Ingliz tili

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  • 1OZBEKISTON RESPUBLIKASIOLIY VA ORTA MAXSUS TALIM VAZIRLIGI

    ORTA MAXSUS, KASB-HUNAR TALIMI MARKAZIORTA MAXSUS, KASB-HUNAR TALIMINI RIVOJLANTIRISH INSTITUTI

    M. GAPPOROV, R. QOSIMOVA

    INGLIZ TILI GRAMMATIKASI

    Akademik litseylar va kasb-hunar kollejlari uchun oquv qollanma

    Toldirilgan va qayta ishlangan nashr

    TOSHKENTTURON-IQBOL

    2010

  • 2TAQRIZCHILAR:

    I. Ibragimxojayev TDIU 2-son chet tillari kafedrasi mudiri.Sh. Oripov Toshkent sh., xorijiy tillar litseyi direktori.R. Qiyomov Qarshi Davlat universiteti ingliz tili leksikasi va gram-

    matikasi kafedrasi mudiri, dotsent.

    Gapporov M. Ingliz tili grammatikasi. Akademik litseylar va kasb-hunar kollejlari

    uchun oquv qollanma / M. Gapporov; OzR Oliy va orta maxsus talim vazirligi, Orta maxsus, kasb-hunar talimi markazi, Orta maxsus, kasb-hunar talimini rivojlantirish in-ti. T.: Turon-Iqbol nashriyoti, 2010 336 b.

    I. Qosimova, Robiya.BBK 81.2 Angl-2

    Ozbekiston Respublikasining xorijiy fi lologiya, huquqshunoslik, sharq tillari, iqti sod yonalishlarida talim beruvchi akademik litseylari oquvchilariga moljallangan maz kur Ingliz tili grammatikasi qollanmasi hozirgi zamon Buyuk Britaniya, AQSH, Rossiya va Oz bekiston olimlarining tajribalaridan keng foydalanib yaratilgan.

    Qollanmadan akademik litsey va kasb-hunar kollejlari oquvchilaridan tashqari ingliz tilini mustaqil organuvchilar, oliy oquv yurtlariga oqishga kirishga tayyorgarlik korayotganlar va hatto oliy oquv yurtlarining talabalari ham unumli foydalanishlari mum kin.

    TURON-IQBOL nashriyoti, 2006-y. TURON-IQBOL nashriyoti, 2010-y.

    81.2 Angl-2G22

    ISBN 978-9943-14-097-4

  • 3FEL (THE VERB)

    Umumiy malumotlarShaxs yoki narsaning harakati yoki holatini ifodalovchi sozlar fel

    deyiladi. 1. Fellar sodda, yasama va qoshma boladi:a) sodda fellar tarkibida qoshimcha yoki old qoshimcha bol-

    maydi;

    b) yasama fellarning qoshimchasi yoki old qoshimchasi boladi:-en: to widen kengaytirmoq to strengthen kuchaytirmoq-fy: to simplify sod dalashtir moq to signify ifodalamoq, bil dir moq-ize: to mobilize jalb qilmoq to organize tashkil qilmoq-ate: to demonstrate namo yish qilmoq

    un-: to unload yukni tushirmoq to untie yechmoq

    re-: to resell qayta sotmoq to disappear goyib bolmoqto separate ajratmoq dis-: to disarm qurol sizlantir moq

    c) Qoshma fellar ikki sozdan yasaladi: to whitewash oqlamoq to broadcast radioda eshi ttir-

    moq Eng keng tarqalgan qoshma fellar: fel + ravish

    to come in kirmoq to take off yechmoqto go on davom ettirmoq.

    Felning shaxsi malum va shaxsi nomalum shakllari(Finite and non-fi nite forms of the verb)

    Felning shaxsi malum ( Finite Forms), shaxsi nomalum (Non- Finite forms or Verbals) shakllari bor.

