HOW PERCEPTIONS OF BEAUTY AND OTHER ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL LIFE CAN COMBINE TO FORM AN ASCRIBED STATUS...

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Transcript of HOW PERCEPTIONS OF BEAUTY AND OTHER ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL LIFE CAN COMBINE TO FORM AN ASCRIBED STATUS...

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HOW PERCEPTIONS OF BEAUTY AND OTHER ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL LIFE CAN COMBINE TO FORM AN ASCRIBED STATUS WHICH LIMITS MOBILITY Slide 2 Slide 3 Slide 4 Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 7 Slide 8 MATRIARCHY SOCIAL DOMINANCE BY WOMEN SEXISM BELIEF THAT ONE SEX OR THE OTHER IS INNATELY INFERIOR OR SUPERIOR UNTOLD LOSSES WHEN CONSIDERING HOW MUCH TALENT HAS BEEN LOCKED OUT INEVITABILITY OF PATRIARCHY IS BIOLOGY DESTINY? SHOULD WOMEN RULE? MARGARET MEADS RESEARCH THE RULE OF FATHERS A FORM OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION IN WHICH MALES DOMINATE FEMALES Slide 9 THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS AND GENDER WHAT IS FEMININE AND MASCULINE? HOW DO WE ACQUIRE SUCH DISTINCTIONS? Slide 10 SOCIALIZATION AND GENDER The Israeli Kibbutz A small community where all work is theoretically shared equally Margaret Mead Gender conceptions vary in New Guinea; Arapesh, Mundugumor and the Tchambuli. George Murdock General role assignment when studying 200 pre-industrial societies, but much variety beyond this. Slide 11 THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS AND GENDER WHAT IS FEMININE AND MASCULINE? Talcott Parsons page 347 Complemetary set of roles: Men are socialized for the labor force, to be rational, self- assured, and competitive. Instrumental qualities Women are socialized for child rearing and raising the family, stressing emotional responsiveness and sensitivity to others. Expressive qualities Slide 12 IT STARTS IN THE FAMILY SELECTIVE ABORTION SOCIAL VALUE AND DEATH IS IT A BOY OR GIRL? COLOR-CODING GENDER HANDLING OF CHILDREN BE A GOOD LITTLE MAN ITS OK TO BE A TOM-BOY WHY WOULDNT A GIRL WANT TO BE A BOY? BUT, WHAT IF A BOY ACTS TOO MUCH LIKE A GIRL? Slide 13 PEER GROUPS USE NORMATIVE CONCEPTIONS OF GENDER PRESSURES TO TAKE PART IN BEHAVIORS THAT ARE NORMATIVE TO AGE AND GENDER PLAYING GAMES BOYS AND VICTORY TEAM SPORTS TEACHES COMPETITION, RULES, WINNING GIRLS AND COOPERATIVE GAMING GAMES TEACH INTERPERSONAL SKILLS AND THE VALUE OF SHARING AND COOPERATION Slide 14 THE MEDIA WHITE MALES HAVE CENTER STAGE MINORITIES OF ALL KINDS MINIMIZED Still? WOMEN RECEIVE ROLES BASED ON SEX APPEAL THE BEAUTY MYTH EATING DISORDERS EMOTIONAL STRESS IDEAL IMAGING Slide 15 ALMOST 60% OF ALL WOMEN WORK OUTSIDE OF THE HOME ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT AND SERVICE SECTOR JOBS MAKE UP THE TYPE OF WORK DONE BY ONE-HALF OF ALL WORKING WOMEN MANY WOMEN RETURN HOME FROM WORK TO BEGIN THEIR SECOND SHIFT ON AVERAGE, WOMEN EARN 71 CENTS FOR EVERY DOLLAR EARNED BY MEN (1992) LARGELY DUE TO TYPE OF WORK DONE CORPORATE WOMEN AND THE GLASS CEILING RECENTLY, 20% OF RICHEST AMERICANS IDENTIFIED BY FORBES WERE WOMEN Slide 16 Slide 17 Slide 18 Gender and Violence Forcible rape - each year, 2-3 of every 1000 females over age 12 are raped in the U.S. Violence in the Home- women are the typical victims of family violence. Women in the Criminal Justice System - women are much less likely to kill, but when they do, judges are much more likely to give lenient sentences. Slide 19 Slide 20 GIVEN THE ECONOMIC REALITIES, WOMEN CERTAINLY CAN QUALIFY AT ALL LEVELS IN THE CLASS SYSTEM, WOMEN HAVE: LESS INCOME LESS WEALTH LESS EDUCATION, AND LESS POWER THAN MEN PATRIARCHY PROVIDES WOMEN WITH A DIMINISHED SOCIAL STANDING Intersection theory- page 342 IN WHAT WAYS MIGHT AMERICAN TRADITIONS CLOAK WOMEN IN A SHROUD OF LIMITATIONS? Slide 21 FEMINISM IN AMERICA ITS MOST BASIC PRINCIPLES IMPORTANCE OF CHANGE IT IS CRITICAL EXPANSION OF HUMAN CHOICE NO RESTRICTIONS ON POTENTIAL NO GENDER STRATIFICATION EQUALITY UNDER THE LAW ENDING SEXUAL VIOLENCE DISTORTS RELATIONSHIPS SEXUAL AUTONOMY CONTROL OVER REPRODUCTION Slide 22 LIBERAL FEMINISM HUMANITARIAN-LIKE THINKING SOCIALIST FEMINISM BELIEF IN SOCIALIST REVOLUTION RADICAL FEMINISM ELIMINATE IDEA OF GENDER EGALITARIAN, GENDER-FREE REVOLUTION OPPOSITION TO FEMINISM MOST IS DIRECTED TOWARD SOCIALIST AND RADICAL FEMINIST GROUPS GENERALLY, MEN DO NOT WANT TO GIVE UP THEIR STATUS. WHO REALLY WOULD? Slide 23 Figure 13.1 Mens and Womens Athletic Performance Slide 24 Applying Theory Gender