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English›Japanese Version 英語 - 日本語版 International Scientific Committee for Stone (ISCS). 国際石造物専門委員会(ISCS) CRACK & DEFORMATION ひび 変形 DETACHMENT 剥離 FEATURES INDUCED BY MATERIAL LOSS 物質的喪失によって引き起こされる劣化 DISCOLOURATION & DEPOSIT 変色 付着堆積物 BIOLOGICAL COLONIZATION 生物着生 ILLUSTRATED GLOSSARY ON STONE DETERIORATION PATTERNS 石材劣化パターンの図版用語集 ILLUSTRATED GLOSSARY ON STONE DETERIORATION PATTERNS / 石材劣化パターンの図版用語集 MONUMENTS AND SITES XV MONUMENTS AND SITES Published so far : Australia, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Canada, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Hungary, India, Israel, Jamaica, Japan, Russia, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Zimbabwe (18 vols.), Colombo 1996 (out of print) Monuments and Sites: Japan, 2012 NEW SERIES : I International Charters for Conservation and Restoration, Munich 2001, second edition Munich 2004 II Catharina Bl nsdorf, Munich 2001 III Wu Yongqi / Zhang Tinghao / Michael Petzet / Erwin Emmerling / Catharina Bl ns dorf (eds.), The Polychromy of Antique Sculptures and the Terracotta Army of the First Chinese Emperor, Munich 2001 IV Dirk B hler, Puebla Patrimonio de Arquitectura Civil del Virreinato, Munich 2001 V ICOMOS›CIAV, Vernacular Architecture, Munich 2002 VI Helmut Becker / J rg W. E. Fassbinder, Magnetic Prospecting in Archaeological Sites, Munich 2001 VII Manfred Schuller, Building Archaeology, Munich 2002 VIII Susan Barr / Paul Chaplin (eds.), Cultural Heritage in the Arctic and the Antarc tic Regions, Llrenskog 2004 IX La Representatividad en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial El Patrimonio Cultural y Natural de IberoamØrica, CanadÆ y Estados Unidos, Santiago de QuerØtaro 2004 X ICOMOS›CIIC, Encuentro Cient fico Internacional sobre Itinerarios Culturales, Ferrol 2005 XI The Venice Charter 1964 2004 2044, Budapest 2005 XII The World Heritage List: Filling the Gaps an Action Plan for the Future, compi led by Jukka Jokilehto, with contributions from Henry Cleere, Susan Denyer and Michael Petzet, Munich 2005 XIII Francisco J. L pez Morales (ed.), New Views on Authenticity and Integrity in the World Heritage of the Americas, San Miguel de Allende 2005 XIV Encuentro Cient fico Internacional sobre Ciudades Hist ricas Iberoamericanas, Cuenca 2005 XV ICOMOS›ISCS, Illustrated Glossary on Stone Deterioration Patterns / Glossaire illustrØ sur les formes d altØration de la pierre, compiled by VØronique VergLs›Bel min, with contributions from Tamara Anson Cartwright, Elsa Bourguignon, Philip pe Bromblet et al., Paris 2008 Deutsche Ausgabe: Petersberg 2010 XVI The World Heritage List: What is OUV Defining the Outstanding Universal Value of Cultural World Heritage Properties, compiled by Jukka Jokilehto, with contribu tions from Christina Cameron, Michel Parent and Michael Petzet, Berlin 2008 XVII Susan Barr / Paul Chaplin (eds.), Historical Polar Bases Preservation and Ma nagement, Llrenskog 2008 XVIII Gudrun Wolfschmidt (ed.), Cultural Heritage of Astronomical Observatories From Classical Astronomy to Modern Astrophysics, Berlin 2009 XIX Michael Petzet (ed.), Safeguarding the Remains of the Bamiyan Buddhas, Berlin 2009 Icomos_Glossar_japanese-english(20150207)face:Glossaire Icomos couv#95FF4.qxd 2/7/2015 2:04 PM ページ 1
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Transcript of Glossaire Icomos couv#95FF4iscs.icomos.org/pdf-files/Japanese_glossary.pdf · About ICOMOS The...

  • EnglishJapanese Version -

    International Scientific Committee for Stone (ISCS). (ISCS)

    CRACK & DEFORMATION

    DETACHMENT

    FEATURES INDUCED BY MATERIAL LOSS

    DISCOLOURATION & DEPOSIT

    BIOLOGICAL COLONIZATION

    ILLUSTRATED GLOSSARY ON STONE DETERIORATION PATTERNS

    ILLUSTRATED GLOSSARY ON STONE DETERIORATION PATTERNS /

    MONUMENTSANDSITES XV

    MONUMENTS AND SITES

    Published so far :Australia, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Canada, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic,Egypt, Hungary, India, Israel, Jamaica, Japan, Russia, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Zimbabwe(18 vols.), Colombo 1996 (out of print)

    Monuments and Sites: Japan, 2012

    NEW SERIES :

    I International Charters for Conservation and Restoration, Munich 2001, second edition Munich 2004

    II Catharina Blnsdorf, Munich 2001III Wu Yongqi / Zhang Tinghao / Michael Petzet / Erwin Emmerling / Catharina Blns

    dorf (eds.), The Polychromy of Antique Sculptures and the Terracotta Army of the First Chinese Emperor, Munich 2001

    IV Dirk Bhler, Puebla Patrimonio de Arquitectura Civil del Virreinato, Munich 2001V ICOMOSCIAV, Vernacular Architecture, Munich 2002VI Helmut Becker / Jrg W. E. Fassbinder, Magnetic Prospecting in Archaeological

    Sites, Munich 2001VII Manfred Schuller, Building Archaeology, Munich 2002VIII Susan Barr / Paul Chaplin (eds.), Cultural Heritage in the Arctic and the Antarc

    tic Regions, Lrenskog 2004IX La Representatividad en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial El Patrimonio Cultural

    y Natural de Iberoamrica, Canad y Estados Unidos, Santiago de Quertaro 2004X ICOMOSCIIC, Encuentro Cientfico Internacional sobre Itinerarios Culturales,

    Ferrol 2005XI The Venice Charter 1964 2004 2044, Budapest 2005XII The World Heritage List: Filling the Gaps an Action Plan for the Future, compi

    led by Jukka Jokilehto, with contributions from Henry Cleere, Susan Denyer and Michael Petzet, Munich 2005

    XIII Francisco J. Lpez Morales (ed.), New Views on Authenticity and Integrity in the World Heritage of the Americas, San Miguel de Allende 2005

    XIV Encuentro Cientfico Internacional sobre Ciudades Histricas Iberoamericanas, Cuenca 2005

    XV ICOMOSISCS, Illustrated Glossary on Stone Deterioration Patterns / Glossaire illustr sur les formes daltration de la pierre, compiled by Vronique VergsBelmin, with contributions from Tamara Anson Cartwright, Elsa Bourguignon, Philippe Bromblet et al., Paris 2008Deutsche Ausgabe: Petersberg 2010

    XVI The World Heritage List: What is OUV Defining the Outstanding Universal Value of Cultural World Heritage Properties, compiled by Jukka Jokilehto, with contributions from Christina Cameron, Michel Parent and Michael Petzet, Berlin 2008

    XVII Susan Barr / Paul Chaplin (eds.), Historical Polar Bases Preservation and Management, Lrenskog 2008

    XVIII Gudrun Wolfschmidt (ed.), Cultural Heritage of Astronomical Observatories From Classical Astronomy to Modern Astrophysics, Berlin 2009

    XIX Michael Petzet (ed.), Safeguarding the Remains of the Bamiyan Buddhas, Berlin 2009

    Icomos_Glossar_japanese-english(20150207)face:Glossaire Icomos couv#95FF4.qxd 2/7/2015 2:04 PM 1

  • About ICOMOS

    The International Council on Monumentsand Sites (ICOMOS) was founded in1965 at Warsaw (Poland), one year afterthe signature of the International Charteron the Conservation and Restoration ofMonuments and Sites, known as the "Venice Charter".

    ICOMOS is an association of over 9000cultural heritage professionals present inover 120 countries throughout the world,working for the conservation and protection of monuments and sites the onlyglobal nongovernment organisation ofits kind.

    It benefits from the crossdisciplinary exchange of its members architects, archaeologists, geologists, art historians,engineers, historians, planners, who foster improved heritage conservation standards and techniques for all forms of cultural properties: buildings, historictowns, cultural landscapes, archaeological sites, etc.

    ICOMOS is officially recognized as an advisory body to UNESCO, actively contributing to the World Heritage Committeeand taking part in the implementation ofthe World Heritage Convention. It alsoruns 28 specialised International Scientific Committees on a variety of subjects.

    The ICOMOS International Secretariatand its specialized Documentation Centreare located in Paris (France) for furtherinformation consult our web site.