    1. Felning shaxsi malum shakllari shaxs, son, mayl, zamon, nisbatni ifodalaydi. Ular gapda doimo yakka ozi kesim bolib keladi:

  • 4She lives in London. U Londonda yashaydi.He is working in the library. U kutubxonada ishlayapti .They were invited to the concert. Ular konsertga taklif qilinishdi.My sister was here in the morning. Mening opam ertalab shu yerda edi.

    Buyruq maylidagi fellar ham felning shaxsi malum shakliga kiradi, chunki u gapda tushirib qoldirilayotgan ega you ning kesimidir:

    Close the window, please.2. Felning shaxsi nomalum shakliga infi nitiv (the Infi nitive) hara-

    kat nomi, gerund (the Gerund) va sifatdosh (the Participle) kiradi. Ularda shaxs, son va mayl yoq va ular gapda mustaqil ravishda kesim bolib kela olmaydi:I have come here to speak to you (infi nitiv gapda maqsad holi).

    Men bu yerga siz bilan gaplash-gani keldim.

    We discussed different methods of teaching foreign languages (gerund aniqlovchi).

    Biz xorijiy tillarni oqitishning tur-li uslublarini muhokama qildik.

    The book lying on the table belongs to Mr. A. (aniqlovchi).

    Stol ustida yotgan kitob Mr. A.ga qarashli.

    Felning asosiy shakllari

    Ingliz tilida felning uchta asosiy shakli bor: infi nitiv (the Infi nitive), oddiy otgan zamondagi shakli (Simple Past) va otgan zamon sifatdoshi shakli (Past Participle). Ular barcha zamon shakllarini yasashda ishla-tiladi.

    Togri va notogri fellar1. Fellar oddiy otgan zamon (Simple Past) va otgan zamon sifat-

    dosh (Past Participle) shakllarining yasalishiga qarab togri va notogri fellarga bolinadi.

    2. Togri fellarning Simple Past va Past Participle shakllari fel oza-giga -ed qoshimchasini qoshish bilan yasaladi.

    Infi nitive Simple Past Past Participleto open to work

    to expect

    opened worked

    expected

    opened worked

    expected 3. Simple Past va Past Participle shakllari -ed qoshimchasini qosh masdan,

    turli yollar bilan yasaladigan fellar notogri fellar deyiladi. Notogri

  • 5fellarning otgan zamon va otgan zamon sifatdoshi shakllarini biz darsliklardagi maxsus jadvallardan yoki lugatdan organamiz.

    Jadvaldagi felning ikkinchi shakli Simple Past shakli, uchinchi shakli esa Past Participle shaklidir.

    Lugatlarda esa notogri fellarning Simple Past va Past Participle shakllari felning asosiy shakli va oqilishidan keyin kichik qavs ( ) ichida berilgan boladi. Kichik qavs ichidagi birinchi shakl felning Simple Past shakli, ikkinchi shakl esa felning Past Participle shaklidir. Agar kichik qavs ichida faqat bitta shakl berilgan bolsa, shu bitta shakl ham Simple Past uchun, ham Past Participle uchun ishlatiladi:

    go [gou] 1. v (went; gone) 1) bormoqsend [send] 1. v (sent) 1) jonatmoq.

    FEL TURLARI

    1. Manosiga va gapdagi vazifasiga kora fellar quyidagi turlarga bo linadi: asosiy fellar, yordamchi fellar, boglovchi fellar va modal fellar.

    2. Asosiy fellar (Notional Verbs) mustaqil manoga ega bolib, gapda yakka ozi sodda kesim bolib keladi:He speaks French. U fransuzcha gapiradi.They returned yesterday. Ular kecha qaytib kelishdi.

    3. Yordamchi fellar (Auxilliary Verbs) mustaqil manoga ega bol-masdan, felning murakkab shakllarini yasashda yordam beradi. Ular-ga quyidagi fellar kiradi: to be, to have, to do, shall (should), will (would):She is working in the garden. U bogda ishlayapti.I have read the book. Men kitobni oqib chiqdim.I do not know it. Men buni bilmayman.He will speak to his friend. U dosti bilan gaplashadi.

