry because Japan was previously uneducated. This was important because it gave way to a pattern of how the Japanese ran their administrations and institutions, as illustrated by the capitol they established at Nara during this time, where evidence could also be seen of Japan's new and unique religion. The religion in early Japan was ancestor worship, and after the assimilation of Chinese culture led by Prince Shotoku in the Yamato Period it mixed with Buddhism to become Shinto. This was important because it made the Japanese people more civilized by leading, along with Confucianism, to the code of conduct (similar to chivalry in Europe) known as the Code of Bushido, which affected the way people lived their daily lives. Another thing that changed peoples' lives was the introduction of art and literature to feudal Japan, which was

2 based entirely off of what they took from China because in early Japan the only concern was for food. After the people were more organized and the kanji style of writing was introduced, people had both the time and ability to express themselves through writing. Most of this took place in the form of poetry, called waka, and the first novel was written by Lady Murasaki Shikibu who also invented a new way to write called kana. This was important because it was the first time in history that Japan had a civilized culture of its own which greatly impacted what Japan is like today.

AP World History Incas Inca Top Ten 1. Pachacuti- He helped start the period ofland conquering and raising an army around Cuzco 2. Cuzco- The city served as a stronghold of the empire as well as an important trading hub 3. Andes mountain range- this was were the empire was and it served as a obstacle for attacking tribes and trade 4. Spanish Conquistadores- These conquistadores were the cause of the downfall of the Incas in the 1500's 5. The road system- The road system was immense, it has lasted to this day and stretched across the entire South Pacific coast 6. 15 million people- The Empire ofInca consisted of over six million people who served as warriors and labor. This was a lot of people for that time and was used for their advantage. 7. Wiraqocha- this is known as the all powerful sun god and was the main god of a very powerful religion. Festivals were carried out to please this god 8. Farming- The farming was the major part of the economy and served to help keep the civilization running. Terraces had to be used because the land was steep. 9. Gold- Gold played a major part in the economy for trading and used as bribery or as something to steal. 10. Inventions- the Incans invented a clock and a calendar. These both were based off of the sun and the moon Quotes: "When has it ever happened, either in ancient or modern times, that such amazing exploits have been achieved? Over so many climes, across so many seas, over such distances by land, to subdue the unseen and unknown? Whose deeds can be compared with those of Spain? Not even the ancient Greeks and Romans." - Pizarro's secretary, in his "Report on the Discovery of Peru". "When I set out to write for the people of today and of the future, about the conquest and discovery that our Spaniards made here in Peru, I could not but reflect that I was dealing with the greatest matters one could possibly write about in all of creation as far as secular history goes. Where have men ever seen the things they have seen here? And to think that God should have permitted something so great to remain hidden from the world for so long in history, unknown to men, and then let it be found, discovered and won all in our own time!" - Chronicle of Peru Summary Paragraph The Incans were important to the rest of civilization because they continued to establish power in the Americas. These foundations lead to a strong foundation for many other South American civilizations to come. Also the inventions of the calendar and clock helped develop later technology like advanced clocks and a math system. Lastly the building sand cities that they made served as future cites and as future building that could be based off of.

3

Nate Hayden, 2006 AP World History Islamic Empire Abbasids Abbasid Empire 1. The Abbasid Empire was founded by non-Arabic Muslims and the Abbasids, during their reign, adopted Iranian culture. By doing so, they sparked cultural divisions in Islam. In 762 they shifted the Islamic capital from Damascus to Baghdad along the Tigris River, which brought a unique intermingling of Persian and Semitic culture and a new office-the vizier. The Golden Age 786-809 Harun al-Rashids rule initiated great intellectual achievement, especially in medicine. It even influenced the European Renaissance! Advancements were made in Arabic learning and Hellenistic practices were used often and preserved in Islam. Al-Mamun (rashids son and successor) seized the caliphate in 813, during this time his brother assembled a strong military force of Turks. This was important because by the middle of alWathigs reign, the Turk army had replaced Arab and Persian caliph army. The Abbasid was in conflict with the Shias and instead welcomed Sunnis, leading to several internal conflicts. As a result, the Berbers set up an independent state in north Africa in 801, shortly after and uprising inMecca in 780. From 750-754, Abul Abbass became the caliphate, and his successor, Abu Jafar al-Mansur used power to set up administrative rules which characterized Islam Government. The early years of the Abbasid Empire was marked by consolidating power through ruthless means. Cities were marked by lighted streets, public baths, public libraries, and hospitals The Abbasid had wealth, learning, architecture and art. Although they were not really bent on imperialistic expansion, they grew through military activity.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8. 9.

10. Decline = the Turks gained influence and power and regional revolts for independence lead to its decline. Rule finally ended when the Mongols sacked Baghdad in 1258. Quotes The success of the first crusade in 1096 in taking Jerusalem, Israel, and Lebanon was due largely to the gradual decline of the Abbasid Empire. The capital moved to Baghdad and the events in Persia and Transoxania were closely watched. For the first time the caliphate was not coterminous with Islam; In Egypt, North Africa, Spain and elsewhere, local dynasties claimed caliphate status, with the rise of the Abbasid, the base for influence in the empire became international, with emphasis on members in the community rather than Arab nationality.