    ICOMOS International Secretariat4951, rue de la Fdration

    75015 Paris, France

    Tel: +33 (0)1 45 67 67 70Fax: +33 (0)1 45 66 06 22

    email : [email protected]://www.international.icomos.org

    ()""1965

    1209000

    28

    Web

    Icomos_Glossar_japanese-english(20150207)face:Glossaire Icomos couv#95FF4.qxd 2/7/2015 2:04 PM 2

  • I n t e r n a t I o n a l C o u n C I l o n M o n u M e n t s

    a n d s I t e s

    ICoMos IsCs

    english-Japanese Version /

    Illustrated glossary on stone deterIoratIon patterns

    MonuMentsandsItes XV

  • ContrIbutors/beItrge Von : tamara anson Cartwright, Ministry of Culture, toronto, Canada; elsa bourguignon,Conservation scientist, France; Philippe bromblet, CICrP, Marseille, France; Jo annCassar, Institute for Masonry and Construction research, Msida, Malta; a. elenaCharola, university of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, usa; eddy de Witte, KIK-IrPa,brussels, belgium; Jose delgado-rodrigues, lneC, lisbon, Portugal; Vasco Fassina,sPas-Veneto, Venice, Italy; bernd Fitzner, rWtH, aachen, germany; laurent Fortier,lrMH, Champs-sur-Marne, France; Christoph Franzen, IdK, dresden, germany; Jos-Maria garcia de Miguel, esM uPM, Madrid, spain; ewan Hyslop, british geologicalsurvey, edinburgh, uK; Marie Klingspor-rotstein, skanska, stockholm, sweden; danielKwiatkowski, skanska, stockholm, sweden; Wolfgang e. Krumbein, ICbM, oldenburg,germany; roger-alexandre lefvre, university Paris XII, Crteil, France; IngvalMaxwell, Historic scotland, edinburgh, uK; andrew McMillan, british geological survey,edinburgh, uK; dagmar Michoinova, nIPCMs, Prague, Czech republic, tadaterunishiura, Kokushikan university, tokyo, Japan; Kyle normandin, Wiss, Janney elstnerassociates Inc., new York, new York, usa; andreas Queisser, ePFl, lausanne,suisse; Isabelle Pallot-Frossard, lrMH, Champs-sur-Marne, France; Vasu poshyanan-dana, office of national Museums bangkok, thailand; george W. scherer, Princetonuniversity, usa; stefan simon, rathgen-Forschungslabor, staatliche Museen zu berlin,germany; rolf snethlage, bayerisches landesamt fr denkmalpflege, Munich,germany; Francis tourneur, Pierres et Marbres de Wallonie, namur, belgium; Jean-Marc Vallet, CICrP, Marseille, France; rob Van Hees, tno, delft, netherland; MyrsiniVarti-Matarangas, IgMe, athens, greece; Vronique Vergs-belmin, lrMH, Champs-sur-Marne, France; tomas Warscheid, MPa, bremen, germany; Kati Winterhalter,architect, Helsinki, Finland; david Young, Heritage consultant, Campbell, australia.

    translation and editing of the Japanese version of the following team has made.leader:takeshi Ishizaki (national research Institute for Cultural Properties,toKYo)sub leader:namiko Yamauchi (Japan Cultural Heritage Consultancy)Member:Masahiko tomoda, Masayuki Morii (nrICPt), tesoku Chang (tohokuuniversity of art & design), Yasushi akazawa (Japan Cultural HeritageConsultancy), soichiro Wakiya (nara national Institute for Cultural Properties),tadateru nishiura (Kokushikan university)sub member: Yoko taniguchi (university of tsukuba), Keigo Koizumi (osakauniversity), Masazo takami (Hokkaido research organization), Mayuko Chiba,tonhi Paku (Waseda university), Juni sasaki (nrICPt)

    edition/Coordination: : ICoMos IsCs, Vronique Vergs-belminlayout/gestaltung: : nadine guyon

    Monuments and sites edited by ICoMosoffice:International secretariat of ICoMos, 4951 rue de la Fdration, F 75015Paris

  • the ICoMos International scientificCommittee for stone (IsCs) is providing aforum for the interchange of experience, ideas,and knowledge in the field of stone conserva-tion. IsCs aims at facilitating the publication,dissemination and presentation of state of theart reviews on pre-identified issues.simplification and demystification of scientificinformation for practitioners are also part of themain goals of the group.In studies on stone deterioration and conserva-tion, terminological confusions lead to majorcommunication problems between scientists,conservators and practitioners. In this context, itis of primary importance to set up a commonlanguage; if degradation patterns can beshown, named and described, then they can berecognised and compared with similar ones in amore accurate way in further investigations.the IsCs glossary constitutes an important toolfor scientific discussions on decay phenomenaand processes. It is also an excellent basis fortutorials on stone deterioration. It is based onthe careful examination of pre-existing glossa-ries of english terms. It does not aim at repla-cing these glossaries, often set up originally ina language other than english, and for most ofthem done to a high standard.now that we are able to present the Japaneseedition of vol. XV of the Monuments and sitesseries led by tadateru nishiura (IsCs Japan),we would like to congratulate, as was alreadydone in the pre face to the english-French edi-tion of 2008, the International scientificCommittee for stone and its former PresidentVronique Vergs-belmin on the results of thejoint work, and we wish to thank especially ourcolleague stefan simon for initiating theJapanese translation.stone conservation is a crucial topic in monu-ment conservation and many of our nationalCommittees all over the world hope for adviceand help from the specialists familiar with tradi-tional and modern methods of conservation. the Illustrated glossary on stone deteriorationPatterns offers a wide range of suggestions andpractical advice. We hope that, after theenglish-French , the english-german andenglish-Japanese versions the glossary willalso be translated into other languages. In viewof the accelerating decay of our stone monu-ments worldwide this is an exemplary contribu-tion which will promote the international coope-ration so important in this field.

    gustavo araoz, President of ICoMos

    IsCsIsCs

    IsCs

    IsCsvol.15IsCsVronique Verges-belmin2008stefan simonIsCs

    -

    Prof. dr. gustavo araoz

    PreFaCe

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 11

  • CraCK & deForMatIon & CraCK . deForMatIon . >

    Contents .

    Fracture .

    star crack .

    Hair crack .

    Craquele .

    splitting .

    exfoliation .

    detaCHMent blIsterIng . burstIng . delaMInatIon . >

    Features InduCedbY MaterIal loss

    alVeolIzatIon . erosIon . MeCHanICal daMage .

    differential erosion .

    loss of components .

    loss of matrix .

    rounding .

    roughening .

    Coving . Impact damage .

    Cut .

    scratch .

    abrasion .

    Keying .

    >

    Colouration .

    bleaching .

    Moist area .

    staining .

    black crust .

    salt crust .

    Concretion .

    dIsColouratIon& dePosIt &

    Crust .

    dePosIt .

    dIsColouratIon .

    eFFloresCenCe .>

    enCrustatIon .

    FIlM .

    bIologICalColonIzatIon

    bIologICal ColonIzatIon . alga . >

    10page

    12page

    14page

    28page

    44page

    46page

    48page

    50page

    42page

    64page

    66page

    30page

    32page

    16page

    18page

    reFerenCes .

    baCKground glossarIes .

    IndeX .

    6page

    76page

    78page

    general terMs alteratIon . daMage . deCaY . >

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    glossarY oVerVIeW . 4page

    2

  • dIsIntegratIon .

    Crumbling .

    granular disintegration .

    splintering .

    Chipping .

    Flaking .

    Contour scaling .

    exfoliation .

    FragMentatIon . PeelIng . sCalIng .

    Powdering, Chalking . sanding . sugaring .

    spalling .

    delaMInatIon .

    MICroKarst .

    gap .

    MIssIng Part .

    PerForatIon . PIttIng .

    Concretion .

    enCrustatIon .

    FIlM .

    glossY asPeCt.

    graFFItI .

    PatIna .

    soIlIng .

    subFloresCenCe .

    Moss . lICHen . Mould . Plant .

    Iron rich patina .

    oxalate patina .

    50page

    52page

    54page

    56page

    58page

    60page

    62page

    68page

    70page

    72page

    74page

    34page

    36page

    38page

    40page

    20page

    22page

    24page

    26page

    degradatIon . deterIoratIon . WeatHerIng . page

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    ICoMos-IsCs: Illustrated glossary on stone deterioration Patterns.

    8

    3

  • the fifth document is a detailed contribution byb. Fitzner, K. Heinrichs & r. Kownatzki (1995),on classification and mapping of weatheringforms, which was updated in 2002 by Fitzner &Heinrichs. this document presents as well defi-nitions of terms which are found in a slight ly al-tered form in the present glossary, as an intro-duction into the mapping of stone damages. thethoroughly illustrated document classifies decaypatterns on the basis of type and intensity. a co-lour and graphic chart is proposed, in the sameway as the one which can be found in the Italianstandard normal 1/88.the sixth document (Franke et al. 1998) is amultiauth ored book published as a deliverable ofa FP5 european Commission research program.the document is an atlas and a classification ofbrick masonry deterioration. It deals both withdeterioration of the material (bricks, joint andpointing mortars), and with degradation of thewhole masonry. It was developed together withan expert system, of which the acronym isMdds, which stands for "Masonry damage dia-gnostic system". In fact all damage types contai-ned in the document are to be found in the ex-pert system (Van Hees et al 1995), aiming athelping decision makers to diagnose the originof deterioration and select appropriate methodsand materials for brick masonry restoration.the most recent document has been set up bya group of experts from germany (VdI 3798.1998) VdI stands for "Verein deutscher Inge-nieure, i.e. association of german engineers".this document is quite close to a standard, andit is composed of a list of 14 terms in german,with a translation into english, accompanied bya definition and illustrations. a proposal for gra-phic representation of the decay patterns is al-so provided, as in the Italian standard and inthe Fitzner system.although we did our best to gather all the avai-lable information, we have obviously missed anumber of documents. one of them is an illus-trated glossary of 30 terms edited by the Quee-ns university of belfast (u.K.). on its website(http://www.qub.ac.uk) one can find a compre-hensive weathering features tutorial, which inclu-des both degradation patterns of monuments andnatural outcrops, and also refers to anthropoge-nic dam age.

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    baCKground glossarIes

    4

    In 2001, when the group began its compilingtask, seven documents, comprising variousnumbers of entries were identified as a basis forcollecting and combining useful terms into a ge-neralised glossary.the oldest one is an unpublished list of 21 termswritten by a. arnold, d. Jeannette and K. zehn-der (1980), who performed that task within theframework of the IsCs-petrography group acti-vities. this glossary includes an alphabetical listof terms in english, French and german, with re-lated definitions in the three languages.the second document is a compilation of 24 en-glish terms with related definitions, published bygrimmer (1984) of the u.s. national Park ser-vice.the third document is the Italian standard nor-mal 1/88 published in 1990 and called "altera-zioni macroscopiche dei materiali lapidei : lessi-co". each one of the 27 terms in this glossary isillustrated by photographs, usually in two diffe-rent scales and by a graphic chart to be used ifmapping of deterioration patterns is needed.this glossary, and related definitions have beentranslated into english by apy elena Charola.this author has also translated the terms, wi-thout their definitions, into spanish and Portu-guese.the fourth set of documents is a proposal for aterminology of stone decay forms on monu-ments, written by Jose delgado rodrigues fromlneC (lisbon, Portugal). It comprises 26 terms,and was largely inspired in internal documentsproduced in the framework of the Petrographygroup of the ICoMos stone Committee andpublish ed in its newsletter in 1991.this proposal was used as a basis for the publi-cation by lneC, in 2004, of a glossary with shortdefinitions in Portuguese language, includingterms related to stone, masonry and render de-terioration (Henriques et al., 2004). each term istranslated into French, Italian and spanish, andis associated with a graphic chart.

