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  • Impacts of Avian Influenza outbreaks on indigenous chicken genetic resources in

    Thailand

    Monchai Duangjinda, Kreingkrai Choprakarn, Surachai Suwanlee, Panrapee Amnueysit

    &

    Olaf Thieme

    GCP/RAS/228/GER Working Paper No. 13

  • Impacts of Avian Influenza outbreaks on indigenous chicken genetic resources in Thailand 1

    CONTENTS TABLES............................................................................................................................. 1 FIGURES........................................................................................................................... 2 ABBREVIATIONS .............................................................................................................. 2 PREFACE...........................................................................................................................3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...................................................................................................... 4 BACKGROUND .................................................................................................................. 5 Objectives of the study .......................................................................................................5 SITE SELECTION AND DATA SURVEY ................................................................................ 7 Site selection.....................................................................................................................7 Training for data collection ..................................................................................................8 Data survey ......................................................................................................................8 General information............................................................................................................9 Impact of AI outbreak.........................................................................................................9 HOUSEHOLD DATA ANALYSIS......................................................................................... 14 Reasons for raising Thai indigenous chickens........................................................................ 14 Chicken rearing and parental restocking after AI outbreaks .................................................... 15 Change of management after AI......................................................................................... 16 CHICKEN DATA ANALYSIS .............................................................................................. 17 Diversity of Thai indigenous strains before and after the AI outbreaks...................................... 17 Diversity of back feather colour, shank colour, and comb of Thai Indigenous chicken ................. 20 Mature weight prediction ................................................................................................... 24 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................................................... 25 LITERATURE ................................................................................................................... 25 Appendix I: Survey Activities ............................................................................................. 26 Appendix II: ViewS of Surveyed Villages.............................................................................. 29 Appendix III: Questionnaires ............................................................................................. 31

    TABLES Table 1 Number of districts, villages and households surveyed and chickens recorded and

    photographed...............................................................................................................7 Table 2 Information about the surveyed villages in Phitsanulok province (I)..............................10 Table 3 Information about the surveyed villages in Phitsanulok province (II).............................11 Table 4 Information about the surveyed villages in Nakhon Phanom province............................12 Table 5 Information about the surveyed villages in Suphan Buri and Nakon Pathom provinces.....13 Table 6 Reason to raise Thai indigenous chicken in three regions of Thailand (percentage of

    respondents) .............................................................................................................14 Table 7 First priority to raise Thai indigenous chicken in three regions of Thailand (percentage of

    respondents) .............................................................................................................14 Table 8 Flock size and methods of restocking for Thai indigenous chickens ...............................15 Table 9 Main criteria for selecting parent stock .....................................................................16 Table 10 Management changes for Thai indigenous chicken after AI outbreak (Percentage of

    respondents) .............................................................................................................17

  • 2 Impacts of Avian Influenza outbreaks on indigenous chicken genetic resources in Thailand

    Table 11 Diversity of Thai indigenous chicken rooster strains before and after the AI outbreaks ...19 Table 12 Current diversity of back feather colour in Thai indigenous chickens............................21 Table 13 Current diversity of shank colour in Thai indigenous chickens.....................................21 Table 14 Current diversity of comb type in Thai indigenous chickens........................................22 Table 15 Average mature weight of different types of Thai indigenous roosters .........................24

    FIGURES Figure 1 Total number of chicken farms reporting mortality (a), confirmed infections (b) and

    suspicion of infections(c) with H5N1 during 2004-2008 ......................................................6 Figure 2 Total numbers of Thai Indigenous chicken farms and households reporting mortality (a),

    confirmed infections (b) and suspicion of infections (c) with H5N1during 2004-2008...............6 Figure 3 Location of survey sites and selected farms ...............................................................8 Figure 4 Thai indigenous chicken varieties classified by feather colour......................................20 Figure 5 Shank colours in Thai indigenous chicken. ...............................................................23 Figure 6 Comb types in Thai indigenous chicken . .................................................................23 Figure 7 Mature weight prediction of Thai indigenous rooster ..................................................25

    ABBREVIATIONS AI Avian Influenza

    Bht Thai Baht, 1 US Dollar (USD) ≈ 39.9 Thai Baht

    FAO Food and Agriculture Organization

    HPAI High Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Rai 1 Rai = 1600 m²

    Recommended Citation

    FAO. 2009. Impacts of Avian Influenza outbreaks on indigenous chicken genetic resources in Thailand. Prepared by Monchai Duangjinda, Kreingkrai Choprakarn, Surachai Suwanlee, Panrapee Amnueysit and O. Thieme. GCP/RAS/228/GER Working Paper No. 13. Rome.

  • Impacts of Avian Influenza outbreaks on indigenous chicken genetic resources in Thailand 3

    PREFACE The preparation of this report was part of the activities for the FAO project “Future prospects for the contribution of village poultry production to food security in developing Asian economies” (GCP/RAS/228/GER) that was funded by the “Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ)”. The production systems of small poultry producers show a significant variety from very low input systems with scavenging birds to those with improved genetic resources, supplementary feeding and animal health interventions. In many countries the exact type of poultry used in the small production systems is presently not well understood. Investigating how local birds are affected by disease outbreaks will help to understand potential specific characteristics of the genetic resources. A good understanding of the production systems of small poultry producers including their priorities and constraints is also required to design and implement appropriate control strategies for the small poultry producers. This will help to achieve cooperation and proper involvement of small farmers in disease prevention and control programmes. It will also assist Governments to make appropriate plans for designing and implementing their disease control strategies. The present report summarizes information about the chicken production systems in three regions of Thailand. It is based on field investigations with selected producers in these districts. We hope it will provide accurate and useful information to its readers and any feedback is welcome by the authors and the Animal Production Service (AGAP)1 of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

    Disclaimer

    The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of