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DESIGN OF MAXIMUM ENERGY RECOVERY  NETWORKS

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7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

DESIGN OF MAXIMUMENERGY RECOVERY

NETWORKS

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

MER NETWORKS

• Networks featuring minimum utility usageare called MAXIMUM ENERGY

RECOVERY (MER) Networks.

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

DIVISION AT THE PINCH

RECALL THAT

• No heat is transferred through the pinch.

• This makes the region above the pinch a

HEAT SINK region and the region belowthe pinch a HEAT SOURCE region.

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

Pinch

Minimum

heating utility

Minimum

cooling utilityHeat Source

Heat is released to

cooling utility

Heat Sink

Heat is obtained from

the heating utility

7.5

12.0

14.0

0.0

-6.0

1.0

-4.0

4.0

3.0

9.0

-2.0

-2.0

14.0

1.5

10.0

T

H

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

CONCLUSION

• One can analyze the two systems separately,

that is,

• Heat exchangers will not contain heattransfer across the pinch.

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

PINCH MATCHES• Consider two streams above the pinch

Q/FCpH > Q/FCpC

T p- ∆TminTC,outQ

TH,inT p

TC,out= T p- ∆Tmin + Q/FCpC

TH,in= T p+Q/FCpH

But TH,in> TC,out+ ∆Tmin.

Thus replacing one obtains

FCpH <FCpCGolden rule for pinch

matches above the pinch.

∆Tmin Violation when FCpH >FCpC∆Tmin

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

EXERCISE

• A similar rule is obtained below the pinch. Derive it

and illustrate it.

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

T p- ∆Tmin

TC,inQ

T p

TC,in= T p- ∆Tmin - Q/FCpC

TH,out= T p-Q/FCpH

But TH,out> TC,in + ∆Tmin.

Thus replacing one obtains

FCpC <FCpHGolden rule for pinchmatches below the pinch.

∆Tmin∆Tmin

Violation when FCpC >FCpH

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

CONCLUSION

• Since matches at the pinch need to satisfy these rules,one should start locating these matches first. Thus, our first design rule:

START BY MAKING PINCH

MATCHES

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QUESTION

• Once a match has been selected how much heat should be exchanged?

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

ANSWER • As much as possible!

• This means that one of the streams has its dutysatisfied!!

THIS IS CALLLED THE

TICK-OFF RULE

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

HANDS ON EXERCISE

Stream Type Supply T Target T ∆H F*Cp

(oC) (oC) (MW) (MW oC-1)

Reactor 1 feed Cold 20 180 32.0 0.2

Reactor 1 product Hot 250 40 -31.5 0.15

Reactor 2 feed Cold 140 230 27.0 0.3

Reactor 1 product Hot 200 80 -30.0 0.25

T=140 0C

T=20 0C

∆H=27 MW

REACTOR 2

∆H=-30 MW

∆H=32 MW

REACTOR 1

∆H=-31.5 MW

T=230 0C

T=180 0CT=250 0C T=40 0C

T=200 0CT=80 0C

∆Tmin=10 oC PINCH=150 oC

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

HANDS ON EXERCISE

Stream Type Supply T Target T ∆H F*Cp

(oC) (oC) (MW) (MW oC-1)

Reactor 1 feed Cold 20 180 32.0 0.2

Reactor 1 product Hot 250 40 -31.5 0.15

Reactor 2 feed Cold 140 230 27.0 0.3

Reactor 1 product Hot 200 80 -30.0 0.25

∆Tmin=10 oC PINCH=150 oC

200 0C

20 0C

40 0C

180 0C

250 0CH1

H2

C2

C1

230 0C

FCp=0.15

FCp=0.25

FCp=0.2

FCp=0.3

140 0C

80 0C

150 0C

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ABOVE THE PINCH

• Which matches are possible?

200 0C

180 0C

250 0CH1

H2

C2

C1

230 0C

FCp=0.15

FCp=0.25

FCp=0.2

FCp=0.3

140 0C

150 0C

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

2000

C

180 0C

250 0CH1

H2

C2

C1

230 0C

FCp=0.15

FCp=0.25

FCp=0.2

FCp=0.3140 0C

150 0C

• The rule is that FCpH <FCpC . We therefore can onlymake the match H1-C1 and H2-C2.