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 5

    baCKground glossarIes

    5b. FitznerK. Heinrichs r.Kownatzki19952002FitznerHeinrichs1/88

    6Franke19985MddsMasonry dam-age diagnostic systemVan Hees 1995

    VdI 3798. 1998VdIVerein deutscher Inge-nieure14

    30http://www.qub.ac.uk

    2001

    a.arnoldd.JeannetteK.zehnder211980IsCs

    224grimmer1984

    319901/88"alterazionimacroscopiche dei materiali lapidei : lessico"272apy elena Charola

    4Jose delgado rodrigues26ICoMosICoMos1991

    Henriques 2004

  • 61211

    & &

    IsCs

    1. 22. 76

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs).

    glossarY oVerVIeW

    6

    the glossary is arranged into 6 familiescomposed of 2 to 11 terms :. general terms,. Crack and deformation,. detachment,. Features induced by material loss,. discoloration and deposit,.biological colonization

    as far as possible, the authors have keptwithin strict limits, describing deteriorationpatterns ob servable by the naked eye. onlya few families devi ate from this general rule,for instance mechanical damage whichincludes terms such as impact damage,cut, scratch, abrasion, and which isclearly process and not feature oriented.

    We have chosen to create a specific familyinclud ing terms related to surface morpholo-gies, called Features induced by materialloss. this family is important because itcontains terms allowing a deterioration pat-tern to be described even if there is no acti-ve material loss at the time the object isdescribed. For instance a surface showingalveolization may be subjected to activegranular disintegration or scaling. If there isno more stone loss from the surface, it willstill have an alveolar relief, but with no fur-ther loss of material, and the sur face willhave a tendency to soil. the same is appli-cable to erosion and biological coloniza-tion, because a surface may have erodedfirst and then be colonized by algae, lichenor mosses.the IsCs glossary only contains terms rela-ted to stone material as an individual ele-ment within a built object or sculpture. as aconsequence, the terms do not relate to thedescription of the deterioration of a stonemasonry structure as a whole.

    How to find a particular term in the glossary ?to find a term, one can search from thetable of contents on page 2, or go to theindex page 76.

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 7

    CraCK &deForMatIon &

    CraCK .

    deForMatIon .

    Fracture .

    star crack .

    Hair crack .

    Craquele .

    splitting .

    detaCHMent

    blIsterIng .

    burstIng .

    delaMInatIon .

    dIsIntegratIon .

    exfoliation .

    FragMentatIon .

    splintering .

    Chipping .

    PeelIng .

    sCalIng .

    Flaking .

    Contour scaling .

    Crumbling .

    granular disintegration .

    Powdering, Chalking . sanding . sugaring . l

    dIsColoratIon& dePosIt &

    Crust .

    dePosIt .

    dIsColouratIon .

    black crust .

    salt crust .

    FIlM .

    glossY asPeCt .

    graFFItI .

    PatIna .

    Iron rich patina .

    oxalate patina .

    eFFloresCenCe .

    enCrustatIon .Concretion .

    Colouration .

    bleaching .

    Moist area .

    staining .

    Features InduCedbY MaterIal loss

    alVeolIzatIon .

    erosIon .

    Coving .

    MeCHanICal daMage .

    Impact damage .

    Cut .

    scratch .

    abrasion .

    Keying .

    MICroKarst .

    MIssIng Part .

    PerForatIon .

    PIttIng .

    gap .

    differential erosion .

    loss . :of components . of matrix .

    rounding .

    roughening .

    bIologICalColonIzatIon

    bIologICal ColonIzatIon .

    alga .

    lICHen .

    Moss .

    Mould .

    Plant .

    soIlIng .

    subFloresCenCe .

    general terMs .

    alteratIon . daMage .

    deCaY . degradatIon .

    deterIoratIon . WeatHerIng .

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    general terMs alteratIon . daMage . >

    8

    alteratIonModification of the material that does notnecessarily imply a worsening of its charac-teristics from the point of view of conserva-tion. For instance, a reversible coatingapplied on a stone may be considered asan alteration.

    daMageHuman perception of the loss of value dueto decay.

    deCaYany chemical or physical modification ofthe intrinsic stone properties leading to aloss of value or to the impairment of use.

    degradatIondecline in condition, quality, or functionalcapac ity.

    deterIoratIonProcess of making or becoming worse orlower inquality, value, character, etc.; depreciation.

    WeatHerIngany chemical or mechanical process bywhich stones exposed to the weatherundergo changes in character and deterio-rate.

    deCaY .

  • Common alteration ofarchitectural mouldingsby algae.

    scotland, edinburgh,Meadows Pillars, 1992.Height of vertical faceapprox. 300mm. Pers.archive (ref. KP 22) / I.Maxwell

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 9

    ? . ? alteratIon .

    damage to the lowerpart of a sandstonegrave slab resulting inloss of value.

    scotland, edinburgh,old Calton Cemetery,2002. british geologicalsurvey / e. Hyslop

    daMage .

    limestone relief sho-wing advanced decay.

    France, Caen, eglisesaint-Pierre, 2006.head ca.10 cm, lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    deCaY .

    degradation of redsandstone masonrydue to defective rain-water gutter behindparapet.

    scotland, edinburgh,Caledonian Hotel, 1991.Individual block heightsapprox. 300mm. Pers.archive (ref. Kd 30) / I.Maxwell

    degradatIon .

    deterioration of aCarboniferous sands-tone masonny.

    scotland, edinburgh,north Castle street,1993. Individual blockheights approx. 30cm,Pers. archive (ref. ou13) / I. Maxwell

    deterIoratIon .

    Weathering of alewisian gneiss mono-lith resulting from longterm exposure to theelements.

    scotland, Isle of lewis,tursachan stone Circle,Callanish, 1990. Width ofstone approx. 1.2m . Pers.archive (ref. gH 9) / I.Maxwell

    WeatHerIng .

    deterIoratIon . WeatHerIng . degradatIon .

  • :

    :

    : 0.1mm

    : Crazing

    :

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    CraCK & deForMatIon &

    CraCK

    CraCK . deForMatIon . >

    10

    definition :Individual fissure, clearly visible by the naked eye,resulting from separation of one part from another.

    equivalent terms to be found in other glossaries : Fissure, fault, joint.

    sub-type(s) :- Fracture : Crack that crosses completely the stonepiece- star crack : Crack having the form of a star. rustingiron or mechanical impact are possible causes of thistype of damage.- Hair crack : Minor crack with width dimension < 0.1mm- Craquele : network of minor cracks also calledcrack network. the term crazing is not appropriatefor stone, as this term should be used for describingthe development of a crack network on glazed terra-cotta.- splitting : Fracturing of a stone along planes ofweakness such as microcracks or clay/silt layers, incases where the structural elements are orientatedvertically. For instance, a column may split into seve-ral parts along bedding planes if the load above it istoo high.

    not to be confused with :- delamination, which consists of detachment alongbedding or schistosity planes, not necessarily orien-tated vertically. In delamination, mechanical overloadis not noticeable.delamination is transitional to splitting.

    other remarks :Cracking may be due to weathering, flaws in thestone, static problems, rusting dowels, too hardrepointing mortar.Vibrations caused by earth tremors, fire, frost mayalso induce cracking.Cracks and fractures occuring on rock carved surfa-ces are usually named after the geological terminolo-gy : joint if there is no displacement of one side withrespect to the other, fault if there is a displacement.

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 11

    Marble sculpture showing a network of thin cracks (cra-quele).

    ()

    France, Versailles, Castle Park, 2002. large side : 0,8m.lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    Horizontal fracture due to arusted iron clamp.

    France, angoulme, saint-Pierre cathedral : Westernfaade, central tympanum,1974. dIa00001685 lrMH /J.P. bozellec

    star crack on sandstoneresult ing from corrosion andexpansion of an iron fixing atthe base of a grave slab.

    scotland, edinburgh (oldCalton Cemetery), 2002.british geological survey / e.Hyslop

    Vertical Hair cracks havedeveloped on protrudingparts located between theflutes of this column.

    greece, athens, 2004. KdColching / s. simon

    CraQuele .

    FraCture . star CraCK .

    HaIr CraCK . splitting of a limestonecolumn

    France, Vienne,saint-andr-le-bas church,cloister, 1981.Column diameter c.15 cm.lrMH dIa00006991 /J.P. bozellec

    sPlIttIng .

  • ()

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    CraCK & deForMatIon &

    deForMatIon

    CraCK . deForMatIon . >

    12

    definition :Change in shape without losing integrity, leading tobending, buckling or twisting of a stone block.

    equivalent terms to be found in other glossaries :Plastic deformation, bowing.

    other remarks :this degradation pattern mainly affects crystallinemarble slabs (tombstones, marble cladding).

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 13

    this white marbleplate shows a convexdeformation.

    France, Queyras, Ville-Vieille, 1990. Plate size0.7 x 2 m. lrMH /V. Vergs-belmin

    the white marble plateof this XIXth centurystele shows a concavedeformation.

    19

    France, slestat (Haut-rhin), Cemetary, 1995.Plate size 0.4 x 1m.lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    deForMatIon .

