INDEX [ ] Abadan, 82, 139 Abassi, Mahmoud, 66 Abba Beileh, xxii, xxiii, 122 Abbas Video. See Akbar,...

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Transcript of INDEX [ ] Abadan, 82, 139 Abassi, Mahmoud, 66 Abba Beileh, xxii, xxiii, 122 Abbas Video. See Akbar,...


    Abadan, 82, 139Abassi, Mahmoud, 66Abba Beileh, xxii, xxiii, 122Abbas Video. See Akbar, Abbas

    Abd-al-RazzaqABCs Nightline, 7, 239Abd-al-Aziz, Ali, 111, 112Abd-al-Qader, Faridoun

    and first Iraqi CW use against PUK, 96and negotiations with Iranian regime,

    9091, 92, 111leading PUK negotiations with Iraqi

    regime, 8889Abd-al-Rahim, Muath, 159Abd-al-Rashid, Maher, 7, 37Aberdeen Proving Ground, 195, 196, 198,

    263n18Abu Abbas, 214Abu Ali, 112Abu Nidal, 233Abu Zeinab, 112Achille Lauro hijacking, 214Afghanistan, 23, 148aflatoxin, 194, 200Aghaei, Taghi, 70Aghjalar, 131Ahl al-Haq, xxiAhmad Awa, 122Ahvaz, 33Akbar, Abbas Abd-al-Razaq, 104105Akoyan valley, 130, 132Al-Amard, 32, 170Alaan region, 88al-Anbari, Abd-al-Amir, 7, 8, 173

    Al-Bakr airbase, 179Albright, Madeleine, 243, 250n3al-Duri, Izzat Ibrahim, 225al-Duri, Sabr, 133, 180, 244al-Fakhri, Hisham, 7, 37al-Gailani, Yaser, 158, 167, 177, 187, 188Ali, Kosrat Rasoul, 114, 129, 135al-Khazraji, Nizar, 160, 179

    acknowledging Iraqi role in Halabjagassing, 179

    Allawi, Iyad, 159al-Majid, Ali Hassan

    and fate of Anfalakan, 134, 135Ali Hassan al-Majid

    standing trial for Anfal campaign,244

    and Halabja gassing, 178, 179appointment of, 13, 93issuing key orders in June 1987, 99ordering chemical strikes, 180overseeing 1987 counterinsurgency

    campaign, 93101, 108threatening Kurdish doctors, 189

    al-Naqib, Jawdat Mustafa, 178179Al-Qaeda, 242Al-Qurna, 32Al-Rashid hospital, 159al-Saeidy, Abd-al-Wahhab, 25, 66, 142,

    145, 159al-Samarrai, Wafiq

    and alleged VX use, 141and Arabization in Kirkuk, 134as interlocutor with DIA, 78as security advisor to Talabani, 180


    Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-87686-5 - A Poisonous Affair: America, Iraq, and the Gassing of HalabjaJoost R. HiltermannIndexMore information

  • 294 Index

    al-Samarrai, Wafiq (cont.)aspiring to lead opposition to Saddam,

    180denying role in Anfal killings, 133mum on Anfal, 179, 180not standing trial for Anfal, 244on special strikes, 99, 176on alleged Iranian CW use, 157on authority to order CW attacks, 180on fate of Anfalakan, 134on Halabja attack, 180on US satellite intelligence, 42questioning Iranian CW capability,

    179180relations with Saddam Hussein of, 180relationship with PUK of, 133role at Military Intelligence of, 133, 180

    al-Zubeida, Muhammad Hamza, 93Amadiya, 100Amin, Jamal Aziz, 189, 225Amin, Latif, 189Amin, Neywshirwan Mustafa, 89, 92, 106,

    121Amn, xxii, 93, 98, 112Amn Qawmi, 169amyl nitrite, 67, 197Anab, xxiv, 118, 121, 122Andropov, Yuri, 58Anfal campaign, 31

    amnesty at end of, 133, 137, 190, 207,210, 214, 265n5

    and destruction of rural Kurdistan, 245as Ali Hassan al-Majids brainchild, 95as counterinsurgency operation, xivas genocide, xiv, 17, 135, 205, 213, 227,

    243as killing campaign, xiv, 99, 132, 133as logical conclusion to Arabization in

    Kirkuk, 134CW use during, xxiii, 11, 14, 16, 17,

    129135, 173, 208, 209, 210, 224,240

    final stage of, 130, 133, 136, 199, 206,207, 208, 214

    fueling Kurdish quest for independence,226227

    glorified in Iraqi media, 18, 129, 135,136, 207

    in Aghjalar area, 132

    in Germian, 130, 131, 133, 246in new Iraqi constitution, 226in Qaradagh, 130, 131, 173in Smaquli, Balisan, and Akoyan

    valleys, 130, 132longterm impact of, 227Military Intelligence role in, 180role of jahsh in, 108, 136Saddam Husseins rationale for, 133similarities to Barzanis massacre of, 31start of, 128survivors from killing grounds of, xiv,

    xxv, 246trials of perptrators of, 244US knowledge of, 135138victims of, 132135, 225

    Anfalakan. See Anfal campaign, victims ofAnnan, Kofi, 58Anraat, Frans van, 62Ansar al-Islam, xxi, xxii, 255n1anthrax, 222Aqaba, 49Aqaba pipeline project, 50Arab Gulf states, 64, 107, 148, 234

    protected by Iraq from Iran, 219threatened by CW proliferation, 229threatened by Iran, 43

    Arab League, 216Arabization, 134, 243Arbat, 102Armitage, Richard, 79, 184, 218, 239arsenic gas, 164Arvand river, 23, 70, 139Ashkohol mountain, 121Askar, 131, 132, 209Aslani, Jafer, xvii, 71, 142Aspin, Les, 75atropine, 3, 34, 35, 71, 120, 131, 132, 140,

    142, 170, 197, 238Aun Shirikyo, 223Australia, 53Australia Group, 212, 229Aziz, Tariq, 48, 56

    accusing Iran of CW use, 10, 174admitting Iraqi CW use, 14, 75, 219alleging that Iran used CW first, 261n55and loss of Halabja, 173at White House ceremony (1984), 55denouncing the UN, 73, 126

    Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-87686-5 - A Poisonous Affair: America, Iraq, and the Gassing of HalabjaJoost R. HiltermannIndexMore information

  • Index 295

    denying Halabja accusation, 9denying Iraqi CW use against Kurds,

    219meeting with Rumsfeld, 49, 52negotiating with PUK, 89pledging compliance with the Geneva

    Protocol, 209protesting CW allegations, 166suffering politically from IranContra

    affair, 77threatening chemical weapons use, 9warning against US policy on Iraqi CW

    use, 54warning of Iraqs breakup, 236

    Azmar, 95

    Baath party in Halabja, xxiiBaath partys Northern Bureau, 93, 96Baath regime, seizing power (1968), 86Baban, Heresh, 188Badinan, 87, 88, 97, 130, 132, 134, 206,

    209, 235Badr Corps

    fighting at Faw (1988), 140fighting at Haj Omran (1983), 29fighting in Badr offensive (1985), 65role in Halabja liberation of, xxii, 112,


    CW casualties in hospitals in, 10, 159,166, 174175

    Iranian air raids on, 65struck by Iranian Scud missiles, 80, 82,

    107threatened by flood waters, 7

    BaghdadBasra highway, 32, 37, 65Baghyatollah hospital, xviiBakhtaran, 98Balad airbase, 177Balagjar, 130, 131, 174Balambo mountain, xxii, 115, 117, 118,

    124Balisan valley, 97, 98, 130, 188, 189,

    209Bandar Khomeini, 50Baneh, 83, 98, 143, 164Barzan, 86, 87Barzani revolt, collapse of (1975), 31Barzani, Idris, 29