4 A number of medieval thinkers and scientists living under Islamic rule played a role in transmitting Greek, Hindu, and other pre-Islamic knowledge to the Christian west. They contributed to making Aristotle known in Christian Europe. In addition, the period saw the recovery of much of the Alexandrian mathematics, geometry, and astronomical knowledge such as that of the Euclides. Summary Paragraph The Abbasid Empire began in 750 AD after it overthrew the Umayyad caliphs which had turned to secularism. The Abbasid Empire matters to the rest of the world because of several reasons. First, it played a prominent role in fusing several cultures in the Islamic world, largely in part by the move of the capital from Damascus, Syria, to Baghdad, Iraq. Secondly, it was an era of great learning and intellectual development, and it revived the knowledge from Alexandra and Greek culture, thus playing a part in beginning the Renaissance and the ideas of Aristotle and Plato, which ultimately transformed the European dark ages into a time of light and learning. Thirdly, the Abbasid Empire linked the east and the west. In addition to these, the Abbasid Empire, by its consolidation of the Turkish army, lead to the growth of the Ottoman empire centuries later. As evident, the Abbasid empire served as an important link between the world and culture of the east and west, and their innovations have directly related to the achievements of the European renaissance. However, their decline was marked by regional revolts for independence, civil war between the sons of the ruler, and growing Turkish influence until the sultan was the real power behind the throne, thus ending the Abbasids long and influential reign. AP World History Gupta India Gupta empire TOP 10 1. Chandragupta-Married into the Lichchhavi family and was given a city-state as a dowry. He then set out to conquer northern india. First to be known as king of kings or Maharajadhiraja. 2. Samudragupta-coenquered over twenty kingdoms by his death. He was very strict with his rule but also loved poetry and art which flourished under him. 3.Chandragupta II-Extended the empire from coast to coast used aliances to get ahead. He also was very tolerant of religions and during his reign a distinctive style of hindu art was created. 4.Used elephants in battle to scare enemy horses. they also used them because just the smell of them could scare enemy horses. 5.Used longbows made of bamboo or metal that didn't warp in wet weather and had great range that allowed the Indians to attack from longer distances 6.Chandragupta II married his daughter to the king of deccan to create an alliance that helped him destroy the kingdoms in his way of control of both sides of trade. 7. Tolerant of other religions allowing them to fight enemies rather than fighting for control of the oppressed population 8.Chandragupta marrying the Lichchavi princess was one of the best moves because it allowed him to control an area and its army and gave him more money and prestige. 9.Indian scholars come up with the original 10 numeral system. Samudragupta standardized weights

5 and measures to make trade easier with nations like Rome and china. 10.Chandrgupta II beat Scythian rulers and absorbed their kingdoms. This brought more territory and the expansion of the kingdom from coast to coast.

Quotes: In India I found a race of mortals living upon the Earth. but not adhering to it. Inhabiting cities, but not being fixed to them, possessing everything but possessed by nothing. (Apollonius Tyanaeus, Greek Thinker andTraveller 1st Century AD) Medical Science was one area were surprising advances had been made in ancient times in India. Specifically these advances were in the areas of plastic surgery, extraction of catracts, dental surgery, etc., These are not just tall claims. There is documentary evidence to prove the existence of these practices. (Sudheer Birodhkar) Kalaripayat from Kerala was transmitted to China by a sage named Boddhidharma in the 5th century. The Chinese called him Po-ti-tama. He taught this art in a temple. This temple is today known as the Shaolin temple. Thus Judo, Karate, Kung Fu and other similar marshal arts which are today identified with the far-east actually originated from India. (Sudheer Birodhkar)

Summary Paragraph The Gupta empire was important to later eras because it created a numerical system, brought new art to the forefront, and were one of the few that thought the earth wasn't flat but round. They created the numerical system from 1-9 and also invented zero to hold the place of nothing. They brought new art by letting all the religions do what they wanted but also the kings themselves were heavily into the arts and helped them evoleve. Lastly astronomers found that the earth wasn't flat allowing for one of the first times that what others think could be wrong. AP World History Post Classical India POST CLASSICAL INDIA: TOP 10 10. The Bhakti movement sought to erase distinctions between Muslims and Hindus. 9. An Islamic state in northern India was established known as the Sultanate of Delhi. 8. Specialized production, such as cotton textile production, began to take root. 7. The caste system provided stability and helped Turkish integration into society. 6. Islam was introduced to India and began to secure a place in society. 5. As the popularity of Islam increased, Buddhism began to decline. 4. As trade increased in the area, India acted as a clearinghouse for goods and developed cosmopolitan centers. 3. India expanded its sphere of influence to the surrounding areas of Southeast Asia. 2. Agricultural production increased, which lead to population and urban growth. 1. Unlike other post-classical societies, India had no central imperial authority. Instead it had regional kingdoms. Quotations: "Since the island of Ceylon is in a central position, it is much frequented by ships from all parts of India and from Persia and Ethiopian and it likewise sends out many of its own."

