Integrated pest management in ornamentals information Diseases within each of these classifications

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Transcript of Integrated pest management in ornamentals information Diseases within each of these classifications

  • Integrated pest management in ornamentals information kit Reprint – information current in 2000

    REPRINT INFORMATION – PLEASE READ! For updated information please call 13 25 23 or visit the website www.deedi.qld.gov.au

    This publication has been reprinted as a digital book without any changes to the content published in 2000. We advise readers to take particular note of the areas most likely to be out-of-date and so requiring further research:

    • Chemical recommendations—check with an agronomist or Infopest www.infopest.qld.gov.au • Financial information—costs and returns listed in this publication are out of date. Please contact an adviser or

    industry body to assist with identifying more current figures. • Varieties—new varieties are likely to be available and some older varieties may no longer be recommended. Check

    with an agronomist, call the Business Information Centre on 13 25 23, visit our website www.deedi.qld.gov.au or contact the industry body.

    • Contacts—many of the contact details may have changed and there could be several new contacts available. The industry organisation may be able to assist you to find the information or services you require.

    • Organisation names—most government agencies referred to in this publication have had name changes. Contact the Business Information Centre on 13 25 23 or the industry organisation to find out the current name and contact details for these agencies.

    • Additional information—many other sources of information are now available for each crop. Contact an agronomist, Business Information Centre on 13 25 23 or the industry organisation for other suggested reading.

    Even with these limitations we believe this information kit provides important and valuable information for intending and existing growers.

    This publication was last revised in 2000. The information is not current and the accuracy of the information cannot be guaranteed by the State of Queensland.

    This information has been made available to assist users to identify issues involved in ornamental horticulture. This information is not to be used or relied upon by users for any purpose which may expose the user or any other person to loss or damage. Users should conduct their own inquiries and rely on their own independent professional advice.

    While every care has been taken in preparing this publication, the State of Queensland accepts no responsibility for decisions or actions taken as a result of any data, information, statement or advice, expressed or implied, contained in this publication.

  • Integrated Pest Management in Ornamentals: Information Guide

    1Know your diseases

    Contents

    DiseasesDiseasesDiseasesDiseasesDiseases Know your

    What can you eWhat can you eWhat can you eWhat can you eWhat can you expect to learn frxpect to learn frxpect to learn frxpect to learn frxpect to learn from this section?om this section?om this section?om this section?om this section? This section deals with the key diseases that you are likely to find in your

    ornamental crops and the complexities of their identification. A key disease is a pathogen that causes severe and regular damage to plants. It may be nationally important, or only locally important. It may be seasonal or all year round.

    There is also a brief description of disease types, including information on how they develop and spread. Methods used to identify diseases are listed.

    Fungi are listed first, then bacteria, viruses and nematodes. Diseases within each of these classifications are listed in alphabetical order. The symptoms, host range, method of dispersal, diagnosis, and methods of monitoring and management of each disease are described.

    The aim of this section is to make you aware of key diseases in your crops, and to offer guidance in diagnosis and management.

    Coloured photographs Coloured photographs Coloured photographs Coloured photographs Coloured photographs of each of these diseases can be found in the companion publication Pests, Diseases, Disorders and Beneficials in Ornamentals: Field Identifi- cation Guide, see Section 10, Further reading page 7.

    Directory of disease species ...............................................................2

    About plant diseases .........................................................................2

    Fungi .................................................................................................3

    Bacteria .............................................................................................4

    Viruses and virus-like organisms ........................................................5

    Phytoplasmas .................................................................................... 6

    Nematodes ........................................................................................7

    Identification methods ......................................................................7

    Disease management .........................................................................9

    Diseases in detail ....................................................................... 11–31

  • Integrated Pest Management in Ornamentals: Information Guide

    2 Know your diseases

    Directory of disease species Fungi Scientific name Page

    Anthracnose Colletotrichum and Glomerella .............................................................. 11

    Black root rot Thielaviopsis basicola (Chalara elegans) ................................................. 12

    Downy mildew Peronospora, Plamsopara, Bremia .......................................................... 13

    Fungal leaf spots and blights Alternaria, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Colletotrichum, Cylindrocladium, Diplocarpon, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Phyllosticta, Septoria .................... 14

    Fungal vascular wilt Fusarium, Verticillium ........................................................................... 15

    Grey mould Botrytis cinerea or Botrytis elliptica ......................................................... 16

    Phytophthora root and collar rot, Phytophthora ......................................................................................... 17 Phytophthora leaf blight

    Powdery mildew Oidium, Oidiopsis, Uncinula, Uncinuliella, ............................................. 19 Erysiphe, Microsphaera, Leveillula, Sphaerotheca

    Pythium root rot Pythium................................................................................................. 20

    Rhizoctonia root and collar rot, Rhizoctonia, Rhizoctonia solani ............................................................... 22 soreshin, leaf blight

    Rust Uromyces, Puccinia, Phragmidium, Coleosporium, Aecidium, Melamsora, Uromycladium .................................................................... 23

    White blister Albugo .................................................................................................. 25

    Bacteria Bacterial leaf spots and blights Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas campestris .................................... 26

    Viruses Spotted wilt Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) .................................................... 28

    Nematodes Nematodes (root-knot and leaf) Meloidogyne, Aphelenchoides ................................................................. 30

    About plant diseases A plant disease can be thought of as any condition within a plant that interferes with normal functioning or development. The plant responds to this interference by producing characteristic symptoms. Plant diseases are generally caused by infectious micro-organisms known as pathogens.

    The occurrence of diseases not only depends on the presence of pathogens but also on environmental conditions and the susceptibility of different plants.

    Unfavourable temperature, nutritional imbalance, pesticide toxicity, vari- etal peculiarities or inappropriate or sudden changes in light intensity can also cause disease symptoms.

  • Integrated Pest Management in Ornamentals: Information Guide

    3Know your diseases

    Types of pathogens causing disease symptoms The four types of pathogens that cause disease symptoms are: • fungi • bacteria • viruses and virus-like organisms • nematodes.

    The specific disease species are shown in the directory.

    Fungi There are over 100 000 recognised species of fungi and of these more than 8000 can cause plant disease. Fungi include macro fungi (for example, those that produce easily seen structures such as mushrooms) and micro fungi (for example, grey mould). Most plant pathogens are micro fungi and can only be seen with a microscope or magnifier because they are 5 to 100 micrometres (µm) long (1 µm = 1/1000 of a millimetre).

    Some fungi grow actively only in the host plant. Others can live for long periods by obtaining nourishment from dead leaves and other plant material, attacking living plants whenever they are available.

    Spread

    SporSporSporSporSpores—the ‘seeds’ of fungies—the ‘seeds’ of fungies—the ‘seeds’ of fungies—the ‘seeds’ of fungies—the ‘seeds’ of fungi

    The most common method of fungal spread from plant to plant is through very small or microscopic spores (which are like the seeds of plants).

    Most spores are blown about in air currents and sometimes reach a plant that they could infect. At any time, the air has many fungal spores floating in it but most never reach a plant that is suitable for their growth. Even if they do, they will not germinate and successfully star