    Barzani, Masoudand Anfal, 136as KDP leader, 29as president of Kurdish region, 114labeled offspring of treason, 107reported to be included in amnesty, 207succeeding his father, 29, 87

    Barzani, Mustafa, 86as father of Kurdish national movement,

    8687as leader of 1970s revolt, 21, 29, 207death in exile of (1979), 207facing leadership challenge, 87in cahoots with Shah of Iran, 107

    Barzanis1983 disappearances of, 31, 138massacre of, in new Iraqi constitution,

    226rivalry with Bradostis of, 29, 32, 88

    Barzinji, Jafar, 189Barzinji, Mahmoud, 86Basiji volunteers, 105, 109

    and Halabja operation, 123fighting at Faw (1986), 70fighting in Badr offensive, 65participating in human wave attacks,


    as Iranian war objective, 25, 46, 69, 80,109, 234

    battles in proximity of, 28, 166, 170CW casualties in hospitals in, 166Iranian artillery attack on, 65oil installations of, 90struck by Iranian Scud missiles, 80

    Bayanjan, 163, 164Bayes, Miqdad, 91bin Laden, Osama, 104binary chemical weapons, 221biological agent, suspected attack during

    Khaybar operation with, 34biological weapons, 15, 17, 152Biological Weapons Convention (1972),

    230Biyara, 116, 124, 191Biyari, Ali, 112blowback problem. See Iraqi chemical

    casualties, from Iraqs own CW useBoleh, 191

    Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-87686-5 - A Poisonous Affair: America, Iraq, and the Gassing of HalabjaJoost R. HiltermannIndexMore information

  • 296 Index

    Boteh, 132botulinum, 222Bradosti tribe, 29, 30, 31, 88Bradosti, Karim Khan, 29Brezhnev, Leonid, 23, 148Bubiyan, 63, 217Burck, Gordon, 197Bush I administration

    and National Security DecisionDirective 26, 217

    reaction to Kuwait invasion of, 222receiving advice from Shultz, 218relations with Iraqi regime of, 217threatening nuclear response in Gulf

    War, 222, 242Bush II administration

    and war in Iraq (2003), xxiv, 223, 244canceling US signature to Rome treaty,

    244gutting multilateral engagement, 244

    Bush, George H. W., 201, 217, 220Bush, George W., 16, 56

    and Iraqi CW use against Kurds, 183announcing WMD find in Iraq, 224

    Camp David accords, 41, 42, 232Carlucci, Frank, 79, 184Carter, Jimmy, 41Carus, Seth

    and cyanide claim, 198as authority on Iraqi CW use, 161Congressional testimony on Iraqi CW

    alpha, 237on difficulty of using hydrogen cyanide,

    198on Iraqi and Iranian CW use, 161on Iranian WMD strategy, 231on US knowledge of Iraqi CW program,

    239CBSs 60 Minutes, 243Central Intelligence Agency

    alleged to be pro-Kurdish, 202alleging Iranian CW use, 161162and evidence of Iraqi WMD programs,

    183and IranContra affair, 76aware of developments in Kurdistan,

    100, 137aware of Iraqi CW use, 235, 238

    believing Curveball data on IraqiWMD programs, 183

    daily intelligence reports of, 203dissenting from 1990 Pentagon study,

    202Foreign Broadcast Information Service

    of, 136, 207monitoring war of the cities, 144on CW as force multiplier, 13on cyanide as key ingredient of tabun,

    198on decreasing effectiveness of Iraqi CW

    use, 236on importance of Iraqi CW use to

    world, 215on Iranian aim to capture

    Darbandikhan dam, 108on Iranian missile attacks on Baghdad,

    107on Iranian war strategy, 107on Iraqs blowback problem, 167on Iraqs problem with leaking CW

    munitions, 169on Khomeini, 139on limitations of Geneva Protocol,

    216on role of CW in ending IranIraq war,

    145on routine nature of Iraqi CW use, 181on sca