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  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Seal of the State of Indiana

    The Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Indiana Today

  • Objectives

    Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    1. Overview of Indiana’s physiography and climate

    2. Introduction to modern biomes

    3. Anthropogenic changes to modern Indiana

    4. Historical view of life and the Earth

    5. Introduction to Earth systems

    6. Course overview

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Physiographic Regions of Indiana, 2002, Indiana Geological Survey. H. H. Gray (Data compiler), Kim Sowder (GIS compiler)

    Modern Physiographic Regions

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Modern Climate

    Indiana (1971-2000)

    Mean annual temperature 10.9° C 51.6° F

    Mean Jan cold -7.9° C 17.7° F

    Mean July warm 29.5°C 85.1° F

    Global

    Mean annual temperature 14.0° C 57.2° F

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Charles Deam Wilderness Area (photo by Richard FIelds from Natural Heritage of Indiana)

    Modern biomes: Deciduous forest

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Wetlands of northern Indiana (photo from Fish Creek Fen in La Porte County by Richard Fields

    from Natural Heritage of Indiana)

    Modern Biomes:

    Flatwoods, or floodplain forests (photo from Versailles State Park in Ripley County by Lee

    Casebere from Natural Heritage of Indiana)

    Cypress swamp, characteristic of far southwestern Indiana (photo from Hovey Lake, Posey County by Russell Mumford from

    Natural Heritage of Indiana)

    Wetlands

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Tallgrass prairie with Indian grass (photo by Marion Jackson from Natural Heritage of Indiana)

    Modern Biomes: Prairie

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    1. Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) 2. Raccoon (Procyon lotor) 3. Long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata) 4. Least weasel (Mustela nivalis) 5. Mink (Mustela vison) 6. Otter (Lontra canadenesis) 7. Striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) 8. Badger (Taxidea taxus) 9. Coyote (Canis latrans) 10. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) 11. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) 12. Bobcat (Lynx rufus) 13. Southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) 14. Gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) 15. Fox squirrel (Sciurus niger) 16. Franklin ground squirrel (Spermophilus franklinii) 17. Thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Spermophilus

    tridecemilineatus) 18. Red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) 19. Eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) 20. Woodchuck (Marmota monax) 21. Beaver (Castor canadensis) 22. Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) 23. Swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus) 24. Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridianus) 25. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiaus)

    (total 58)

    Modern Biota: Mammals (excluding bats, shrews , moles and small rodents)

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Modern Biomes Land Cover map

    Forest 4,343,879 19.5% Wetlands 995,553 4.7% Prairie 1,000 >0.1% Agricultural 15,100,000 70.7% Developed 911,443 4.3%

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Seal of the State of Indiana

    What about the Buffalo? The present is the key to the past...

    ... but the past was different from the present.

    Sir Archibald Geikie (1905, The Founders of Geology)

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Lindsey et al., 1965. Soil relations and distribution map of vegetation of pre- settlement Indiana. Botanical Gazette, 126: 155-163.

    Forest 20,000,000 87.1%

    Wetlands 1,500,000 6.4%

    Prairie 2,000,000 8.5%

    Pre-1800 Biomes Land Cover map

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Early European Settlement in Indiana

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Sycamore in Wabash River bottoms (photo by Robert Ridgway , from Natural Heritage of Indiana)

    Tuliptrees near Vincennes (photo by Robert Ridgway, 1888, from Natural Heritage of Indiana)

    The Deciduous Forests of Indiana

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    J. Heredity, 1915

    The largest deciduous tree in the United States in 1915 American Sycamore, Platanus occidentalis Worthington, Indiana (Greene County)

    45.3 ft in circumference Wabash Lowlands

    Floodplain of West Fork of White River

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Historic mammal species in Indiana

    Mountain lion (Puma concolor)

    Red wolf (Canis rufus)

    Black bear (Ursus americanus) Elk or Wapati (Cervus canadensis)

    American bison (Bison bison) Porcupine (Erithizon dorsatum)

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    1732 1806

    1783

    1838

    1812

    The Buffalo Trace

    Forest bison Bialowieza Forest

    Poland

    from WIlson, G. R. 1919. Early Indiana Trails and Surveys

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    The Buffalo Trace Old bison trail in southern Indiana from Big Bone Lick, Kentucky to western prairies. Indiana’s first road Photo Taken on the northern edge of the Buffalo Trace Park in Palmyra, Harrison County, Indiana. (Wikipedia)

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Clearing of Indiana (1800-1917)

    Cleared land and girdled trees near Wheatland, Knox County. Photo 1885 by Robert Ridgway (from Natural Heritage of

    Indiana).

    1800 20,000,000 87.1%

    1870 6,600,000 28.7%

    1917 1,660,000 7.2%

    2011 4,500,000 19.5%

    Forested acres in Indiana

    Modern Indiana agricultural landscape. (photo by Lee Casebere from Natural Heritage of Indiana).

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Lindsey et al., 1965. Soil relations and distribution map of vegetation of pre- settlement Indiana. Botanical Gazette, 126: 155-163.

    Forest Wetlands Prairie Cleared Urban

    Changes in Land Cover Pre-1800 2001

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Indiana’s extirpation timeline

    87.1% 28.7% 7.2% 19.5% % Forest 5,641 988,416 2,700,000 6,080,485 Population

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Indiana’s extirpated vertebrates

    Mountain lion (Puma concolor)

    Red wolf (Canis rufus)

    Black bear (Ursus americanus)

    Elk or Wapati (Cervus canadensis)

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    American bison (Bison bison)

    Porcupine (Erithizon dorsatum)

    Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    Carolina parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis)

    Globally extinct: 1918

    Passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) Globally extinct: 1900

    Since 1800

    6 actinopterygians 1 squamate 8 birds (two globally extinct) 11 mammals 26 total

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Expansion of mammals in Indiana post-1800

    Coyote (Canis latrans)

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes)

    Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus)

    White tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

  • Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Paleontology and Geology of Indiana

    Geol G-308

    Expansion of mammals in Indiana post-1800

    1972

    1995

    Taulman and