GTZ Proklima Natural Refrigerants

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natural refrigerants, carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrocarbons

Transcript of GTZ Proklima Natural Refrigerants

Proklima International

PROKLIMANatural RefrigerantsSustainable Ozone- and Climate-Friendly Alternatives to HCFCs

Proklima International

Natural RefrigerantsSustainable Ozone- and Climate-Friendly Alternatives to HCFCs

Published by: Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH German Technical Cooperation Programme Proklima Dag-Hammarskjld-Weg 1-5 65760 Eschborn, Germany Internet: Name of sector project: GTZ Proklima - a programme to save the ozone layer Contact person at the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ): Georg vom Kolke German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) Environment and Sustainable Use of Natural Resources Division Bonn, Germany Editors: Dr. Volkmar Hasse (Programme Manager) GTZ Proklima Private Bag 18004 Klein Windhoek, Namibia Phone: +264 61 273 501 Linda Ederberg (Contact Person) GTZ Proklima c/o HEAT GmbH Zum Talblick 2 61479 Glashtten, Germany Phone: +49 6174 964575 Dr. Daniel Colbourne (Technical Advice) Re-phridge PO Box 4745, Stratford-upon-Avon Warwickshire CV37 1FE, UK Phone: +44 (0)1789 268285 Design: pukka design, Frankfurt Print: Druckerei Hassmller, Frankfurt Eschborn, July 2008

PROKLIMA is a programme of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ). Commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) PROKLIMA has been providing technical and financial support for developing countries since 1996 to implement the provisions of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

Natural RefrigerantsSustainable Ozone- and Climate-Friendly Alternatives to HCFCsIntroduction Dr. Volkmar Hasse, GTZ Proklima, Germany Preface Volkmar Hasse, GTZ Proklima 1

II. Safety of Natural RefrigerantsSafety rules for the application of hydrocarbon refrigerants Daniel Colbourne, Re-phridge, UK Jse M. Corbern, Universidad Politcnica de Valencia, Instituto de Ingeniera Energtica, Spain Ammonia and its reputation as refrigerant Anders Lindborg, Ammonia Partnership AB, Sweden Safety of CO2 in large refrigeration systems Samer Sawalha, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden Safety of appliances using hydrocarbon refrigerants Daniel Colbourne, Re-phridge, UK Safe plantrooms for large hydrocarbon chillers Amir Tadros, Connell Wagner Pty Ltd, Australia Ian Maclaine-cross and Eddie Leonardi, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, UNSW, Australia

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I. Policy / Legislation on F-Gases and AlternativesTwo environmental frameworks One goal The Montreal Protocol and the Kyoto Protocol Michael Mller, Parliamentary State Secretary, Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conversation and Nuclear Safety, Germany Success and future challenges of the Montreal Protocol Jason Anderson, Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP), Belgium Aspects involved in the replacement of fluorocarbon to low GWP refrigerants Jrgen Usinger, GTZ Proklima, Germany Lambert Kuijpers, UNEP Technology and Economic Assessment Panel Co-Chair Modernising refrigeration equipment with the Kyoto Protocols Clean Development Mechanism Thomas Grammig, GTZ Proklima, Germany Protecting the ozone layer and the climate from halogenated substances Measures in the European Union Katja Becken, Federal Environment Agency, Germany

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III. Assessment of Natural Refrigerants in Different ApplicationsOpportunities for the application of natural refrigerants Daniel Colbourne, Re-phridge, UK

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Application of ammonia heat pump systems for heating and cooling in non-residential buildings Jrn Stene, SINTEF Energy Research, Norway Overview and outlook for the application of CO2 in heat pumps Ren Rieberer, Graz University of Technology, Institute of Thermal Engineering, Austria Jrn Stene and Petter Neks, SINTEF Energy Research, Norway Trends and perspectives in supermarket refrigeration Michael Kauffeld, Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Environmental Engineering, Germany Assessment of re-fitting supermarkets with indirect systems for Article 5 Countries Daniel Colbourne, Re-phridge, UK






Use of hydrocarbons as working fluids in heat pumps and refrigeration equipment Jse M. Corbern, Universidad Politcnica de Valencia, Instituto de Ingeniera Energtica, Spain Conversion of various HCFC-22 systems to hydrocarbon Aryadi Suwono, Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia Experimental assessment of HC-290 as a substitute to HCFC-22 in a window air conditioner Atul S. Padalkar, Sinhgad College of Engineering, India Sukumar Devotta, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, India