    Marble panel out of line. the convexdeformation is visible due to oblique light.

    usa, albany, new York, agency building, new York state Capitol,2001. approx Panel dimensions : 90 x 90 cm. Wiss, Janney, elstnerassociates Inc. / K. normandin, M. Petermann

    deForMatIon .

    deForMatIon .

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    detaCHMent

    blIsterIng

    blIsterIng . burstIng . delaMInatIon . >

    14

    definition :separated, air-filled, raised hemispherical elevationson the face of stone resulting from the detachment ofan outer stone layer. this detachment is not relatedto the stone structure.

    other remarks : blistering, in some circumstances, is caused by solu-ble salts action.

  • blistering of sandstone masonry caused by expansion of the weatheredsurface layer leading to loss of the stone surface.

    scotland, glasgow, Wellington united Free Church, 2005.british geological survey / e. Hyslop

    blIsterIng .

    the left cheek of the limestone figureshows blistering.

    France, laon (aisne), notre-dameCathedral, western faade, 1983.dIa00010119 lrMH / C. Jaton

    blIsterIng .

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    dIsIntegratIon . FragMentatIon . PeelIng . sCalIng .

    15

    blistering on surface ofmolasse sandstone.

    switzerland, lausanne,Cathedral, 2002. Field ofview : ~2 cm. Princetonuniversity / g.W.scherer

    blIsterIng .

  • break out

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    detaCHMent

    burstIng

    blIsterIng . burstIng . delaMInatIon . >

    16

    definition :local loss of the stone surface from internal pressureusually manifesting in the form of an irregularly sidedcrater.

    equivalent term to be found in other glossaries : break out.

    not to be confused with :- Impact damage : loss of material due to a mechani-cal impact, which may have crater shape if the objecthitting the stone surface is hard and small (a bulletfor instance).

    other remarks :bursting is sometimes preceded by star-shapedface-fractur ing. this deterioration pattern is due tothe increase of vol ume of mineral inclusions (clays,iron minerals, etc.) naturally contained in the stoneand situated near its surface. the corrosion of metal-lic reinforcing elements may also induce bur sting.

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    dIsIntegratIon . FragMentatIon . PeelIng . sCalIng .

    17

    bursting of this limestone element was most probably due tovolume expansion linked to the corrosion of the iron clamp.

    Portugal, lisbon, Jeronimo Cloister, 2005. length of stone, 50cm. IdK dresden / C.Franzen

    burstIng .

    bursting due to corrosion and expansion of a metal fixing at the base of a sandstone graveslab.

    scotland, edinburgh, old Calton Cemetery, 2002. british geological survey / e. Hyslop

    burstIng .

    typical bursting at flat wall marble panel.

    usa, albany, new York, agency building, new York stateCapitol, 2001. approx Panel dimensions: 90 cm x 90 cm. Wiss,Janney, elstner associates Inc. / K. normandin, M. Petermann

    burstIng .

  • layering

    (cm)

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    delaMInatIon

    18

    definition :detachment process affecting laminated stones(most of sedimentary rocks, some metamorphicrocks). It corresponds to a physical separation intoone or several layers following the stone laminae.the thickness and the shape of the layers are varia-ble. the layers may be oriented in any direction withregards to the stone surface.

    equivalent terms to be found in other glossaries :layering.

    sub-type(s) : - exfoliation : detachment of multiple thin stonelayers (cm scale) that are sub-parallel to the stonesurface. the layers may bend or twist in a similarway as book pages.

    not to be confused with :- scaling : kind of detachment totally independent ofthe stone structure.

    other remarks :efflorescences and biological colonization can bedetectedin-between the laminae.

    detaCHMent blIsterIng . burstIng . delaMInatIon . >

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 19

    delamination of a sandsto-ne gravestone possiblyresulting from frost action.

    scotland, brechin, angus,brechin Cathedralgraveyard, 1991. C. 1 meterwide slab. Personal archiveref IW 31 / I. Maxwell

    delaMInatIon .

    sandstone exfoliation. this subtype of delamination is characterised by adetachment of multiple thin stone layers sub-parallel to the stone surface.

    germany, zeitz, Cathedral, 1992. stone width : c. 40 cm. geol. Inst. aachenuniv / b. Fitzner

    eXFolIatIon .

    delamination of a sandsto-ne element

    India, Fathepur sikri, 2003.stone width : c. 50 cm.lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    delaMInatIon .

    dIsIntegratIon . FragMentatIon . PeelIng . sCalIng .

  • cm

    2cm

    Chalking

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    dIsIntegratIon

    20

    definition :detachment of single grains or aggregates of grains.

    relationship with the substrate : It affects only the surface of the stone or can occur indepth. damage generally starts from the surface ofthe material. on crystalline marble, granular disinte-gration may reach several centimeters in depth,sometimes more.

    equivalent terms to be found in other glossaries : loss of cohesion, incoherence, decohesion, friability,disaggregation, intergranular incoherence, pulveriza-tion.

    sub-type(s) :- Crumbling : detachment of aggregates of grainsfrom the substrate. these aggregates are generallylimited in size (less than 2 cm). this size depends onthe nature of the stone and its environment.- granular disintegration : occurs in granular sedi-mentary (e.g. sandstone) and granular crystalline(e.g. granite) stones. granular disintegration produ-ces debris referred to as rock meal and can often beseen accumulating at the foot of a wall actively dete-riorating. If the stone surface forms a cavity (coving),the detached material may accumulate through grav -ity on the lower part of the cavity. the grain size ofthe stone determines the size of the resulting deta-ched material. the following specific terms, all rela-ted to granular disintegration, refer either to the size,or to the aspect of corresponding grains :

    . Powdering, Chalking : terms sometimes employedfor describing granular disintegration of finely grai-ned stones.. sugaring : employed mainly for white crystallinemarble, .sanding : used to describe granular disintegrationof sandstones and granites.

    other remarks :In the case of crystalline marbles, thermal stressesare known to be among the main causes of granulardisintegration, thus leading occasionally to deforma-tion patterns. stones may display deterioration patterns interme-diate be tween granular disintegration and crumbling,scaling or delamination.Partial or selective granular disintegration often leadsto surface features such as alveolization or rounding.When occuring inside crystalline marble, granulardisintegration may lead to deformation patterns.

    detaCHMent blIsterIng . burstIng . delaMInatIon . >

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 21

    sanding of a coarsegrained granite.

    Portugal, vora,Cathedral, 2005. lneC /J. delgado rodrigues

    this limestone ele-ment shows powde-ring, appearing as whi-ter zones with an irre-gular surface aspect.

    France, Poitiers, notre-dame-la-grande church,1993. Head size : c. 20cm. lrMH / d.bouchardon

    Crumbling of a crystalline mar-ble.

    Czech republic,nedvedice, southMoravia, PernstejnCastle, 2005.area about 150 cm2.national Heritageof the Czech rep./d. Michoinova

    sugaring develo-pingon the head of amarble sculpture.

    germany, Munich,Propylen,Knigsplatz,tympanon. KdC olching / s.simon

    sandIng .

    typical sugaring or loo-sening of the calcitecrystals at the surface ofthe marble.

    usa, albany, new York,agency building, newYork state Capitol, 2001.Photo size: 10 cm width / Wiss, Janney, elstnerassociates Inc. / K.normandin, M. Petermann

    sugarIng .

    PoWderIng . sugarIng .

    CruMblIng .

    FragMentatIon . PeelIng . sCalIng . dIsIntegratIon .

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    FragMentatIon

    22

    definition :the complete or partial breaking up of a stone, intoportions of variable dimensions that are irregular inform, thickness and volume.

    relationship with the substrate : the substrate remains apparently sound on bothsides of the detachment plane. Fragmentation mayoccasionnally affect the entire stone block, and mayfollow discontinuity planes.

    sub-type(s) :- splintering : detachment of sharp, slender pieces ofstone, split or broken off from the main body.- Chipping : breaking off of pieces, called chips, fromthe edges of a block.

    other remarks :Fragmentation may be found when stone blocks aresubjected to an overload. upper parts as well aslower parts of monolithic columns are particularlyprone to chipping and splintering (large weight sup-ported by a small area).

    detaCHMent blIsterIng . burstIng . delaMInatIon . >

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 23

    the splintering of thislimestone block hasresulted in a succes-sion of cupule-likedepressions on thestone surface.

    egypt, Karnak temple,block fields, KdColching /s. simon

    sPlInterIng .

    limestone, chipping(final state). Chippingoccurred under highcompression, after thereplacement of thelower block of thecolumn.

    belgium, leuven(louvain), 2005. Heightof the stone blocks : 40to 50 cm. tno / r. vanHees

    CHIPPIng .

    Fragmentation of theupper part of a monoli-thic limestone column.

    France, saint-benot-sur-loire, 1996. Fracturelength : 30cm. CICrP /P. bromblet

    FragMentatIon .

    Fragmentation of adense limestone slabex posed on the churchexterior wall.

    germany, Munich, 1998.Picture 60 cm widthapproximately. lneC /J. delgado rodrigues

    FragMentatIon .

    soft limestone, chipping due to overload on the structure sup-porting a balcony.

    Malta, Valletta, 2006. small side of the photo : c. 2m. lrMH / V.Vergs-belmin

    CHIPPIng .

    FragMentatIon . PeelIng . sCalIng . dIsIntegratIon .

  • 0.1mmmm

    Peeling off

    mmcm

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    PeelIng

    24

    definition :shedding, coming off, or partial detachment of a super-ficial layer (thickness : submillimetric to millimetric) ha-ving the aspect of a film or coating which has been ap-plied on the stone surface.

    equivalent term to be found in other glossaries : Peeling off.

    not to be confused with :- blistering, which is associated with a dome-likemorphology.- scaling, which is related to the detachment of stonelayers(thickness : millimetric to centimetric).

    detaCHMent blIsterIng . burstIng . delaMInatIon . >

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 25

    Peeling of a surface layer on a limestone element.

    France, Chartres, Cathedral, northern portal, 2005. size of the figure : c.15 cm. lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    PeelIng .

    Peeling linked to salt crystallization at the surface of a magnesianlimestone.

