Guglielmi No

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Dr. Lucy M.Guglielmino- lguglielmino@rocketmail.comDr. Paul J. Guglielmino- guglielmino@rocketmail.com772 429-2425

Quick Facts about theSelf-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS)

TheSDLRSis also known as theLearning Preference Assessment (LPA)to avoid response bias.

TheSDLRS/LPAis the most widely used assessment in the field of self-directed learning ( Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007). It is a self-report instrument that was developed by Dr. Lucy M. Guglielmino to measure the complex of attitudes, abilities, and characteristics that comprise readiness to engage in self-directed learning.

Fourteen authorities in the area of self-directed learning participated in a Delphi study to identify the characteristics that the instrument is designed to measure . Among the experts were Malcolm Knowles, Cyril Houle, and Allen Tough.

TheSDLRS/LPAhas been used by more than 500 major organizations around the world. More than 120,000 adults and 5,000 children have taken the instrument, and more than 95 doctoral dissertations have been completed using the SDLRS. The adult form of the instrument has been translated into Spanish, Japanese, Chinese, Korean, German, Finnish, Greek, Portuguese, Italian, Malaysian, Indonesian, Dutch, Polish, Russian, Turkish, Lithuanian, Latvian, Farsi , Arabic, Thai, Nepali, and Afrikaans.

For further information, click the links on the left.

What is theSelf-Directed Learning Readiness Scale?

TheSDLRSis a self-report questionnaire with Likert-type items developed by Dr. Lucy M. Guglielmino in l977. It is designed to measure the complex of attitudes, skills, and characteristics that comprise an individual's current level of readiness to manage his or her own learning.Since its initial development, theSelf-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS)also known as theLearning Preference Assessment, (LPA)has been used widely. TheSDLRS-Ahas been used by more than 500 major organizations around the world. The instrument has been translated into Spanish (Castilian, Columbian, and Cuban), French, German, Italian, Korean, Malay, Chinese, Japanese, Finnish, Greek, Portuguese, Afrikaans, Russian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Farsi, Dutch, Polish and Turkish. More than 70,000 adults and 5,000 children have taken theSDLRS/LPA. It has been used in numerous research studies, including more than 90 doctoral dissertations.McCune (1987/88), after examining 67 studies of self-direction in learning done between 1977 and 1987, determined that theSDLRSwas by far the most frequently used instrument. Similarly, Long and Redding (1991) indicated that, of the dissertations done on the topic of self-direction in learning between 1966 and 1991, 43 (27%) . . . were based on theSDLRS." Based on numerous literature reviews, theSDLRS/LPAhas for some time been the most valid and widely used quantitative instrument in the study of self-directed learning. Overviews of research using the instrument can be found in Brockett and Hiemstra (1991), Merriam and Caffarella (1999, 2007), and Delahaye and Choy (2000).Brockett (1985b) cites theSDLRSas a stimulus for research, identifying three major streams of research in self-direction in learning, with the second major stream focusing on "the relationship between self-directedness and a range of psychosocial variables." He concludes that "theSDLRShas helped to move self-directed learning research beyond description toward a greater understanding of the relationship between self directedness and certain personological variables" (p. 56). Long (1991) has asserted, in fact, that the availability of theSDLRShas led to an increase in research in this area. "It is likely," he contends, " that the greatest boost to the study of self-directed learning was provided by Lucy Guglielmino's [SDLRS]." ( p. 12).The adult form of the questionnaire (SDLRS-AorLearning Preference Assessment) has 58 items. Respondents are asked to read a statement and then indicate the degree to which that statement accurately describes their own attitudes, beliefs, actions or skills. TheSDLRS/LPAis available in a research version (for which scoring is done by Guglielmino & Associates) and a self-scoring version. There is also an elementary form, theSDLRS-E, and an ABE version (SDLRS-ABE). All three forms can be accessed online or can be ordered in paper format. All forms of theSDLRSandLPAare copyrighted, and may not be used without permission or purchase.

How was theSDLRSdeveloped?