6

"The kings of various places in India keep elephants ... They may have six hundred each, or five hundred, some more, some fewer ... The kings of the Indian subcontinent tame their elephants, which are caught wild, and employ them in war." " ... It receives silk, aloes, cloves, sandalwood, and other products, and these again are passed on to markets on this side, such as Male, where pepper grows, and to Calliana, which exports copper and sesame logs and cloth for making dresses, for it also is a great place of business." -All of these quotes were taken from a work titled The Christian Topography. The author was a Christian monk from Egypt who lived during the 6th century. Summary Paragraph India is an important post-classical society because in respect to political organization, India differed from that of other classical societies. India did not experience a return of centralized imperial rule such as that provided by the Tang and Song dynasties, the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties, and the Byzantine Empire. This decentralized organization made it easier for imperialistic forces, such as Great Britain, to take over later. The vigorous commerce of the Indian Ocean basin influenced the structure of economies from East Asia to east Africa. Like other post-classical societies, India underwent cultural changes, which in turn impacted the surrounding areas. During this time, India was an active member in promoting crosscultural communication and exchange. AP World History Axum Ancient Africa Axum 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Gadarat-first emperor to be involved in southern Arabia. Were the first to make their own coins (270 C.E) this helps a civilization to establish trade. Adhebah- helped the Sabaean kings Sembrouthes- first to call himself the "king of kings." Ezana- first ruler to embrace Christianity. Eon- first king to use title + BAC + CIN + BAX + ABA, which Munro-Hay reports has been interpreted to mean Basileus habasinon -- "King of the HabashatlHabash", Kaleb- conquered South Arabia Saifu- sent Muhammad's family gifts and was the grandfather to the king who harbored Muhammad. Gersem-last king to mint gold coins. Ashama ibn Abjar- converted to Islam.

Summary Paragraph This period in Axum history is important because of it expansions and prosperity. In this time period, the Aksumites were minting gold and silver coins and making beautiful Stellas that influence the culture of present day Africa. The Axum heritages are the pride of the entire Africa. Conserving the rare heritages that serve testimony of Africa's ancient origins and civilization, is tantamount to caring for the historical legacies of the entire continent. AP World History Kush Ancient Africa KUSH: TOP TEN EVENTS AND PEOPLE 1. Believed themselves to be Egyptian, and therefore had an Egyptian society. 2. King Kashta- maintained a peace time and controlled much of Upper Egypt. 3. 1000 B.C. Kush becomes an independent nation; Liberation from Egypt in the year 1700

7 4. Assyrian attack pushes the Kushites away from Egypt and cut them off. 5. King Piye- conquered all of Lower Egypt and built the first pyramid. 6. King Shabako- fought the Assyrian army but failed. 7. King Tanutamani- attempted to re-take Egypt. Defeated Assyria in 664 B.C. 8. Kush thrived for about 150 years, mostly due to its major trading network. 9.1000 B.C. the Kushites conquer all of Nubia. 10. Kush became the center of Iron production after an Assyrian invasion in which the Assyrians used Iron weapons. 11. Trade: The Kush Empire was a major "middle man" for the trade from southern Africa. 12. The conquering of all the empire of Nubia. Nubia contained lots of gold made Kush very rich. 13. The adoption of the Egyptian ways. They followed the Egyptian ways very closely for example they had many of the Egyptian gods and built pyramids like the Egyptians. 14. Learned to smelt iron: very useful for the Kush military. 15. Between 250 and 200 BC strongest empire of Africa. 16. Used hieroglyphics for written language. 17. The Nuba people conquered Kush and ended the Empire

QUOTES: " The Kushites are all fine soldiers, but the Assyrians were conspicuous even among a nation of fighters." - Flavius Arrianus Xenophon " As for state structure, it's pretty obvious that an inherited pharoship- so stable that it survived centuries in some cases- ruling over a vast empire with a well established, highly tr~Jnl;lH bureaucracy at its beck and call is quite different from the city states found along the western African coast, most of whom rested upon the charismatic power of one given ruler, wnM dynasties were hardly stable beyond a few generations, and whose state &ITHCrnr~ Wll~ ~mp.l)'onic, at best." -a Stanford history student "The Kushites were pretty much Egyptian knock-offs with nice looking iron swords, other than that well, you get the picture." - Unknown SUMMARY: The Kush Empire was noted for their very high trade influence in Africa. Also for a while they were one of the major powers of all Africa. Originally this great civilization was started along the great Nile River. The people of Kush struggled with the rule of Egypt. During Egypt's low points Kush would flourish. During a time of freedom from Egypt, Kush conquered all of Nubia. This was a great thing for Kush because Nubia was rich in gold. Although Kush was a great Empire it did not last long. Not long after it became a major power in Africa it soon fell. They were slowly pushed back until the Nuba people defeated them.