    Portugal, Coimbra, largo de santa Clara, 2004. lrMH / VroniqueVergs-belmin

    PeelIng .

    FragMentatIon . PeelIng . sCalIng . dIsIntegratIon .

  • mmcm

    mmcm

    plaque plaquette

    0.1mmmm spalling :Peeling

    :

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    sCalIng

    26

    definition :detachment of stone as a scale or a stack of scales,not following any stone structure and detaching likefish scales or parallel to the stone surface. the thick-ness of a scale is generally of millimetric to centime-tric scale, and is negligeable compared to its surfacedimension.

    relationship with the substrate :the plane of detachment of the scales is locatednear the stone surface (a fraction of millimeters toseveral centimeters).

    equivalent terms to be found in other glossaries :desquamation, scale, plaque or plaquette describeexclusively the features, and not the process.

    sub-type(s) :- Flaking : scaling in thin flat or curved scales of sub-millimetric to millimetric thickness, organized as fishscales.- Contour scaling : scaling in which the interface withthe sound part of the stone is parallel to the stonesurface. In the case of flat surfaces, contour scalingmay be called spalling. Case hardening is a synonymof contour scaling.

    not to be confused with :- delamination : corresponds to a detachment follo-wing the bedding or shistosity planes of a stone.

    detaCHMent blIsterIng . burstIng . delaMInatIon . >

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 27

    detached scaling 4 mm thick onsand stone block base course.

    4mm

    scotland, stirling Castle esplanade,stirling, robert bruce Monument,1993. Incised letters c. 35mm high.Pers. archive ref oW 5 / I. Maxwell

    sCalIng .

    Contour scaling developed as thin detachments on the face of the figu-re.

    austria, Vienna, saint-stephen Cathedral, calcareous sandstone(breitenbrunner). bundesdenkmalamt, Vienna / atelier e. Pummer, Wachau& J. nimmrichter

    Contour sCalIng .

    some of the flat dimension stones show complete or partial contourscaling, which may be called here spalling.

    France, bouzonville (Moselle), abbatial church, 2004. lrMH / J.-d. Mertz

    sPallIng .

    sandstone block contaminated with sodium chloride. salt crystallizationinduces granular disintegration and scaling of the stone. as scales arevery thin, the degradation pattern is also called flaking.

    France, dieuze (Moselle) salines royales, btiment de la dlivrance, 2002.large side : 0.4 m. lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    FlaKIng .

    scaling, developing on amagmatic stone element(Kersanton).

    France, brittany, laMartyre, saint-salomonchurch, 1984. scale thick-ness : 1-2 cm . lrMHdIa00011326 / J.-P.bozellec

    sCalIng .

    FragMentatIon . PeelIng . sCalIng . dIsIntegratIon .

  • cmm

    alveolisation

    : mmcm mm0.1mm

    m

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    Features InduCedbY MaterIal loss

    alVeolIzatIon

    alVeolIzatIon . erosIon . MeCHanICal daMage . >

    28

    definition :Formation, on the stone surface, of cavities (alve -oles) which may be interconnected and may havevariable shapes and sizes (generally centimetric,sometimes metric).

    equivalent terms to be found in other glossaries : alveolar erosion, alveolar weathering, honeycomb.

    other spelling :alveolisation

    sub-type(s) :- Coving : erosion feature consisting in a singlealveole developing from the edge of the stone block.

    not to be confused with :- Microkarst : refers to a network of millimetric to cen-trimetric interconnected depressions, clearly linked toa dissolution process.- Pitting : corresponds to the formation of point-likemillimetric to submillimetric pits, generally notconnected, on a stone surface.

    other remarks :alveolization is a kind of differential weathering pos-sibly due to inhomogeneities in physical or chemicalproperties of the stone. alveolization may occur withother degradation patterns such as granular disinte-gration and/or scaling. In those particular cases inwhich alveolization develops mainly in depth in adiverticular manner, it can be referred to as vermicu-lar alveolization. In arid climates large size alveolesof meter size are frequently formed (e.g. Petra,Jordan).

  • deep alveolization of a sandstone block.

    Italy, south tyrol, terlano/terlan, Maria Himmelfahrt/Maria assunta, sandstone, 2000.length of stone, 80 cm. IMP uni Innsbruck / C. Franzen

    alVeolIzatIon .

    disaggregation of individual geologically weaker sandstone blocks due to theconsequential effect of repointing the joints and beds with a too hard and durablecementitious mortar. as a result, a single alveole (coving) has developed from thesides of the block.

    scotland, arbroath, angus, arbroath abbey, 1992. Individual stone bed heights. 20 cm.Pers. archive ref MQ 14 / I. Maxwell

    CoVIng .

    alveolization develops here as cavities illustrating a combination of honeycombsand alignments following the natural bedding planes of the sandstone.

    scotland, Culzean, ayrshire, Culzean Castle entrance gates, 1993.Individual stone bed heights Ca 200-250mm. Pers. archive ref Pb 35 / I. Maxwell

    alVeolIzatIon .

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    MICroKarst . MIssIng Part . PerForatIon . PIttIng .

    29

    alveolization of a porous limestone.

    Malta, rabat gozo, Citadel,1994. geol. Inst. aachen university / b. Fitzner

    alVeolIzatIon .

  • differential deterioration

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    erosIon

    30

    definition :loss of original surface, leading to smoothed shapes.

    equivalent terms to be found in other glossaries :loss of material is a very general expression thatrefers to any loss of original surface, which can bedue to a variety of reasons such as granular disinte-gration, scaling etc. this term is too vague andshould not be used.

    sub-type(s) :- differential erosion : to be preferred to differentialdeterioration : occurs when erosion does not proceedat the same rate from one area of the stone to theother. as a result, the stone deteriorates irregularly.this feature is found on heterogeneous stonescontaining harder and/or less porous zones. It mayalso occur as a result of selective lichen attack oncalcitic stones. differential erosion is generally foundon sedimentary and volcanic stones. differential ero-sion is synonymous with relief formation, i.e. the for-mation of irregularities on the stone surface.differential erosion may result in loss of componentsor loss of matrix of the stone :

    . loss of components : Partial or selective elimina-tion of soft (clay lenticles, nodes of limonite, etc) orcompact stone components (pebbles, fossil frag-ments, geological concretions, lava fragments).. loss of matrix : Partial or selective elimination ofthe stone matrix, resulting in protruding compactstone components.

    - rounding : Preferential erosion of originally angularstone edges leading to a distinctly rounded profile.rounding can especially be observed on stoneswhich preferably deteriorate through granular disinte-gration, or when environmental conditions favor gra-nular disintegration.- roughening : selective loss of small particles froman originally smooth stone surface. the substrate isstill sound.roughening can appear either progressively in caseof long term deterioration process (for instance incase of granular disintegration), or instantaneously incase of inappropriate actions, such as aggressivecleaning.

    other remarks :erosion may have natural and/or anthropogenic cau-ses. It can be due to chemical, physical or/and biolo-gical processes.

    Features InduCedbY MaterIal loss

    alVeolIzatIon . erosIon . MeCHanICal daMage . >

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 31

    ? . ? differential erosion of a fossil bearing limestone block due to loss of matrix.

    Malta, Valletta, old town, 2003. lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    the erosion of thislimestone sculptureresults in loss ofcarved details, andsmoothed shapes.

    France, rouen,cathedral. lrMH / P.bromblet

    loss of iron-rich component ina sandstone block.

    scotland, edinburgh, Carlton Hillobservatory, 2007. lrMH / V.Vergs-belmin

    differential erosion on a marblesculpture visible after treatmentwith a biocide and gentle brus-hing.

    Portugal, Queluz Palace, 2003.Width of the sculpture : ca. 60cm.lneC / J. delgado rodrigues

    rounding of serenasandstone due topreferential deterio-ration of edges closeto the joints.

    France, Marseille,Cathdrale nouvelleMajor, 2006. size ofeach block :40x80cm. lrMH / V.Vergs-belmin

    differential erosion in the sandstonePetra cliffs.

    Jordan, Petra, 2004. Photo 45m inheight. lneC / J. delgado rodrigues

    loss oF MatrIX .

    dIFFerentIal erosIon .

    dIFFerentIal erosIon .

    loss oF CoMPonent .

    roundIng .

    erosIon .

    MICroKarst . MIssIng Part . PerForatIon . PIttIng .

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    MeCHanICal daMage

    32

    definition :loss of stone material clearly due to a mechanicalaction.

    sub-type(s) :- Impact damage : Mechanical damage due to theimpact of a projectile (bullet, shrapnel) or of a hardtool.- Cut : loss of material due to the action of an edgetool. It can have the appearance of an excavatedcavity, an incision, a missing edge, etc...tool markscan be considered as special kinds of cuts but shouldnot be considered as damage fea tures.- scratch : Manually induced superficial and line-likeloss of material due to the action of some pointedobject. It can be accidental or intentional. usually itappears as a more or less long groove. tool markscan have the appearance of scra tches, but shouldnot be taken as damage features.- abrasion : erosion due to wearing down or rubbingaway by means of friction, or to the impact of parti-cles.- Keying : Impact damage resulting from hitting a sur-face with a pointed tool, in order to get an irregularsurface which will assist the adhesion of an addedmaterial, a mortar for instance.

    other remarks :In most cases mechanical damage has an anthropo-genic origin.

    Features InduCedbY MaterIal loss

    alVeolIzatIon . erosIon . MeCHanICal daMage . >

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 33

    Mechanical damage dueto series of scratcheson a limestone element.

    France, Chartres,Cathdrale, 2005. lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    sCratCH .

    soft limestone showing impact damage. these keying marks were made to facilitate the adhe-sion of a render, which was later removed or has fallen off.

    Malta, Valletta, 2006. lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    KeYIng .

    Cuts in a sandstone wall, most probably due to knive whetting.

    scotland, stirling Castle, 2007. lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    Cuts .

    the repeated abrasion effect of feet has led to the formation of a depression on this stone pave-ment element.