The Delphi SurveyIn order to determine the content of theSDLRS, a three-round Delphi survey of authorities on self-direction was done. Of the 20 persons asked to participate in the survey, 14 agreed. The participants were: Drs. Herbert A. Alf, B. Frank Brown, Edward G. Buffie, Arthur W. Chickering, Patricia M. Coolican,Gerald T. Gleason, Winslow R. Hatch, Cyril O. Houle (first two rounds only), Malcolm S. Knowles, Wilbert J. McKeachie, Barry R. Morstain, Mary M. Thompson, Allen Tough, and Morris Weitman.The Delphi survey involved the listing and rating of characteristics which the authorities considered important for self-direction in learning, including attitudes, abilities, and personality characteristics. Characteristics emerging from the Delphi survey with a median rating ofdesirable,necessary, oressentialfor self-direction in learning were used as a basis for the construction of items for theSDLRS. A detailed description of the Delphi process and of the original developmental work on theSelf-Directed Learning Readiness Scaleis described in Dr. Guglielmino's dissertation:

Guglielmino, L. M. (1978). Development of theSelf-Directed Learning Readiness Scale. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, 1977).Dissertation Abstracts International, 38, 6467A.

Three pertinent quotes from the dissertation are listed below.Assumptions Framing Guglielmino's Delphi StudyThe following statement was sent to the Delphi panel as an introduction to the first questionnaire in the Delphi process:

It is the author's assumption that self-direction in learning exists along a continuum; it is present in each person to some degree. In addition, it is assumed that self-direction in learning can occur in a wide variety of situations, ranging from a teacher-directed classroom to self-planned and self-conducted learning projects. Although certain learning situations are more conducive to self-direction in learning than are others, it is the personal characteristics of the learner-including his [or her] attitudes, his [or her] values, and his [or her] abilities-which ultimately determine whether self-directed learning will take place in a given learning situation. The self-directed learner more often chooses or influences the learning objectives, activities, resources, priorities, and levels of energy expenditure than does the other-directed learner. (Guglielmino, 1977/78, p.34)The question asked of the Delphi panel was:What do you judge to be the characteristics of the highly self-directing learner which are the most closely related to his [or her] self-directed learning behavior? Personality characteristics, attitudes, values, and abilities of the self-directing learner might be included, as well as any other factor you feel is important. (Guglielmino, 1977/78, p.93)

Description of the Highly Self-Directed Learner Derived from the Delphi ProcessThis description was derived from the most highly-rated items on the Delphi survey after the third round. Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner (2007) note that the characteristics continue to provide "the most-used operational definition". (p.121)

A highly self-directed learner, based on the survey results, is one who exhibits initiative, independence, and persistence in learning; one who accepts responsibility for his or her own learning and views problems as challenges, not obstacles; one who is capable of self-discipline and has a high degree of curiosity; one who has a strong desire to learn or change and is self-confident; one who is able to use basic study skills, organize his or her time and set an appropriate pace for learning, and to develop a plan for completing work; one who enjoys learning and has a tendency to be goal-oriented. (Guglielmino, 1977/78, p.73)

The Initial TryoutAfter the items were constructed, reviewed, and revised, the instrument was administered to 307 subjects in Georgia, Canada and Virginia. Item analysis data were used to select items for revision and to estimate the parameters of the test. A reliability of .87 was estimated.The SDLRS was subsequently expanded to 58 items. All the validity studies conducted have used the 58 item scale. Based on a 1988 compilation of 3151 respondents to theSDLRS, the Pearson split-half reliability estimate is .94. Reference:

McCune, S.K., Guglielmino, L. M. & Garcia, G. (1990). Adult self-direction in learning: A preliminary meta-analytic investigation of research using theSelf-Directed Learning Readiness Scale. In Long, H.B. & Associates,Advances in self-directed learning research. Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

What information is available on the validity and reliability of theSDLRS/LPA?

Based on a population of 3,151 individuals from the United States and Canada, a split-half Pearson product moment correlation with a Spearman-Brown correction produced a reliability coefficient of .94 (Guglielmino & Guglielmino, 1991). Most published studies on populations over twenty years old report similar reliability figures that fall within a range of .72 - .96. In addition to internal reliability estimates, Finestone (1984) and Wiley (1981) reported test-retest reliability coefficients of .82 and .79 respectively.Although there have been some criticisms of theSDLRS, (Brockett, 1987; Field, 1989; Str