Kush was a very prosperous nation, but we do not know much about them due to the fact that their writing cannot be translated since there is no key stone or other way to understand it. Kush was one of few nations that was independent, and they were so for about 150 years until they were taken over.. They were a major producer of Iron and exported it in weapon form to other nations as well as within their own region. They were extremely prosperous and progressed greatly when it came to their knowledge because they watched their enemies during battle and learned from them. Even Alexander the Great respected them as a nation because they were innovative in battle. Kush definitely made an impact on Africa, and they helped better prepare it for the world as we know it.

8 AP World History Mali TOP 10 Mali Empire 1. Mansa Musa (1312-1337) - A devout Muslim who built many mosques and expanded Mali's influence over large Niger city-states of Timbuktu, Gao, and Djenne. 2. Sonni Ali (1464-1492) - Turned Gao into the Songhay empire. Conquered the cities of Timbuktu and Jenne with a military based on cavalry and fleets of ships. 3. Askia Muhammad Toure (1493-1528) - Standardization Guy. Centralized government with legal cod based on Islamic principles. 4. Niger River - Ran through the empire and provided a trade route as well as irrigation for crops. 5. Birmindana - first ruler to convert to Islam. 6. Monetary irresponsibility - bad economic manuevers by the king sent mali into a state of weakness in the 14th century, this lead to internal and external clashes. 7. Integration of two different religions - Mali rulers struggled to try to incorporate Islamic faith to help advance them in economics and government while still keeping traditional African Mande practices. 8. Gold - They were filthy rich. When Mansa Musa made his pilgrimage to Mecca he took along two tons of gold to distribute among the poor. 9. Timbuktu - under Mansa Musa's rule became the cultural center for sub-saharan africa and became a meeting spot for the finest poets, scholars, and artists. 10. Anarchy - The Mali empire got to big and government control became difficult so Mali crumbled to anarchic little city-states and in 1612 the Mali empire was over.

Quotes "He told me that his king had ruined the empire, exhausted the royal treasury and brought the state close to collapsehespent [it] in debaucheries and foolishness" writes Ibn Khaldun "Much later the population of Mali grew to such an extent that it became dominate over all over this region (i.e. the area formerly ruled by Ghana)" (Khaldun 1) "When I'm asked about the relevance to Black people of what I do, I take that as an affront. It presupposes that Black people have never been involved in exploring the heavens, but this is not so. Ancient African empires -- Mali, Songhai, Egypt -- had scientists, astronomers. The fact is that space and its resources belong to all of us, not to any one group. " - Mae Jemison

Summary Paragraph The Mali Empire was key in the spreading of Islamic culture and practices to Africa. Without the advancements caused by Islamic influence they would be even further behind on the development scale then they are now. However, the continuing practice of african traditions insured the survival of them and the religions they belong to. Also, the meeting of brilliant minds at the cultural center of Timbuktu lead to advancements in science, astronomy, art, and poetry. AP World History Songhay Top 10 List: The Songhay 1.) Songhay was the largest empire Africa had ever seen- with thousands of cultures under their control. 2.) The empire was at it's largest under the rule of Askia Duad, and stretched to Cameroon. 3.) The Sunni King, Sonni Ali, helped the Songhay take over Mali. 4.) The kingdom of Gao, which would eventually become the Songhay Empire. 5.) The urban areas of the empire were dominantly Islamic, while the nonurban areas were not.

9 6.) Askia Muhammad Toure was a leader following Sonni Ali, who created a new dynasty called the Askia. He also continued the imperial expansion that Sonni Ali had begun. 7.) When standard weights, currency, and measures were introduced, the Songhay began to homogenize. 8.) Qadis, or Muslim judges, were chosen to run the legal system the Islamic way. 9.) The majority of the Songhay people did not convert to Islam, about 97% kept their traditional religions. 10.) The strong Songhay army had about 35,000 soldiers in it. Quotes: 1.) "Sonni Ali aggressively turned the kingdom of Gao into an empire, the Songhay Empire." 2.) " .. .further centralized the government by creating a large and elaborate bureaucracy to oversee his extensive empire." 3.) "With literally several thousand cultures under its control, Songhay was the largest empire in African history." Summary Paragraph The Songhay Empire was important to later developments because of their accomplishments. They were the first to create standardized systems of weights and measures, which helped contribute to later developments. Even though many of the rulers tried to force Islam on their people, most did not convert, proving that the people of Songhay and all of Africa would rather stay true to their tribal roots of religion. This time period matters very much to African history, because in the Songhay Empire's highest point, it was the most powerful and important empire Africa had ever seen, even to this day. The Songhay had great rulers, a powerful army, and countless numbers of territories that were under their ruling. The amount of territory they controlled was more than any other African empire to date.