    Italy, tschars, south tyrol, Pfarrkirche, 2001. IMP uni., Innsbruck / C. Franzen

    abrasIon .

    Impact damage on alimestone ashlar, dueto a bullet.

    lebanon, baalbek quar-ry, small building, 2000.lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    IMPaCt daMage .

    MICroKarst . MIssIng Part . PerForatIon . PIttIng .

  • mmcm

    cm mmmm

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    MICroKarst

    34

    definition :network of small interconnected depressions of milli-metric to centrimetric scale, sometimes looking likehydrographic network. Microkarst patterns are due toa partial and/or selective dissolution of calcareousstone surfaces exposed to water run-off.

    equivalent terms to be found in other glossaries : Karst, dissolution, cratering. this last term refers tobricks, not to stone.

    not to be confused with : - alveolization, the depressions of which are similarin shape but bigger in size (centimetric scale) and arenot systematically interconnected. alveolization maybe due to selective degradation by salts, whereasmicrokarst is exclusively linked to an obvious disso-lution process.- Pitting : point like, usually not interconnected, milli-metric or submillimetric cavities.

    other remarks :there is no trace of any granular disintegration orscaling on the stone surface.

    Features InduCedbY MaterIal loss

    alVeolIzatIon . erosIon . MeCHanICal daMage . >

  • Microkarst developed on a limesto-ne sculpture.

    turkey, nemrud dag 2002. Head of astatue (apollo), Height of the image : c.60 cm. geol. Inst., aachen university /b. Fitzner

    MICroKarst .

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 35

    Microkarst developed on the base of achalk column particularly exposed to wea-ther.

    France, amiens, Cathedral, western faade,1992. lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    MICroKarst .

    MIssIng Part . PerForatIon . PIttIng . MICroKarst .

  • lacuna

    gap

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    MIssIng Part

    36

    definition :empty space, obviously located in the place of someformerly existing stone part. Protruding and particu-larly exposed parts of sculptures (nose, fingers) aretypical locations for material loss resulting in missingparts.

    equivalent term to be found in other glossaries :lacuna.

    subtype(s) :- gap : hollow place in the stone surface, hole.

    Features InduCedbY MaterIal loss

    alVeolIzatIon . erosIon . MeCHanICal daMage . >

  • the nose of this marble figure shows a missing part.

    France, Versailles, Castle Park, sculpted group "le bain d'apollon", 2004.lrMH / V.Vergs-belmin

    MIssIng Part .

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 37

    Chimney structure showing hole and loss of sandstone masonry.

    scotland, edinburgh, Carlton terrace, 2002. british geological survey / e. Hyslop

    Hole .

    MICroKarst . PerForatIon . PIttIng . MIssIng Part .

  • cmmm

    mm

    5mm cm

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    PerForatIon

    38

    definition :a single or series of surface punctures, holes orgaps, made by a sharp tool or created by an animal.the size is generally of millimetric to centrimetricscale. Perforations are deeper than wide, and pene-trate into the body of the stone.

    equivalent term to be found in other glossaries :drill hole.

    not to be confused with :- Pitting : formation of millimetric to submillimetricpits, usually much smaller than perforations.- gap : hole not obviously created through a perfora-tion process.

    other remarks :a perforation is normally induced by a sharp instru-ment (e.g. by drilling). In specific circumstances, ani-mals may produce perforations :- wasps on very soft stones (diameter : c. 5 mm)- marine molluscs (e.g. : lithophagus sp.) on stoneswhich have stayed under water for some time (dia-meter : c. 1 cm).

    Features InduCedbY MaterIal loss

    alVeolIzatIon . erosIon . MeCHanICal daMage . >

  • Perforation due to wasp activity.

    France, avenay-Val-d'or, Church st-thrain, sandstone, 2006. reimsuniversity / g. Fronteau

    PerForatIon .

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 39

    geometrically organised perforations, forming letters of the word far-macia.

    farmacia

    Italy, Venice, Istria stone, 2007. diameter of the holes : 2mm. lrMH / V.Vergs-belmin

    PerForatIon .

    Perforation by mari-ne lithophagous or-ganisms on a limes-tone sphinx foundduring undersea ex-cavations after animmersion of severalcenturies.

    egypt, alexandria,Kom el dikka open airmuseum, 2006.CICrP / P. bromblet

    PerForatIon . Perforation of sand -stone due to mason-ry bees which haveentered the mortarjoints and burrowedinto the soft sandsto-ne beneath the surfa-ce layer.

    scotland, Irvine, townHouse, 2004. Image isapprox. 20 cm across.british geologicalsurvey / e. Hyslop

    PerForatIon .

    MICroKarst . MIssIng Part . PIttIng . PerForatIon .

  • :mm1mm

    mmcm

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    PIttIng

    40

    definition :Point-like millimetric or submillimetric shallow cavi-ties. the pits generally have a cylindrical or conicalshape and are not interconnected, although transi-tion patterns to interconnected pits can also be ob -served.

    not to be confused with :- Microkarst, which creates a network of small inter-connected depressions of millimetric to centrimetricscale.- Perforation which is, in general, induced by a sharpinstrument or an animal, and usually induces muchbigger and deeper holes than pitting.

    other remarks :Pitting is due to partial or selective deterioration.Pitting can be biogenically or chemically induced,especially on carbonate stones.Pitting may also result from a harsh or inadaptedabrasive cleaning method.

    Features InduCedbY MaterIal loss

    alVeolIzatIon . erosIon . MeCHanICal daMage . >

  • Pitting developing on a marble sculpture.Microbiological origin is probable.

    germany, Munich, old southern cemetery,1992. KdC olching / s. simon

    PIttIng .

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 41

    Pitting, developing on the upper part of a broken limes-tone column. Microbiological origin is probable.

    Morocco, Volubilis archaeological site, 2006. diameter ofthe column, c. 45 cm. CICrP / J.-M. Vallet

    PIttIng .

    Pitting on an Istria limestone column. the black color of the stone is due to the presence of a blackcrust tracing its surface.

    Italy, Venice, doges Palace, 1998, lMrH / V. Vergs-belmin

    PIttIng .

    Pitting due to lichen colonization on a limestone block.

    lebanon, baalbek temple, 2000. lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    PIttIng .

    MICroKarst . MIssIng Part . PerForatIon . PIttIng .

  • Caso4.2H2o

    2

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    dIsColouratIon& dePosIt &

    Crust

    Crust .

    dePosIt .

    dIsColouratIon .

    eFFloresCenCe .>

    enCrustatIon .

    42

    definition :generally coherent accumulation of materials onthe surface. a crust may include exogenic deposits incombination with materials derived from the stone.a crust is frequently dark coloured (black crust) butlight colours can also be found. Crusts may have anhomogeneous thickness, and thus replicate thestone surface, or have irregular thickness and disturbthe reading of the stone surface details.

    relationship with the substrate :a crust may be weakly or strongly bonded to the sub-strate. often, crusts detached from the substrateinclude stone material.

    sub-type(s) :- black crust : Kind of crust developing generally onareas protected against direct rainfall or water runoffin urban environment. black crusts usually adherefirmly to the substrate. they are composed mainly ofparticles from the atmosphere, trapped into a gyp-sum (Caso4.2H2o) matrix.- salt crust : Crust composed of soluble salts, whichdevelop in the presence of high salt levels, and formfrom wetting and drying cycles.

    not to be confused with :- encrustation, which is also a coherent layer, but isalways adherent to the subsrate. the term encrusta-tion is preferred to crust when the accumulationclearly results from water infiltration followed by pre-cipitation.- alga : algae often have a dark colour during the dryseason and may be confused with black crusts.oppositely to black crusts, algae do not adhere to thesubstrate, and are usually located in outdoor situa-tions, in areas exposed to direct rainimpact, or on water pathways. these two characte-ristics differentiate algae from black crusts.- Patina : black iron rich patinas, which developusually as a thin layer enriched in iron/clay mineralson iron containing sandstones, and are located on allexposed parts of the building/sculpture, not only onparts sheltered from the rain impact.

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    FIlM .

    glossY asPeCt .

    graFFItI .

    PatIna .

    soIlIng .

    subFloresCenCe .

    43

    Porous limestone, salt crust (halite).

    egypt, Cairo, Mosque, 2000. stone width : c. 30 cm. geol. Inst. / aachenuniv. / b. Fitzner

    salt Crust .

    black crust tracing the surface of a limestonesculpture.

    France, saint-denis, basilique, 2006. Photo height :c. 30 cm. lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    blaCK Crust .

    limestone sculpture, blackcrust.

    germany, naumburg, Cathedral,1990. Head height : c. 30 cm.geol. Inst. / aachen univ. / b.Fitzner

    blaCK Crust .

    enCrustatIon .

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    dePosIt

    44

    definition :accumulation of exogenic material of variable thick-ness. some examples of deposits : splashes of paintor mortar, sea salt aerosols, atmospheric particlessuch as soot or dust, remains of conservation mate-rials such as cellulose poultices, blast materials, etc.

    relationship with the substrate :a deposit generally lacks adhesion to the stone sur-face.

    equivalent term to be found in other glossaries :surface deposit.

    not to be confused with :bird and bat droppings are considered as deposits,whereas bird nests, spider webs are to be conside-red as biological colonization.

    other remarks :a deposit can be described for colour, morphology,size and if possible nature and/or origin.

    dIsColouratIon& dePosIt &

    Crust .

    dePosIt .

    dIsColouratIon .

    eFFloresCenCe .>

    enCrustatIon .

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 45

    deposit of pigeon droppings on granite sculpture.

    Portugal, Porto , Cathedral, 2002. sculpture slightly above natural size. lneC / J. delgadorodrigues

    dePosIt .

    the material detached from the sandstone block forms adeposit.

    usa, santa barbara, Mission, 2008. block height : 30 cm.Vronique Vergs-belmin / lrMH

    dePosIt .

    FIlM .

    glossY asPeCt .

    graFFItI .