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

• The tick-off rule says that a maximum of 8 MW is exchangedin the match H1-C1 and as a result stream C1 reaches its targettemperature.

• Similarly 12.5 MW are exchanged in the other match and thestream H2 reaches the pinch temperature.

200 0C

180 0C

203.3 0CH1

H2

C2

C1

181.7 0C

FCp=0.15

FCp=0.25

FCp=0.2

FCp=0.3

140 0C

150 0C

8

12.5

230 0C

250 0C

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

BELOW THE PINCH

• Which matches are possible?

20 0C

40 0CH

1

H2

C1

FCp=0.15

FCp=0.25

FCp=0.2 140 0C

80 0C

150 0C

The rule is that FCpC <FCp H . Thus, we can

only make the match H2-C1

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

• The tick-off rule says that a maximum of 17.5 MW isexchanged in the match H2-C1 and as a result stream H2reaches its target temperature.

52.5 0C

40 0CH1

H2

C1

FCp=0.15

FCp=0.25

FCp=0.2 140 0C

80 0C

150 0C

17.5

20 0C

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COMPLETE NETWORK AFTER PINCH MATCHES

• Streams with unfulfilled targets are colored.

200 0C

180 0C

203.3 0CH1

H2

C2

181.7 0C

FCp=0.15

FCp=0.25

FCp=0.2

FCp=0.3

140 0C

8

12.5

52.5 0C C1

140 0C

80 0C

150 0C

17.5

250 0C

230 0C

20 0C

40 0C

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

WHAT TO DO NEXT?

• Away from the pinch, there is more flexibility to make

matches, so the inequalities do not have to hold.

• The pinch design method leaves you now on your own!!!!!

• Therefore, use your judgment as of what matches to select!!

2000

C

180 0C

203.3 0CH1

H2

C2

181.7 0C

FCp=0.15

FCp=0.25

FCp=0.2

FCp=0.3

140 0C

8

12.5

52.5 0C C1

140 0C

800

C

150 0C

17.5

250 0C

230 0C

20 0C

40 0C

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• We first note that we will use heating above the pinch. Thusall hot streams need to reach their inlet temperature. We are

then forced to look for a match for H1. Please locate it.

200 0C

180 0C

203.3 0CH

1

H2

C2

181.7 0C

FCp=0.15

FCp=0.25

FCp=0.2

FCp=0.3

140 0C

8

12.5

52.5 0C C1

140 0C

80 0C

150 0C

17.5

250 0C

230 0C

20 0C

40 0C

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

140 0C

• The match is H1-C1. We finally put a heater on the

cold stream

200 0C

180 0C

H1

H2

C2

230 0C

FCp=0.15

FCp=0.25

FCp=0.2

FCp=0.38

12.5

52.5 0C C1

140 0C

80 0C

150 0C

17.5

77.5

H

250 0C

200

C

40 0C

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

ANSWER • Below the pinch we try to have the cold streams start at

their inlet temperatures and we later locate coolers (one in

this case).

140 0C

200 0C

180 0C

H1

H2

C2

230 0C

FCp=0.15

FCp=0.25

FCp=0.2

FCp=0.38

12.5

20 0C C1

140 0C

80 0C

150 0C

17.5

77.5

H6.5

C

10

40 0C250 0C

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

DISCUSSION

• State what are your objections to the pinch design

method, so far!!

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

THESE ARE MINE

• It seems to imply building expertise• It does not seem to guarantee that one will always

obtain a good result.

• What if there are unequal number of streams at the pinch?

• What if the inequalities are not satisfied at the

pinch?

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

GENERAL FORMULA FOR UNIT TARGETING

Nmin= (S-P)above pinch+ (S-P) below pinch

If we do not consider two separate problems, above

and below the pinch we can get misleading results.

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

EXAMPLE

Nmin= (S-P)above pinch+ (S-P) below pinch =

=(5-1) + (4-1) = 7

If we do not consider two separate problems

Nmin= (6-1)= 5, which is wrong

Note: A heat exchanger network with 5 exchangers exists, but it is impractical andcostly. This is beyond the scope of this course.

140 0C

200 0C

180 0C

H1

H2

C2

230 0C

FCp=0.15

FCp=0.25

FCp=0.2

FCp=0.38

12.5

20 0C C1

140 0C

80 0C

150 0C

17.5

77.5

H6.5

C

10

250 0C 40 0C

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

UNEQUAL NUMBER OFSTREAMS AT THE PINCH

Above the pinch, we notice the following rule

SH≤SC

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

UNEQUAL NUMBER OF

STREAMS AT THE PINCH

Indeed, if the number of hot streams is larger than the

number of cold streams, then no pinch matches are possible.

C2

C1

H1

H2

H3

Assume the matches H1-C1 and

the matches H2-C2 have beenselected. Since H3 needs to go to

the pinch temperature, there is no

cold stream left to match, even if

there is portions of C1 or C2 that

are left for matching. Suchmatching would be infeasible.

150 OC 100 OCFCp=0.15

FCp=0.25

FCp=0.2

FCp=0.4

FCp=0.1

90 OC

7.5

140 OC

10

Target=170 OC127.5 OC

122.5 OCTarget=140 OC

130 OC

What is then, the solution?

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

Split cold stream until the inequality is satisfied.

Notice that different combinations of flowrates in the split

satisfy the inequality.

C2

C1

H1

H2

H3

150O

C100 OC

FCp=0.15

FCp=0.25

FCp=0.2

FCp=0.25

FCp=0.1

90 OC

7.5

140 OC

10

Target=170 OC127.5 OC

130 OCTarget=140 OC

130 OC

FCp=0.15 110 OC

3

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

UNEQUAL NUMBER OFSTREAMS AT THE PINCH

A similar rule can be discussed below the pinch,

that is,

SH≥SC

and similar splitting of hot streams may benecessary.

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

INEQUALITY NOTSATISFIED

Consider the following case:

C2

C1

H1

150 OC 100 OCFCp=0.5

FCp=0.2

FCp=0.4

90 OCTarget=170 OC

Target=140 OC

Suggest a solution.

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

C2

C1

H1 150O

C 100O

CFCp=0.2

FCp=0.2

FCp=0.4

90 OC

15

Target=170 OC

Target=140 OC

FCp=0.3

10

140 OC

127.5 OC

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

SOLVE THE FOLLOWING

PROBLEM

Below the Pinch :

C1

H2

H1

100 OCFCp=0.5

FCp=0.3

FCp=0.790 OC

Target=40 OC

Target=20 OC

30 OC

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

Below the Pinch :

30

C1

H2

H1

100 OCFCp=0.5

FCp=0.3

FCp=0.590 OC

Target=40 OC

Target=20 OC

30 OC

FCp=0.2

12

40 OC

60 OC

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

COMPLETE PROCEDUREABOVE THE PINCH

Start

SH≤SC

Split Cold

Stream

FCpH≤FCpC

at pinch?

Place

matchesSplit Hot

Stream

YesYes

NoNo

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

COMPLETE PROCEDUREBELOW THE PINCH

SH≥SC

Split Hot

Stream

FCpH≥ FCpC

at pinch?

Split Cold

Stream

Start

Place

matches

YesYes

No No

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

HANDS ON EXERCISEType Supply T Target T F*Cp

(oC) (oC) (MW oC-1)

Hot 750 350 0.045

Hot 550 250 0.04

Cold 300 900 0.043

Cold 200 550 0.02

∆Tmin=50 oC

Minimum Heating Utility= 9.2 MW

Minimum Cooling Utility= 6.4 MW

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf

750 0C

900 0C

H1

H2

C2

FCp=0.045

FCp=0.04

FCp=0.043

FCp=0.02

500 0C

8

C1

250 0C

61

9.2

300 0C

8.6

0.4

550 0C

550 0C

6

3500

C

200 0C

FCp=0.04

686.05 0C 400 0C

358.89 0C

7/27/2019 HEN Design.pdf