Refrigeration systems for warm climates using only CO2 as a working fluid Sergio Girotto, Enex S.r.l., Italy Silivia Minetto, Universit degli Studi di Padova, Italy The first CO2 supermarket plant in New Zealand Alexander Cohr Pachai, Johnson Controls, Denmark Natural refrigerants in dairy processing, supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning Karin Jahn, Eurammon, Germany Water chillers with ammonia for building services Andy Pearson, Star Refrigeration Ltd., UK







IV. Market Developments and Case StudiesThe quality of natural refrigerants The importance of specifying high purity products Veronica Shiels and Barry Lyons, BOC, UK Phase out of R22 and then what? Alexander Cohr Pachai, Johnson Controls, Denmark Capacity control of refrigeration systems with screw compressors and economizer Dieter Mosemann and Dmytro Zaystev, Grasso GmbH Refrigeration Technology, Germany Propane as an alternative to R22 for small refrigeration systems at high ambient temperatures Heinz Jrgensen, Danfoss Compressors GmbH, Germany Design criteria for CO2 evaporators Roland Handschuh, Gntner AG, Germany Environmentally friendly refrigeration in the retail trade Refrigerant R22 soon to be a thing of the past future ecological alternative can be CO2 Reiner Tillner-Roth, Epta Group, Germany

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Green ice cream cabinets Unilevers move from HCFCs to HCs Alan Gerrard, Unilever Ltd., UK Application of hydrocarbon refrigerants in existing large systems Ladas Taylor, Energy Resources Group, Australia Jackson Ong, Nat-Energy Resources, Singapore Developing a product range for climate- and ozone-friendly technologies Nick Cox, Earthcare Products Ltd., UK






Annex261 List of contributors Further help section Index Acronyms and Abbreviations 222 Glossary

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PrefaceDR. VOLKMAR HASSE, GTZ Proklima

AcknowledgementsForemost, we thank all the authors for contributing with articles and case studies to our publication on natural refrigerants as alternatives to HCFCs. Furthermore, we would like to thank the following experts who helped to compile the publication and who provided valuable information and amendments to the draft version: Winfried Schwarz, ko-Recherche and Rolf Hhren, independent consultant. Volkmar Hasse, Linda Ederberg and Daniel Colbourne

It is now common knowledge that the Montreal Protocol in its effort to phase out the use of ozone depleting substances, especially CFCs, also alleviated the growing climate problem significantly. Some say the world was given a grace period of 10 years in which to react to the potentially cataclysmic effects of climate change. It could have been done even better if a big chance presenting itself in the mid 1990s would have been taken instead of being missed. At that time there was for example an opportunity to convert the household refrigeration technology directly from CFCs to hydrocarbons, which have no adverse effects on the ozone layer and the climate, and which were already well known and available at that time. German hydrocarbon based Greenfreeze technology (the name given by Greenpeace) using hydrocarbons as refrigerant and also to produce the insulation foam was transferred first to the Chinese refrigerator manufacturer Haier in a partnership between the US-Environmental Protection Agency, the German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development through GTZ-Proklima and Greenpeace. Soon afterwards the Swiss-Indo-German ECOFRIG project introduced this technology to the Indian refrigerator company Godrej. Unfortunately, these conversions never became a trend outside Europe, mainly due to misinformation about the alleged dangers of natural refrigerants. This continues to this day and at this juncture, just after the adjustment of the Montreal Protocol to achieve an early phase out of HCFCs, the last major group of ozone depleting substances with high global warming potential, we might miss another opportunity unless we are watchful. Haier and Godrej continued and increased their production of hydrocarbon based refrigerators which have a superior performance. Several other companies followed suit. Fortunately, some manufacturers, while mainly producing equipment based on HCFC and HFC refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential, still persisted to use and improve natural refrigerant technology. Carefully avoiding the noise of deliberate and unjustified bad publicity, a small but significant number of local and international companies decided quietly to adopt the concept of natural refrigerants anyway. They convinced themselves that the technology is not only better, from a physical and environmental point of view, but that the issue of safety, by all reasonable interpretations1

of this term, need not be