    PatIna .

    soIlIng .

    subFloresCenCe .

    enCrustatIon .

  • discoloration (us)

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    dIsColouratIon

    46

    definition :Change of the stone colour in one to three of thecolour parameters : hue, value and chroma.- hue corresponds to the most prominent characteris-tic of a colour (blue, red, yellow, orange etc..).- value corresponds to the darkness (low hues) orlightness (high hues) of a colour.- chroma corresponds to the purity of a colour. Highchroma colours look rich and full. low chroma colourslook dull and grayish. sometimes chroma is calledsaturation.

    relationship with the substrate :It may affect the surface and/or be present in depthof the stone.

    equivalent term to be found in other glossaries :Chromatic alteration.other spelling :discoloration (us).sub-type(s) :- Colouration (to be preferred to colouring) : changein hue, value and/or a gain in chroma- bleaching (or fading) : gain in value due to chemi-cal weathering of minerals (e.g. reduction of iron andmanganese compounds) or extraction of colouringmatter (leaching, wa shing out), or loss of polish,generally very superficial. dark and bright colourmarbles often show bleaching as a result of exposu-re to weather.- Moist area : corresponds to the darkening (lowerhue) of a surface due to dampness. the denomina-tion moist area is preferred to moist spot, moist zoneor visible damp area.- staining : kind of discolouration of limited extent andgenerally of unattractive appearance.

    not to be confused with : - Patina : superficial modification of the material per-ceivable as a discolouration, in often having a favou-rable connotation.- soiling : refers to a tangible deposit and has a negati-ve connotation- deposit : refers to the accumulation of material ofvariable thickness, possibly having a colour differentfrom that of the stone.

    other remarks :discolouration is frequently produced by salts, by thecorrosion of metals (e.g. iron, lead, copper), by micro-organisms, or by expo sure to fire.some typical yellow, orange, brown and black discolou-ration patterns are due to the presence of carotenoidsand melanins pro duced by fungi and cyanobacteria.darkened areas due to moistening may have differentshapes and extension according to their origin : pipe lea-kage, rising damp, hygroscopic behaviour due to the pre-sence of salts, condensation.

    dIsColouratIon& dePosIt &

    Crust .

    dePosIt .

    dIsColouratIon .

    eFFloresCenCe .>

    enCrustatIon .

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 47

    red colouration on amarble bas-relief.

    Italy, Certosa di Pavia,1992. height : c. 0.5m,KdC. olching / s. simon

    Moist area on a sandstonerubble built wall as a result ofa concentrated discharge ofrain water from a brokendownpipe.

    scotland, new lanark, southlanarkshire, long row residen-tial block, 1996. rainwater down-pipe 100mm in diameter. Pers.archive ref XM 12 / IngvalMaxwell

    Iron oxides are driven bywater from the rusting rai-ling, and induce the deve-lopment of a brown stainingon the underlying stones.

    France, Chartres, Cathedral,2004. lrMH / V. Vergs-bel-min

    this purple-rednodular limestonehas a natural tendency to bleach(fade) from exposure to rainfall ascan be seen on most vertical partsand balusters of this monument. thefaded surface layer has not beenallowed to form in areas of constantrubbing action.

    Italy, Venice, Piazza san Marco,rosso di Verona marble, 2007. lrMH/ V. Vergs-belmin

    stains on a limes-tone pedimentunderneath a bron-ze sculpture.

    Hungary, budapest,2001. sculpture c.3m height. lneC /J. delgado-rodrigues

    ColouratIon . staInIng .

    bleaCH . staInIng .

    MoIst area . staining from water absorp-tion or vapor condensationoccurring on marble clad-ding.

    united states, albany, newYork, Cultural educationCenter, new York stateCapitol, 2001. Wiss, Janney,elstner associates Inc. / K. normandin, M. Petermann

    staInIng .

    FIlM .

    glossY asPeCt .

    graFFItI .

    PatIna .

    soIlIng .

    subFloresCenCe .

    enCrustatIon .

  • naClna2so4Mgso47H2oCaCo3baso4sio2nH2o

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    eFFloresCenCe

    48

    definition :generally whitish, powdery or whisker-like crystalson the surface. efflorescences are generally poorlycohesive and commonly made of soluble salt crys-tals.

    relationship with the substrate :efflorescences are generally poorly bonded to thestone surface.

    equivalent term to be found in other glossaries :efflorescence is preferred to the expression loosesalt deposits.

    not to be confused with :- subflorescence : term employed in the casewhere crystallization occurs inside the material.- deposit : to the naked eye, efflorescences oftenlook like deposits. However, their constituents comefrom the stone itself whereas deposits come fromoutside.

    other remarks :efflorescence is commonly the result of evaporationof saline water present in the porous structure of thestone. efflorescences are often constituted of solublesalts such as sodium chloride (halite : naCl) or sul-phate (thenardite : na2so4), magnesium sulphate(epsomite : Mgso4 . 7H2o), but they may also bemade of less soluble minerals such as calcite(CaCo3), barium sulphate (baso4) and amorphoussilica (sio2 . nH2o).

    dIsColouratIon& dePosIt &

    Crust .

    dePosIt .

    dIsColouratIon .

    eFFloresCenCe .>

    enCrustatIon .

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 49

    efflorescence on dolomitic limestone related to historic air pollu-tion.

    united Kingdom, York, Monk's bar, historic city gate, 14th century,2005. Width of the stone blocks : appr. 40 cm. the getty Conservation Institute, e. doehne

    eFFloresCenCe .

    eFFloresCenCe .

    limestone block showing salt efflorescences.

    usa, santa barbara, Mission, 2008. block size : 30cm. Vronique Vergs- belmin / lrMH

    eFFloresCenCe .

    FIlM .

    glossY asPeCt .

    graFFItI .

    PatIna .

    soIlIng .

    subFloresCenCe .

    enCrustatIon .

    Formation of salts forming efflorescence on the surface ofsandstone masonry, focused at joints between masonry blocks.

    scotland, glasgow, Mclennan arch, 2005, image is approx. 25cmacross.british geological survey / e. Hyslop

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    enCrustatIon

    50

    definition :Compact, hard, mineral outer layer adhering to thestone. surface morphology and colour are usuallydifferent from those of the stone.

    relationship with the substrate :encrustations generally adhere firmly to the stonesurface.When an encrustation is removed, adhering stonematerials may be taken away with it.

    location :encrustations are generally found below areas of thebuilding where water is percolating or has percolatedin the past.

    equivalent term to be found in other glossaries :Incrustation.

    sub-type(s) :- Concretion : Kind of encrustation having a specificshape: nodular, botryodal (grape-like) or frambodal(raspberry like). Concretions may even have conicshapes of form drapery-like vertical sheets.stalagmites and stalactites are types of concretions.In general, concretions do not outline, contour thesurface of the stone, and are of limited extent.

    not to be confused with : - Crust : the term encrustation is used when the fea-ture is clearly due to a precipitation process, follo-wing any kind of leaching. If there is no evidence ofleaching and precipitation, the term crust will beemployed. - lichen : some lichens (the so-called crustose ones)can look like encrustations. lichens are not usuallyhard. When scratched, one can see blackish or greentraces resulting from algae or cyanobacteria hostedby the lichen.

    other remarks :encrustations on monuments are frequently depositsof materials mobilized by water percolation and thuscoming from the building itself : Carbonates, sulpha-tes, metallic oxides and silica are frequently found.

    dIsColouratIon& dePosIt &

    Crust .

    dePosIt .

    dIsColouratIon .

    eFFloresCenCe .>

    enCrustatIon .

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 51

    Calcite encrustation covering alimestone masonry under anarch.

    France, Vaison-la-romaine,ancient cathedral notre-dame denazareth, cloister, 2005. CICrP /P. bromblet

    enCrustatIon .

    Concretions with the form of sta-lactites under the arch of theaqueduct built of limestone.

    Portugal, lisbon, guas livresaqueduct 2002. blocks are c. 1mwide. lneC / J. delgado rodrigues

    enCrustatIon .

    Calcite encrustation linked to water leached from joints, on a granite,sandstone and schist ashlar.

    scotland, Isle of Iona, ancient convent (detail), 2006. length of a stone,c. 25 cm. CICrP / J.M. Vallet

    enCrustatIon .

    FIlM .

    glossY asPeCt .

    graFFItI .

    PatIna .

    soIlIng .

    subFloresCenCe .

    enCrustatIon .

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    FIlM

    52

    definition :thin covering or coating layer generally of organicnature, generally homogeneous, follows the stonesurface. a film may be opaque or translucent.

    relationship with the substrate :a film generally adheres to but does not penetrateinto the substrate, possibly changing surface proper-ties (aspect, colour, permeability) of the stone.

    equivalent terms to be found in other glossaries :Pellicle, skin.

    not to be confused with : - Patina, which, to the naked eye, has no perceivablethickness.- encrustation, which refers to a strongly adheringmineral deposit, and may not follow the surface of thestone as a film would.

    other remarks :Paint layers, certain categories of water repellents orprotec tive agents (antigraffiti), sealants, are conside-red films. a biofilm is a kind of biological colonization(see this term). through ageing, a film may loose itstranslucency or detach from the substrate.

    dIsColouratIon& dePosIt &

    Crust .

    dePosIt .

    dIsColouratIon .

    eFFloresCenCe .>

    enCrustatIon .

  • Porous limestone ashlar partially covered with mul-tilayer paint film.

    Malta, Valletta, old town, 2003. lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    FIlM .

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 53

    FIlM .

    glossY asPeCt .

    graFFItI .

    PatIna .

    soIlIng .

    subFloresCenCe .

    enCrustatIon .

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    glossY asPeCt

    54

    definition :aspect of a surface that reflects totally or partially thelight. the surface has a mirror-like appearance.

    equivalent term to be found in other glossaries :Polished surface.

    other remarks :a glossy aspect may be due to previous polishing(intentional or not), or to the presence of a transpa-rent film which reflects light.

    dIsColouratIon& dePosIt &

    Crust .

    dePosIt .

    dIsColouratIon .

