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Yuan Hengli Money Shop, 3 diao 3 strings (diao) payable in value 10 struck copper coins This is an unissued exchange note of Yuan Hengli Money Shop. Top inscription: Printed obviously in the early years of the Republic. Denomination is given as 3 strings payable in "value 10" struck copper coins at the rate "98". The Inscription in green color given at the bottom of the note says "Altogether 147 pc. "value 10" coins" () what exactly fits to the method of the calculation of the cash coins used in Manchuria (). Other denominations (1 diao and 5 diao) are also known for this money shop, I only saw unissued ones.

"This bank opened one or more branches in India during World War II. The Chinese capital was moved to Chungking during the war and the only communication China had to the outside world was through India. U.S. troops and equipment came to China through India, and Chinese troops were trained by Americans in India. The Chinese troops there were paid with Indian silver coins so the Chinese government had to have banking facilities in India."

Is not arabic, but a local sabir melting Chinese and Uighur : Xoten [sometimesy] n n ng-ning hkmi [or sometimes yrlilari] : b tze-ning her bir-tanesi sr. Yan gm bir sri drt yz dn-ga xaildr. Xoten-ga tabi yilerde ala alban xazne a bir sr txir qilmi ldr. Yln din tze qils tldr. X[avec parfois -nci] yili, By order of the President of the Administration Board of Khotan Region : each of these notes worth three liang. One silver liang worth four hundred daen. In the public revenue offices in everywhere in the Khotan dependancies, it should be accepted without delay for taxes and land-taxes and for harvest-taxes. Who makes false notes will be executed . Year X [sometimes, Xth year] . Chinese date is 24th Year (1935). A local issue for use in Khotan District, Sinkiang (Hotian, Xinjiang). Nice conditon with clear inscriptions.

Goods note of Manzhou Guo, GuoBi 50 Yuan, with 5 Fen stamp have 5,10,20,40 cash notes meants only for goods unique banknote issue never issued anywhere Else in the world oods note of Manzhou Guo, GuoBi 50Yuan, with 5Fen stamp is very good! It should have a watermark in the middle.

The Seal reads "Zafar Jang Sapahdar Asif ud Daula Bahadur Syed Muhammad Khan Madar-ul Mulk Amir-ul Mamalik Suleman Iqtadar Fidvi Alamgir Badshah ghazi " The date at the bottom is 1172 AH thus farman is of Alamgir II period

People's Bank of China was established in Shijiazhuang, Hebei on 12/1 1948. The first series of Renminbi (People's Currency) Yuan started to circulate since that day until 5/10 1955. Because the life span of it crossed two historical eras, the first series of RMB has a significant meaning Chinese monetary history. The first series RMB was based on pre-communist local currencies. The unification was a rough process. The local currencies were products of isolated liberated regions. After victory against Japan, every local governments in the liberated region began their work of currency unification. For example, Huazhung liberated region (region around Yangtze River) issued Huazhung's currency, and collect various local currencies with different