AP World History European Crusades Crusades Top 10 1. The goal of the Crusades was to recapture Jerusalem or the Holy Land. 2. Pope Urban II initiated the Crusades in 1095 Deus Volt 3. 1st Crusade- Christians won the holy land and start the Crusades 4. Trade began between Europe and the Middle East 5. 2nd Crusade- Sallah Al Din re-conquers Jerusalem 6. Europeans conquer Byzantium 7. Catholics are kicked out when Byzantium re-conquers itself 8. Many reasons to go on a Crusade 9. European life was very bad before Crusades 10. Destroyed good Muslim in culture High ideas were besmirched by cruelty and greed enterprise and endurance by a blind and narrow self righteousness, and the Holy War itself was nothing more than a long act of intolerance in the name of God, which is a sin against the Holy Ghost. -Sir Steven Runciman While Western Europe has largely shaken off the legacy of the Crusades, their impact elsewhere in the Christian world shows just how long-lasting and destructive they were.

10 -Dr. Jonathan Phillips The principal of the crusades was a savage fanaticism; and the most important effects were analogues to the cause. -Edward Gibbon Summary Paragraph One of the reasons that the crusades were important was because it weakened and destroyed the Byzantium Empire. Byzantium was pretty insignificant once the Crusades went through and didnt recover their greatness. Another effect of the Crusades was that Europe increased culturally a lot. This resulted in more Mediterranean trade. The Europeans were also enriched technologically. The Muslims were smarter and more advanced and developed so the Europeans adopted many of their good ideas. AP World History European Feudalism European Feudalism Top 10 1. Feudalism- This new economic and political system created three classes of people. Clergy, Nobility and Peasants called the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Estates. 2. Rise of cities- This increased trade, markets, the building of walls for protection, and created freedom for peasants. 3. Pope- Had great power with the ability to excommunicate people; united Europe under the power of Catholicism 4. Castles and Cathedrals- Forced Europe to build a civilization because groups had to unite to build the large buildings. Infrastructure like roads, business, accounting, markets and cities were all built to help support the task of raising castles and cathedrals. 5. Trade- Islamic, eastern, African and European cultures mix and spread ideas. Silk, soap, coffee and other new products go back and forth. 6. Manoralism- A social way of life which made life more enjoyable for lower class people. 7. Plague killed 1/3 of Europe and spurred economic growth because so many people died that others were able to work and were forced to work harder. 8. Mongols- Conquered huge amounts of land and were very powerful in Eastern Russia; help form Russia and were stopped on the edge of Vienna. 9. Italian city state trade with Mediterranean and middle eastern markets. The Hanseatic League worked similarly for northern cities. The League protected its member merchants and offered fair trade and support. 10. Migration - the economic situation was poor for farmers, many of which lost their land and became paupers. Secondly, people were on the move as a result of religious persecution, Crusades or political conflict. The desire of the new states to expand also drove migration. Quotes: The banners of the king advance, the mystery of the cross shines bright; where his life went through with death, and from death brought forth life. -- Venantius Fortunatus in Analecta Hymnica To no man will we sell, or deny, or delay, right or justice. -- The Magna Carta

11 Consider your origins: you were not made that you might live as brutes, but so as to follow virtue and knowledge. -- Dante in The Divine Comedy. Summary Paragraph Feudalism in Europe had made a hierarchy type ruling system which we still use today. Feudalism then led to a pope. The Pope in the 12th century had great power to excommunicate people. In modern times the Pope very much does the same in the Catholic Church which was originated in this time period. Lastly this time area had a rise of cities. This was really the first time that freedom had come into play in European civilizations because rules needed people to move to cities to work so rulers offered city dwellers freedom from serfdom. The rise of cities also helped develop cities that were economically and politically stable which we have today. AP World History Byzantines The Byzantine Empire Top 10 Events 1. Developed branch of Christianity called Orthodox Christianity - In the east Orthodox Christianity was more localized than Christianity produced by Roman Catholics, which was centralized. Russian Orthodox Church was aligned with Byzantine, which made Russia culturally different from the other great powers due to the influence of Byzantine's Orthodox Christianity. 2. Justinian ruled from 527 to 565- Former glory and unity of Roman Empire somewhat restored in Constantinople. Region flourished in trade and arts. 3. Justinian Code- A codification of Roman law that kept ancient Roman principles alive. Evolution of jurisprudence led to modem legal systems. 4. In 1054 Pope excommunicated the patriarch of Constantinople- He then did the same of the pope. From this point forward Orthodoxy influenced the east and Roman Catholicism the west. 5. Alexios I Komnenous, ruler of the Komnenian dynasty- He recovered the failing empire, which took harsh measures to save empire. Conscription introduced (citizens to serve in armed services). 6. Used coined money- A very desirable way to do business. Coined money remained remarkably stable. Alexios's coinage using the new hyperpyron (highly refined coin) was the standardized coin for 200 years. 7. Hagia Sophia- An enormous cathedral that still stands today (but now is a -mosque). 8. Golden Age- Reached its height under Macedonean emperors in the late 9th, 10th and early 11 th centuries. Trade, arts, culture were very productive in this period. Growth in education, learning and art flourished. 9. 12th century- Revival of the mosaic art and regional schools of architecture began producing many distinctive styles. 10. Fourth Crusade- This was the single most catastrophic event of the Byzantine Empire. Crusaders attacked the Byzantine capital. This horrible sacking of Constantinople occurred on April 13, 1204. Quotes "Such was the influence of Byzantine art in the 12th century, that Russia, Venice, Southern Italy and Sicily all virtually became provincial centers dedicated to its production." - N.H. Baynes in Byzantium, An Introduction to East Roman Civilization Referring to the fourth crusade- "The Greeks were worse than the Jews."- A Catholic clergyman. Referring to the sacking of Constantinople- "Never, since the world was created, had so much booty been won in any city."- Geoffrey of Villehardouin

12 Referring to the sacking of Constantinople- "You vowed to liberate the Holy Land but you rashly turned away form the purity of your vow when you took up arms not against Saracens but Christians." Innocent III Referring to the greatness of Byzantium- The Triple Fusion: that of a Roman body, a Greek mind and an oriental, mystical soul." Robert Byron-5th" century Philhellenes Summary Paragraph The Byzantine Empire was important to the development of economics, society and politics in other regions for several reasons. The Byzantine Empire was distinct from the Roman Empire. It used the Greek language; its culture had distinctive domes; its culture in general had more in common with Eastern cultures like those of Persia; and its brand of Christianity became an entirely separate branch known as Orthodox Christianity. Byzantium was really the only stable state in Europe during the Middle Ages. They shielded Western Europe from the Persians, Arabs, Turks and for a time the Ottomans. The economy was the most advanced in Europe for many centuries. They had the preferred currency for 200 years. Their wealth was unmatched by any other State. Byzantium was the most important western terminal of the Silk Road. It was the most important commercial center for much of the Medieval era. Byzantium played an important role in the transmission of classical knowledge to the Islamic world and to Renaissance Italy. The Renaissance could not have flourished if it were not for the groundwork laid in Byzantium. Flocks of Greek scholars fled to the West after the fall of the Empire. The evolution of jurisprudence led to modem legal systems. Orthodox Christianity spread to Slavic peoples. All of this had a dramatic effect on the economics, society and politics of other cultures .

AP World History Shang China SHANG DYNASTY TOP TEN 1. Technological Development: paper was invented. 2. Oracle bones are found to have been a huge part of this dynasty. 3. Writing system originally pictographic 4. Believed and worshiped a higher god who was superior to lesser gods such as the sun, moon and rain. 5. The Shang dynasty pad an aristocracy with a king ruling over military dignity. 6. First ruler, Tang, learned a lot about the downfall of prior dynasty and was the most influential of all the king's to come. 7. Ancestor worship also became a big deal. People offered up their ancestor's souls to God. 8. Peasants lived outside the city and worked in a "nine square system", where they farmed in nine squares and kept the profit of eight. The ninth square's profit was given to the king and every village outside of the city walls were ordered to do this. 9. The people within the city walls lived a more contemporary lifestyle that mostly involved hunting and warfare with local Barbarians. 10. Last king was overthrown because he was cruel, similar to Xia Dynasty QUOTES 1. "It is the man that can make the Way great, not the Way that can make a man great." -Analects 2. "Like weather, one's fortune may change by the evening." -Luu Mengzheng 3. "To learn without thinking is fruitless; to think without learning is dangerous." -Confucius SUMMARY

13 The Shang dynasty consisted of a trial and error. The first king learned from the previous dynasty and the final king of the Shang didn't learn anything. Confucianism began to take part in people's lives and so did their spiritual beliefs and ways of connecting with God. Some inventions took place and there placing them on the map, or rather the timeline of important cultures. AP World History Chin China Top Ten List: The Chin Dynasty 1. United China-all of the Chinese states were brought together to form China's first empire during the Chin dynasty. 2. Emperor Shi Huangdi- the first emperor of China; he unified the states and centralized the control. 3. Standardization- Emperor Shi Huangdi standardized an abundance of things, including weights, measures, law, and coinage (money). 4. Legalism- The Chin dynastys success was mainly because of the legalist iron fist that they used to lead the empire. Shi Huangdi implemented the harsh legalist system. Intellect was discouraged. To do this they burnt books and put an end to Confucianism by persecuting Confucian scholars and leaders. 5. Centralized control- approximately 100,000 rulers were forced to move to the city so the emperor could have control over them and be the ultimate authority. 6. Great Wall and Terra cotta Army- construction of the wall began under Shi Huangdi. The purpose of the wall was to keep enemies out of Chinese territory. Shi also commissioned at least 6000 life size soldiers built to protect him in the after life. Thats right built out of Terracotta. 7. Military expansion- Military They used their military to grow and protect their land and to create a better defense against invaders. 8. Tax collection-provided revenues for the growing empire. 9. Conscription-provided ample men for the strengthening of the military. 10. Revolts led by laborers-eventually led to the collapse of the empire in 207 BC; followed by the Han Dynasty in 202 BC. Quotes "The great importance of the dynasty lay in its unification of China and the establishment of central administrative rule." "The Qin unification was significant because it was a truly unprecedented and therefore historic act."

14 "The Qin is also important for the administrative reforms and huge public works projects it undertook which resulted in a centralized state bureaucracy and development of communications, transportation and commerce throughout the country."

All above from . The reason why China suffers bitterly from endless wars is because of the existence of feudal lords and kings. Qin Shi Huangdi I am Emperor, my descendants will be numerous. From the second generation to the ten thousandth, my line will not end. Qin Shi Huangdi Over 45 minutes with Google have proved to me that only three sentences were ever said in the Chin dynasty and I have written them all Colton Robertson

3 Ways the Chin Affected Later Development The Chin Dynasty unified China and helped to create a state that would become the one of the most powerful in the world in the future. Shi Huangdi' s standardization helped to set precedents for the further organization of Chinese society. The centralization of the administration created the position of emperor and brought all of the leaders to one location, where there actions could be monitored. By centralizing the government, Shi Huangdi created a platform from which the new administrators could begin their mission of making the system better and developing more successful methods.

AP World History through Han Ancient China Top 10 1. 2. Yu the Great- stopped Yellow River from flooding Shang Dynasty- Known for Oracle bones (1st recorded writing in China), Oracle bones calendar (lunar system), Evolution of Chinese writing- pictographs, Ancestor worship (1st to record it),Weapon development Mandate of Heaven- the way china was ruled. Leader- virtuous Leadership justified by succeeding generations Could be revoked by negligence/ abuse Dynastic Cycle- shows the life and death of a dynasty Zhou Civil War- Better weapons, communication systems lead to this, Spur for Confucius to learn how to make stability Confucius-Teacher/ editor of books, Organize social interactions based on status, age, gender, Wrote The Analects to teach his ideas about good government Shi Huangd-Qin Dynasty 221 - 206 BCE: Legalized rule, Bureaucratic administration, centralized control, military expansion, book burnings, targeted Confucius's, buried protestors alive. Standardized law, space, and money. Improved traits from previous dynasties.Started Great Wall of China The Han Dynasty 206BCE-220 AD, (classical China)- -Lasted 400 years, Invented paper, Buddhism introduced to China, Expanded into Central Asia; silk road trade develops; improves life for many, The Han uses the organization that the empire created by the Chin as a foundation

3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

15 for a civilization of wealth, luxury, education, money, trade, and all sorts of goodness. Han Dynasty- Raise taxes-Peasants get angry, Revolts lead to downfall of the Chinese government, China extends into chaos and war like states rule for 350 years. 9. Era of Division years Sui-Tang- Central government falls and military takes over 10. Emperor Wen Ti and Son Yang- Sui dynasty- Overspent money and his cruelty, Land equalization, unified coinage, professional soldiers army, internal administration improved, Grand Canal reconstructed. 11. Emperor Wudi- -public school, colonized Manchuria; Korea, and Vietnam, Civil service system, bureaucrats, Confucian scholar, revival of Chinese landscape painting. 12. T'ang- 618-906- better administration system, imperial examination systems perfected, Liberal toward all religions, spread of Buddhism in China, golden age of foreign relations with other countries like Japan, Korea, Persia, Increased boundaries and increased size of China, Heavy dependence on Militarism, New technology, Foot Breaking. Grand Canal- allowed for communication throughout Empire, helped T'ang transport goods to north in times of famine, canals caused economic development.

Famous Quotes: Wheresoever you go, go with all your heart. Confucius People of the Han. Another name the majority Chinese call themselves When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them. Confucius Summary: The Chinese people were very important people of their time. The Chinese people invented many new things that are still used today even. For example the invented paper, what would we do without paper today? They helped with the spread of Buddhism and record keeping. They started to keep records on oracle bones. This helped us figure out what was done during their time with accurate records. In their time period they were one of the main parts of the Silk Road. If they didnt exist then maybe the Romans would have never survived. Many forms of government and the beginning of schools were started in this time period. Without Ancient China we wouldnt have any of these things. AP World History Tang China China - The Tang Dynasty 1. Emperor Taizong (627- 650) - He subdued the nomadic people to the north, which secured peace and safety of the trade routes going as far as Syria and Rome. He was one of the greatest Chinese emperors. 2. Emperor Xuanzong (712 -756) - He was the "The Brilliant Monarch" during the classical period of China. 3. The Seventh Century - This century was the classical period of Chinese art and literature. 4. Li Bo (700-762) - A poet who reflected the liveliness of the court and the conflict created by military campaigns. 5. Du Fu (722-770) - A poet who also talked about the flamboyancy of the court and the conflict created by military campaigns. 6. The An Lushan rebellion (middle of the century) - weakened the power and authority of the court. 7. Empress Wu Zetian - The only female ruler of China. 8. T'ang Code (624) - This was the first complete Chinese code that still exists. It has more than 500 articles.

16 9. The land distribution program of the Tang was a big part of their agricultural reform and their economic growth. It was supposed to be a way of equally distributing the land. 10. The armies consisted of the aristocrats and the peasants. The aristocrats were used in the north and were very important in fighting the nomads, because they were the only people who had horses and were accomplished cavalrymen.

AP World History Yuan/Mongol China The Mongol Yuan Empire in China 1. The Mongol empire inextricably linked Europe and Asia and ushered in an era of frequent and extended contacts between East and West. This increased trade and world communications. 2. The Grand Canal was completely renovated. This improved and increased the maritime commerce throughout Asia and into Europe. 3. Road and water communications were reorganized and improved which helped improve their civilization and way of life. As well as granaries, which helped, protect them from famine. These were built throughout the empire. 4. Although the Monguls did rule during this time they adopted many Chinese cultures, which is what kept it alive through the Mongolian rule. So even after the Mongol role eeded, the Chinese still had a greater part of their culture left. 5. During this time great advances on medicine and astronomy were made. 6. Without a common language or culture it was difficult for there to be Chinese influence in the government, but it made things less harsh. Although the Chinese governmental structure was not used very much at all, it was a positive thing for the common people because it made the law more lenient and punishment less harsh. 7. During this time period there was a great advance in literature through the forms of theatre and opera. 8. Canals and palaces were built, which required the peasants supply more tax money and to leave their homes to build them. And although this was tough on the workers it greatly improved their transportation routes, which in turn also helped trade. 9. The Mongols took a rich China and less than hundred years later left an impoverished nation. This hurt the Chinese civilization greatly because after the Mongols left they had to build their economy back up. 10. Mongols supported and help advance the many different religions including Islam,. Buddhism~ and even Christianity, helping found mosques,. temples, etc. 3 Important Quotes: 1. One major scholar of Chinese history wrote: " Mongols brought violence and destruction to all aspects of China's civilization. [They were] insensitive to Chinese culturaI values, distrustful of Chinese influences, and inept heads of Chinese government." 2. As a 13th-century Persian historian wrote of the Mongol campaigns: "With one stroke a world which billowed with fertility was laid desolate, and the regions thereof became a desert and the greater part of the living, dead, and their skin and bones crumbling dust, and the mighty were humbled and immersed in the calamities of perdition." 3. "Kubla Khan also set up institutions to rule China that were very familiar to the Chinese, adapting or borrowing wholesale many of the traditional governmental institutions of China.. For example,. the Six Ministries that bad been responsible for carrying out policy were retained by Kublas government, as was the decision-making body. And the provincial administrative structure that organized China into provinces, further divided into districts and counties and so on, was not changed."

17

Three important impacts from this time period: With the development the new roads canals and improvement on the old ones, china's trade increased. They were able to send things to more places and merchants were able to get in and around better. This increased the Chinese economy and helped build them back up after their devastating experience with the Mongols. The Grand Canal greatly aided in the trade routes as well. It made trade to the rest of Asia and even Europe more possible. Chinese Literature increased greatly in quality during this time period as well. Writing was discouraged,. so they did not grow there, but theatre and opera thrived. Some of the best Chinese pieces of opera and theatre were created during this time period.

Foundations Classical Civilizations

Mesopotamia- between the waters

-harsh, favored ruling class, systematic, consistent set of regulations rather than rulers will govern society. -Polytheistic

-Greek term land between waters -Fertile Crescent -3500-2350 bce- Sumerians -1900-1600 bce-Babylonians -Tigris and Euphrates were unpredictable, damns, dikes, and ditches were built as a result. -built cities -highly centralized society governed by ruling class -Lugal-big man -First to develop written language in Western tradition -3300 bce-script ewulled cuneiform -Before 2000 bce- Gilgamesh epicSumerian -Hammurabi (1792-1750 bce) writing tools) pyramidish

-temples -built of clay -Ziggurnts-base- 60 system still used in time and navigation. Sumerians Southern Mesopotamia Civilization Beginning of agriculture Neolithic Revolution/Agriculture 1st to develop cuneiform (formal 12-month calendar Astronomy # System based on 12, 60 and

-Babylonian -Hammurabis Code

360 Ziggurats- temples at top dedicated

18 1500 BCE, Babylonians conquer Sumerians *compare to Greece and Rome Babylonians N of Tigris and Euphrates Today is Baghdad Hammurabis codes- 1st set of laws made by secular ruler Hittites conquered them in 1500 BCE- iron (Hittites) vs. bronze (Babylonians) Hittites Bring civilization to Europe (Greece) Iron- good fighters (best in Mesopotamia?) Hebrews/ Jews/ Israelites Dominate around 1200 BCE 1st monotheistic in world history Assyrians defeat Hittites (1400 BCE) Assyria Capital in Nineveh Cruel, brutal, which helped spread civilization Conquered by Chaldeans, who became Babylonians Neo-Babylonians Nebuchadnezzar Built Babylon into the knownHanging Gardens Conquered by Hebrews Conquered by Persians Persia All Middle East (minus Saudi Arabia) and part of India Height at 500 BCE Important cities Conquered Turkey Lower- Cairo, Giza 1st to build empire