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  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 55

    Marble column, covered with asuperficial film of polyvinyl aceta-te. this product was appliedduring a restoration campaign, togive back the marble its originalglossy aspect.

    France, Paris, opra garnier,1999. diameter of the column : c.0.7 M. lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    glossY asPeCt .

    glossy aspect on pavement stones.

    Malta, Valletta, 2004. lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    glossY asPeCt .

    the glossy aspect of this parapetis due to the repeated rubbingaction of people leaning over thebridge.

    Italy, Venice, rialto bridge, 1994.lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    glossY asPeCt .

    FIlM .

    glossY asPeCt .

    graFFItI .

    PatIna .

    soIlIng .

    subFloresCenCe .

    enCrustatIon .

  • graffitis

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    graFFItI

    56

    definition :engraving, scratching, cutting or application of paint,ink or similar matter on the stone surface.

    other spelling :Plural : graffitis.

    other remarks : graffiti are generally the result of an act of vandalism.However, some graffiti may have historical, aestheti-cal or cultural values and should be conserved.

    dIsColouratIon& dePosIt &

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  • Marble sculpture of the Potsdam sanssouci park coloured by graffiti.

    germany, Potsdam castle, lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    graFFItI .

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 57

    graffiti obtainedthrough scratching.

    Malta, Valletta,2006. Porous limes-tone, lrMH / V.Vergs-belmin

    graFFItI . graffiti in the west abut-ment of the aqueductbuilt in limestone.

    Portugal, lisbon, guaslivres aqueduct, 2005.alex spreads on c. 1m.lneC / J. delgadorodrigues

    graFFItI .

    FIlM .

    glossY asPeCt .

    graFFItI .

    PatIna .

    soIlIng .

    subFloresCenCe .

    enCrustatIon .

  • :

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    PatIna

    58

    definition :Chromatic modification of the material, generallyresulting from natural or artificial ageing and notinvolving in most cases visible surface deterioration.

    sub-type(s) :- Iron rich patina : natural black to brown thin layerenriched in iron/clay minerals, which can be found oniron containing sandstones. this kind of patina isgenerally observed in outdoor environments, anddevelops quite uniformly on the stone surface.- oxalate patina : orange to brown thin layer enri-ched in calcium oxalates. this kind of patina may befound in outdoor environments, often on marble andlimestone substrates.

    not to be confused with : - Film, which is a thin visible homogeneous coveringor coating layer generally of organic nature.- black crust, which is a generally coherent accumu-lation of materials on the surface. black crusts areblack to grey and have a perceivable thickness.- discolouration, which is a change of colour in oneof the colour parameters: hue, value and chroma,and is often per ceived as unattractive.

    dIsColouratIon& dePosIt &

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    dePosIt .

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    eFFloresCenCe .>

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  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 59

    the sandstone elements of these buttresses show a variety of colours. Creamy toorange colours correspond to stones more recently set into the masonry. browncolours are due to the development of an iron-rich patina, as a result of a longerexposure in the open air.

    Czech republic, Prague, Cathedral, 2002.stone size : c. 30 x 50 cm. lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    PatIna .

    this sandstone sculpture, originally of light colour, has developed an iron rich patina overtime.

    Czech republic, Prague, one of the sculptures of the Charles bridge, 2002. lrMH / V. Vergs-belmin

    PatIna .

    oxalate patina developing on limestone.

    Morocco, Volubilis archaelogical site, basilica, 2006. Width of a stone : c. 45 cm. CICrP/J.-M. Vallet

    PatIna .

    FIlM .

    glossY asPeCt .

    graFFItI .

    PatIna .

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    subFloresCenCe .

    enCrustatIon .

  • :

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    soIlIng

    60

    definition :deposit of a very thin layer of exogenous particles(eg. soot) giving a dirty appearance to the stone sur-face.

    relationship with the substrate :With soiling, the substrate stucture is not consideredas affect ed. soiling may have different degrees ofadhesion to the substrate.

    not to be confused with : - Crust, which has a visible thickness.- deposit, which has a visible thickness, and not sys-tematically a dirty appearance.

    other remarks :With increasing adhesion and cohesion, soiling cantransform into a crust. soiling may originate fromatmospheric pollutants (industrial, domestic or carexhaust products) or from particles transported byrunning water or heating convection.

    dIsColouratIon& dePosIt &

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  • this very particular type of soiling is specificof stone surfaces treated with water repel-lents. Water pathways are limited to narrowstripes, where algae may develop preferen-tially.

    France, Versailles, Castle Park, marble sculptu-re, 2002. large side : c. 0.6 m. lrMH / V. Ver-gs-belmin

    soIlIng .

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 61

    thin, veil-like soiling by atmospheric dust onhorizontal and subhorizontal parts of thesculptures.

    France, Marseille, la nouvelle Major cathedral,grey serena sandstone and white limestone,2006. size of the tympanum : c. 2.5 m. CICrP /J.-M. Vallet

    soIlIng .

    soiling on the surface of a limestone sculpture protectedagainst rainfall.

    France, reims, Cathdrale notre-dame. Faade occidentale, por-tail central, 1989. Head size : c. 40cm. lrMH dIa00015622 / J.P.bozellec

    soIlIng .

    FIlM .

    glossY asPeCt .

    graFFItI .

    PatIna .

    soIlIng .

    subFloresCenCe .

    enCrustatIon .

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    subFloresCenCe

    62

    definition :Poorly adhesive soluble salts, commonly white, lo -cat ed under the stone surface.

    relationship with the substrate :subflorescences are hidden, unless the stone layerover them detaches. In that case, salt crystals beco-me visible on the newly exposed surface.

    equivalent term to be found in other glossaries :Cryptoflorescence.

    not to be confused with :- efflorescence, which corresponds to salt crystalliza-tion on the surface of the stone instead of under it.

    other remarks :subflorescence is commonly the result of evaporationof saline water present in the porous structure of thestone. as subflorescences develop inside the porousstructure, they often result in scaling of the surface.

    dIsColouratIon& dePosIt &

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    dePosIt .

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  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 63

    Formation of white subflorescen-ce, i.e. salt deposits withinporous sand stone leading to lossof the stone surface, resultingfrom the use of de-icing salts atthe entrance to the building.

    scotland, glasgow, newark drive,2005. british geological survey / e.Hyslop

    subFloresCenCe .

    FIlM .

    glossY asPeCt .

    graFFItI .

    PatIna .

    soIlIng .

    subFloresCenCe .

    enCrustatIon .

  • 3

    biological colonisation

    2mm

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    bIologICalColonIzatIon .

    bIologICal ColonIzatIon . alga . >

    64

    definition :Colonization of the stone by plants and micro-or gan -isms such as bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, fungiand lichen (symbioses of the latter three). biologicalcolonization also includes influences by other orga-nisms such as animals nesting on and in stone.

    relationship with the substrate :direct growth on and in stone or stone cavities ; alsoindirect influences by nearby trees and other orga-nisms.

    equivalent terms to be found in other glossaries :biological growth, biological overgrowth, living exo-genous material.

    other spelling :biological colonisation.

    not to be confused with :- deposit : consists of an accumulation of exogenicmaterial, such as dust, droppings, on the stone sur-face. For instance, a birds nest, a spider web arepart of biological colonization, but bird or bat drop-pings are deposits.

    other remarks : biological colonization may be used when a mixtureof different types of organisms are present on astone, and are not distinguishable from each other.biofilm : Mono- to multilayered microbial colony atta-ched to surfaces with varying thickness of up to2mm. often a biofilm consists of very few cells of dif-ferent microorganisms embedded in large amountsof extracellular slime. these cohesive often stickylayers may shrink and expand according to the sup-ply of water. biofilms often create multicoloured bio-patina by production of colouring agents. Higherplants grow sometimes to a considerable size atunexpected locations.

    bIologICalColonIzatIon

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) .

    Moss . lICHen . Mould . Plant .

    65

    biological colonization (essentially plants and algae ) on alimestone masonry.

    Malta, Mdina, gate of the old fortified capital, 2005. IMCr / J.Cassar

    bIologICal ColonIzatIon .

    dark grey diffuse biological colonization in dolostone andlimestone.

    Portugal, tomar, Christ Convent, 2001. Photo of 10m widthapproximately. lneC / J. delgado rodrigues

    bIologICal ColonIzatIon .

    this mason wasp nest on asand stone carved elementconstitutes a type of biologicalcolonization.

    India, Fathepur sikri, 2003. lrMH/ V. Vergs-belmin

    bIologICal ColonIzatIon . biological colonization consti-tuted of an association ofalgae (dark grey), lichen (lightgrey andorange) and mosses (greencushions, 2cm large).

    2

    France, bourges, Cathedral,limestone bank, 2007. lrMH /V. Vergs-belmin

    bIologICal ColonIzatIon .

  • :10mm

    algae

    trente-pohlia

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 66

    definition :algae are microscopic vegetal organisms withoutstem or leaves which can be seen outdoors andindoors, as powdery or viscous deposits (thickness :tenth of mm to several mm). algae form green, red,brown, or black veil like zones and can be foundmainly in situations where the substrate remainsmoistened for long periods of time. depending on theenvironmental conditions and substrate type, algaemay form solid layers or smooth films. on monu-ments, algae are constituted of unicellular to pluricel-lular clusters, and they never form macroorganisms.

    relationship with the substrate :algae generally constitute superficial films. they maybe found also deeper into the substrate (under sca-les, in cracks).

    other spelling :Plural form : algae.

    not to be confused with :algae may be confused with epilithic lichen, with fun-gae and sometimes with soot or mineral deposits soi-ling the stone surface. If algae are present, wettingand brushing the surface will turn it to green due tothe presence of chlorophyll.

    other remarks :several groups of algae may grow on and in stonedepending on climate and stone type. green algae(sometimes red, e.g. trentepohlia) diatoms (usuallyyellow to brown), and in rare cases red algae mayoccur. