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Figure 5.2a The Internal Organization in Representative Bones

epiphysis metaphysis

spongy (cancellous) bone filled with red bone marrow (hemopoietic) Epiphyseal growth plate

medullary cavity filled with yellow bone marrow (fat) (hollow in shaft)compact bone

diaphysis

periosteum

hyaline cartilage (articular) 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 3.19 Anatomy and Histological Organization of Bone (Part 1 of 2)

in central canal artery concentric lamellae vein osteon

spongy bone

compact bone

trabeculae perforating canal 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

central canal

Figure 3.19 Anatomy and Histological Organization of Bone (Part 2 of 2)

canaliculi periosteum matrix central canal osteon

interlamellar bone

osteocytes In lacunae

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 3.20 MembranesMucous membranes are coated with the secretions of mucous glands. Mucous membranes line most of the digestive and respiratory tracts and portions of the urinary and reproductive tracts. Serous membranes line the ventral body cavities (the peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial cavities). Mucous secretion Epithelium

Lamina propria (areolar tissue)

TransudateMesothelium

Areolar tissue

The cutaneous membrane, the skin, covers the outer surface of the body.

Epithelium Areolar tissue Dense irregular connective tissue

Articular (hyaline) tissue Synovial membranes line joint cavities and produce the fluid within the joint. Synovial fluid Capsule Capillary Adipocytes Areolar tissue Epithelium Bone Synovial membrane

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 9.1 Structural Organization of Skeletal Muscle

Epimysium Muscle fascicle Endomysium Perimysium SKELETAL MUSCLE

Nerve Muscle fibers Blood vessels

(organ)Perimysium Muscle fiber Endomysium Epimysium Blood vessels and nerves MUSCLE FASCICLE

(bundle of cells)Mitochondria Endomysium Tendon Sarcolemma Capillary Endomysium

MyofibrilPerimysium Axon Sarcoplasm MUSCLE FIBER

Myosatellite cell

Nucleus

(cell)

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 3.22a Histology of Muscle Tissue

Skeletal Muscle Tissue

Nuclei

muscle fiber

striations 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 3.22b Histology of Muscle Tissue

Cardiac Muscle Tissue

nuclei

cardiac muscle cells intercalated disc

striations

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Figure 3.22c Histology of Muscle Tissue

Smooth Muscle Tissue

nucleus

smooth muscle cell

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 3.23a Histology of Neural Tissue

Brain Cell body Spinal cord Axon Dendrites Nucleus of neuron Nucleolus

Diagrammatic view of a representative neuron

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 6.1a The Axial SkeletonSKELETAL SYSTEM 206

AXIAL SKELETON

80 Cranium 8

APPENDICULAR SKELETON 126 (see Figure 7.1)

Skull Face Skull and associated 29 bones 14

Associated bones

Auditory 6 ossicles Hyoid 1

Sternum 1 Thoracic 25 cage Ribs 24

Vertebrae 24 Vertebral 26 column Sacrum Coccyx 1 1

Anterior view of the skeleton highlighting components of the axial skeleton; the flowchart indicates relationships among the axial components.

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 6.1b The Axial Skeleton

Skull

Skull

Cervical vertebrae

Sternum RibsRibs

Thoracic vertebrae

Ribs

Lumbar vertebrae Sacrum Coccyx

Lumbar vertebrae

SacrumCoccyx

Anterior (left) and posterior (right) views of the bones of the axial skeleton 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 6.3c The Adult Skull (Part 1 of 2)

CRANIAL BONES

E Frontal bone (1) Sphenoid bone (1) Temporal bone (2) Ethmoid bone (1)

Parietal bone (2)

Occipital bone (1)E

E Lateral view of the bones of the adult skull

EE

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Figure 6.3c The Adult Skull (Part 1 of 2)

FACIAL BONES

Zygomatic bones

Nasal bone (2) Lacrimal bone (2) Maxilla (2)

Zygomatic bone (2)

Mandible (1)

Lateral view of the bones of the adult skull 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 6.16b The Nasal Complex, Part I

Frontal bone Palatine bones Frontal sinuses

Ethmoid Nasal bone Sphenoid

Maxilla (hard palate)

Vomer

Superior Middle Inferior Nasal conchae Palatine bones (2)

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Middle ear Auricle (external ear)

Figure 18.10b Bones of the Middle Ear

Inner ear

Malleus

Incus

Stapes

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Figure 6.18a The Hyoid Bone

Mandible

Temporal bone

Hyoid Bone Thyrohyoid ligament

Thyroid Cartilage

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Figure 6.20a The Vertebral Column

SPINAL CURVESC1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 L1 L2

VERTEBRAL REGIONS

Cervical

Cervical 7 vertebrae

Thoracic

Thoracic 12 vertebrae

Lumbar

L3 L4 L5

Lumbar 5 vertebrae

Sacral

Sacral 5 fused vertebrae Coccygeal coccyx 3-5 fused vertebrae (Tailbone)

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 6.21a Vertebral Anatomy

Articular processes

Superior articular process

Vertebral body

Transverse processSpinous process Inferior articular process

Vertebral body

Superior articular process

Transverse processVertebral body

Inferior articular facet

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Figure 6.21de Vertebral Anatomy

Superior articular facet

Spinous process

Inferior articular process

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 6.21de Vertebral Anatomy

Superior articular facet

Facet joint

Spinous process Intervertebral foramen

Inferior articular process Spinal nerves pass through vertebral canal 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 8.8b Intervertebral Articulations

End plate

Nucleus pulposisInterertebral foramen

Intervertebral disc

Anulus fibrosis

Spinal cord Spinal nerve

Nucleus pulposis

Anulus fibrosis 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 6.27a The Thoracic Cage

T1

1 2

Manubrium Sternum Body3 4 5

True ribs (ribs 17)

Xiphoid process Costal cartilagesFloating ribs (ribs 1112)T11 10

6 7 8 9

T1212

11

False ribs (ribs 812)

Anterior view of the rib cage and sternum 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 6.27b The Thoracic Cage

C7 1 2 T1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

T2T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9

34 5

True ribs (ribs 17)

6 7 8 9

T10 10

False ribs (ribs 812)

T11 T12 12 12 L1

1011

11

Posterior view of the rib cage 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 7.1 The Appendicular SkeletonSKELETAL SYSTEM 206

AXIAL SKELETON(see Figure 6.1)

80

APPENDICULAR SKELETON 126Clavicle 4 Scapula 2 Scapula 2

Pectoral girdles

Clavicle

Humerus Humerus Upper limbs 60 Radius Ulna Carpal bones Metacarpal bones Phalanges 2 2 2 Radius 16 Ulna Hip bone

10 28

Pelvic girdle

2

Hip bones

2

Femur

Femur Lower limbs 60 Patella Tibia Fibula

2 2 2 Tibia 2 Fibula

Tarsal bones 14 Metatarsal bones Phalanges

10 28

Anterior view of the skeleton highlighting the appendicular components. The numbers in the boxes indicate the total number of bones of that type or category in the adult skeleton.

Posterior view of the skeleton

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 7.4a Mobility of the Pectoral Girdle

Scapula Acromioclavicular joint

Sternoclavicular joint Manubrium of sternum

Clavicle

Bones of the right pectoral girdle, superior view

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Figure 7.4b Mobility of the Pectoral Girdle

Retraction

Protraction

Alterations in the position of the right shoulder that occur during protraction (movement anteriorly) and retraction (movement posteriorly)

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 7.4c Mobility of the Pectoral Girdle

Elevation

Depression

Alterations in the position of the right shoulder that occur during elevation (superior movement) and depression (inferior movement). In each instance, note that the clavicle is responsible for limiting the range of motion (see Figure 8.5d,f).

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 7.2a The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

Scapula

Humerus

RadiusUlna Carpal bones Metacarpal bones (I to V) Phalanges

Right upper limb, anterior view 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 7.8a The Bones of the Wrist and Hand

Radius Scaphoid

Ulna Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Radius

Ulna Lunate Scaphoid Capitate Trapezium Trapezoid Pisiform Triquetrum Hamate

CapitateTrapezium Trapezoid

Hamate

I II

V

I II III IV

V

III

IV

Anterior (palmar) view of the bones of the right wrist

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 7.11a The Pelvis (Part 1 of 2)

Sacrum

Ilium

Sacrum Pubis Ischium Coccyx Iliac fossa

Iliac crest

Sacro-iliac joint Arcuate line Pectineal line Acetabulum Coccyx Pubic tubercle Obturator foramen Pubic crest Pubic symphysi