    4. Boglovchi fellar (Link Verbs) ot-kesim yasashda boglovchi bolib keladi. Eng kop ishlatiladigan boglovchi fel to be felidir:He is an engineer. U muhandis.The box was heavy. Quti ogir edi.

    5. Modal fellar (Modal Verbs) felning asosiy shakli (infi nitive) bi-lan birga keladi va asosiy fel ifodalagan ish-harakatning sodir bolish im-koniyatini, ehtimolligini, zaruratini, xohishni bildiradi. Ularga can, may, must, ought to, need kiradi. Modal fellar felning asosiy shakli bilan gap- da qoshma fel-kesim bolib keladi:

  • 6He can read German. U nemischa oqiy oladi.I must do it at once. Men buni zudlik bilan qilishim

    kerak.You may come soon. Siz tezda kelishingiz mumkin.You ought to help him. Siz unga yordam berishingiz kerak.You neednt go there. Siz u yerga bormasangiz ham bo-

    ladi.

    Yordamchi fellar (Auxiliary verbs)

    Umumiy malumotlar1. To be, to have, to do, shall (should), will (would) fellari yordam-

    chi (Auxiliary Verbs) fellar deyiladi, chunki ular yordamida felning turli murakkab shakllari yasaladi. Yuqoridagi fellar Simple Present va Sim ple Past zamonlarining bolishli shaklidan tashqari barcha fel zamonlarini yasashda ishlatiladi. Yordamchi fellarning mustaqil manosi bolmaydi, manoni ular bilan birga kelgan asosiy fellar beradi. Ular zamonni, shaxsni, sonni, nisbatni va boshqalarni ifodalashda ishlatiladi:I am reading. Men oqiyapman.They have come. Ular kelishdi.Do you speak English? Siz inglizcha gapirasizmi?He will return soon. U tezda qaytadi.

    2. Bazan to be, to have, shall (should), will (would) fellari modal fel manosida kelib zaruratni, istakni, niyatni ifodalaydi.

    3. Bazan to be bolmoq, to have ega bolmoq, to do qilmoq fella ri manosida asosiy fel bolib ham keladi.

    TO BE FELI

    1. Boshqa fellardan farq qilib to be felining Simple Presentda 1-shaxs birlikda, 3-shaxs birlikda va koplikda alohida-alohida shakllari mav jud: I am, he (she, it) is, we (you, they) are.

    2. To be felining Simple Past zamonda birlik va koplik uchun alohida shakllari mavjud: I (he, she, it) was, we (you, they) were.

    3. Bolishsiz gaplar yasashda to be felining tegishli shaklidan keyin not inkor yuklamasi qoyiladi: I am not, I was not.

    4. Soroq gaplar yasashda to be felining shakli egadan oldinga otka-ziladi: Am I? Was I?

  • 75. To be feli faqat ikkita davom zamonda ishlatiladi: Present Continuous va Past Continuousda va asosan majhul nisbatda: I am being invited, I was being invited.

    6. To be feli Perfect Continuous zamonlarida ishlatilmaydi.7. To be felining bolishsiz buyruq shakli umumiy qoidaga asosan, uning

    oldiga do not (dont)ni qoyish bilan yasaladi: Dont be angry. Achchigingiz kelmasin. Dont be late. Kechikmang.

    8. Ogzaki nutqda Simple Presentning bolishli shaklida odatda quyidagi qisqartirmalar yuz beradi:

    I am =Im We are = wereyou are = youre You are = youreHe is =hes She is = shes It is = its

    They are = theyre

    Simple Present va Simple Past zamonlarda quyidagi qisqartirishlar yuz beradi:

    I am not = Im notHe is not = hes not yoki he isnt She is not = shes not yoki she isntIt is not = its not yoki it isntWe are not = were not yoki we arentYou are not = youre not yoki you arentThey are not = theyre not yoki they arentI (he, she, it) was not = I (he, she, it) wasntWe (you, they) were not = we(you, they) werent9. To be feli yordamchi fel bolib keladi:a) Hozirgi zamon sifatdoshi (Present Participle) bilan birga kelib bar-