values. All other regions employed policies of similar fashion. But before the ultimate completion, the Nationalist-Communist Civil was broke out and the currency unification was forced to suspend. In the summer of 1947, the war was close to final victory, People's Liberation Army with the help from civilians, won some major battles. As the liberated areas in the north, northwest, and the east start to connect one another, trade began to expand. But the regional currencies did no good but confused people and make trading harder. Therefore it was urgent that the currency must be unified. On 10/24 1947, the communist central government founded financial office of Huabei (north, around Yellow River, but not Inner Mongolia) and started to unify the currency. Soon after, Bank of Shansi Chahar & Hopei (Shansi = Shanxi, Hopei = Hebei, Chahar is part of today's Inner Mongolia) stopped issuing their banknote, and Bank Chinan(Hebei South) began the sole banknote issuer in Huabei region. In January 1948, the northwest region stopped using notes issued by Shaanganning Bank(short for Shaanxi, Gansu, and Ningxia), with Northwestern Bank of Farmers (Sibei Nung Min Inhang) banknotes as the replacement. In October, Bank of Peihai in Shandong banknotes and Huabei banknotes circulated concurrently. In November, Bank of Peihai banknotes is the only legal tender in Huabei region. At the end of 1948, the unification in Huabei, Northwest, and Huadong (Shandong) is complete, while Huazhong (central) and Northest remain separated monetary regions. To take it to the next step, the government of Huabei, Shandong, Shaanganning, and Jinxuei decided to merge Bank of Huabei, Bank of Peihai, and Northwestern Bank of Farmers, and formed People's Bank of China (PBC) in Shijiazhuang, Hebei on 12/1 1948. The text of "People's Bank of China" on the first series of RMB is the handwriting of the chairman of Huabei government. The first batch issued was 10 Yuan, 20 Yuan, and 50 Yuan, first circulated in Huabei, Shandong, and Northwest region. Later, 1 Yuan, 5 Yuan, and 100 Yuan, were introduced. Since then all denomination started to spread across the country. After the issuance of RMB, all regional banknotes ceased to be legal tender and must be exchanged at certain rate. The rate was RMB to Bank of Chinan notes, Bank of Peihai notes, Bank of Huazhung notes, and Zhongzhou Bank of Farmers notes = 1:100, RMB to Bank of Shansi Chahar & Hopei notes, Tung Pei Bank of China (Northeast Bank) notes = 1:1000, RMB to Northwestern Bank of Farmers notes and Shaanganning Bank notes = 1:2000. In January 1949, Peiping was liberated (and is renamed back to Beijing), and PBC was moved to Beijing. After the founding of People's Republic of China, PBC had branches in all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipals. At the end of 1951, RMB has become the only legal tender in China except Tibet (Xizang), Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau (As of now, Taiwan Dollar is the only legal tender in Taiwan. Under "One Country Two System", Hong Kong Dollar and Macau Pataca are the only legal tender in Hong Kong and Macau, respectively). In December 1953, there were 12 denominations and 60 different

designs of RMB in total. They are 2 types of 1 Yuan, 4 types of 5 Yuan, 4 types of 10 Yuan, 7 types of 20 Yuan, 6 types of 50 Yuan, 9 types of 100 Yuan, 5 types of 200 Yuan, 6 types of 500 Yuan, 6 types of 1000 Yuan, 5 types of 5000 Yuan, 4 types of 10000 Yuan, and 2 types of 50000 Yuan. Due to technology limitation and unstable environment, the design of the first series RMB does not show much unity. The image includes industry, agriculture, transportation, and historical sites. They were complicated and without main theme. In order to meet the demand, all printing shop were put to use, regardless of their quality.

Soon after, Bank of Shansi Chahar & Hopei (Shansi = Shanxi, Hopei = Hebei, Chahar is part of today's Inner Mongolia) stopped issuing their banknote

Kashghar, 400 Wen,

Wan I Ch'uan Bank 1000 Cash 1911 Wan I Ch'uan Bank 1000 Cash 1911. This bank was located in Tientsin, and is listed in the Smith catalog, Chinese Banknotes, as bank W13. Notes in various dollar denominations are known dated 1904, 1905 and 1908. Most of the known notes are unissued remainders, nicely printed with coin designs. the front design shows through on the back

The Bank of China and later the Central Bank of China, made arrangements with smaller banks in China, in which the small banks removed their notes from circulation and issued instead notes of the Bank of China or the Central Bank. Each of these adopted banks was assigned a different code letter, number or character which was overprinted on the note so the main bank could identify which bank issued it and could control how many notes the small banks issued. It is unclear why some notes, like this one, have two different code overprints (4 in a circle, and the character "ta"). Perhaps the adopted bank also had branches, and the 4 identifies the adopted bank and the character "ta" identifies the adopted bank's branch. On the front of the note, the characters "nan" and "yuan" are private markings, put on by some business or individual. The large round stamps on the back are

also private markings.

the importance on Tiensten in chinese banking? The Answer lies in the status of Tianjin during this very time. (Big Dictionary of the Chinese Historical geographical names) says: ...1930 6 10 1935 In June 1930 change to Tianjin city, attached to House of Administration (, xingzhengyuan, executive yuan, the executive branch of Government under the Constitution of R.O.C., literally House of Administration). Same year in October change to the Hebei provincial capital. In 1935 again change to municipality subordinate to the House

of Administration. Please also refer to #99269 which was issued in 1934 when Tianjin still was the capital of Hebei.

Kghar, paper 400 wen in red qians/din, 20th year ROC (1931) The second language alongside Chinese is not Urdu, just Uighur. If you ever deign to provide an enlarged picture of this note, it will be easier to try a corresponding reading.