Leadership & change management, Lecture 2, by rahat kazmi

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Transcript of Leadership & change management, Lecture 2, by rahat kazmi

Kingston College of London Leadership and Change Management Unit 4 Lecture 2 By Rahat Kazmi September 2010

LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE MANAGEMENT

CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP

21ST CENTURY APPROACHES

LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES

LECTURE 2

BY

RAHAT KAZMI

SEPTEMBER 2010

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Content:

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Contingency theories of leadership

Favourability of leadership situation

Quality and acceptance of leaders decision

Path-goal theory

Maturity of followers

21st century approaches

Transformational leadership

Transactional leadership

Inspirational leadership

Leadership development initiatives

Objectives:

To define what is meant by leadership

To examine the different styles of leaders in terms of their focus and nature

To discuss the concept and measurement of leader effectiveness

To apply the issues surrounding leader, leadership style and effectiveness of leaders to own experiences

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LEADERSHIP IN THE

WORKPLACE

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Definition of leadership:

as the process (act) of influencing the activities of an

organized group in its efforts towards goal setting

and goal achievement(Stogdill, 1950: pg 3)

(the) process by which one person directs group

members toward the attainment of specific goals Moghaddan (1998; pg 455)

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Your experience of good leadership!

Think of someone who has held a position of leadership over you & whom you have been happy to work for

What made them able to lead?

What made them able to organise a group effectively?

What made you happy in the group?

What made you want to co-operate with the leader?

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Key issues of leadership in work:

What sort of leader can keep a group together?

What sort of leader can make the group productive?

What sort of leader can maintain a good deal of job satisfaction among the group members?

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Contingency theories of leadership

Favourability of leadership situation- This was an experiment

carried out by Fiedler where the relationship between leadership

and organizational performance was considered.

Fiedler suggests that leadership behaviour is dependent upon the

favourability of the leadership situation which is ultimately

determined by

- Leader-member relations-the degree to which the leader is

trusted and liked by group members

The task structure-the degree to which the task is clearly defined

for the group

Position power-the power of the leader by virtue of position in

the organization.

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Quality and Acceptance of Leaders

Decision

This model is provided by Vroom and Yetton.

They base their analysis on two aspects of a leader

Decision quality-the effect decisions have on group

performance

Decision acceptance-the motivation and commitment of group

members in implementing the decision.

A third consideration is the amount of time required to make

the decision

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Path-goal theory

House and Dessler worked on this model.

This model is based upon the belief that the individuals motivation is dependent

upon expectations that increased effort to achieve an improved level of

performance will be successful.

The path-goal theory of leadership suggests that the performance of subordinates

is affected by the extent to which the manager satisfies their expectations.

Path-goal theory holds that subordinates will see leadership behaviour as a

motivating influence.

Under this model, House identifies four main types of leadership behaviour

- Directive leadership-giving specific directions and rules to subordinates

- Supportive leadership

- Participative leadership

- Achievement-oriented leadership-setting challenging goals for subordinates

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Maturity of followers

Hersey and Blanchard present this model of leadership based on the

readiness level of the people the leader is attempting to influence

Readiness is the extent to which followers have the ability and willingness

to accomplish a specific task.

Readiness is divided into a continuum of four levels

R1-low follower readiness-refers to followers who are both unable and

unwilling and who lack commitment and motivation

R2-low to moderate follower readiness-followers who are unable but

willing

R3-moderate to high follower readiness-followers who are able but

unwilling

R4-high follower readiness-refers to followers who are both able and

willing and who have the ability and commitment to perform

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Findings of the Fiedler Model

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Task Behaviour and Relationship

Behaviour

For each of the four levels of maturity, the appropriate style of

leadership is a combination of task behaviour and relationship

behaviour

Task behaviour-is the extent to which

leaders provide directions for the actions

of followers

Relationship behaviour-is the extent to

which the leader engages in two-way

communication with followers

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Reflecting back on your experiences of good

leadership.

Was the person you were happy to work for task-

oriented or people-oriented?

Do you think a good leader can be both?

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Task Behaviour and Relationship

Behaviour

Transformational versus Transactional

Leadership

Transactional leadership is based on legitimate authority within the

bureaucratic structure of the organization.

Emphasis is on the clarification of goals and objectives, work tasks and

outcomes, and organizational rewards and punishments

Transformational leadership, by contrast, is a process of

engendering higher levels of motivation and commitment among

followers.

Emphasis is on generating a vision for the organization and the

leaders ability to appeal to higher ideals and values of followers

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Components of Transformational

Leadership

Transformational leaders motivate followers to do more than

originally expected

Four basic components make up transformational leadership

namely:

Idealised influence-the charisma of the leader and the respect

and admiration of the followers

Inspirational motivation-the behaviour of the leader

Intellectual stimulation-leaders who solicit new and novel

approaches for the performance of work

Individualised consideration-leaders who listen and give specific

concern to the growth and developmental needs of the followers

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Guidelines for transformational

leadership

Articulate a clear and appealing vision

Explain how the vision can be attained

Act confident and optimistic

Express confidence in followers

Provide opportunities for early success

Celebrate success

Use dramatic, symbolic actions to emphasize key

values

Lead by example

Empower people to achieve the vision

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Inspirational Leadership

Successful transformational leaders are usually identified in terms

of providing a strong vision and sense of mission in followers

Inspirational leadership today is associated with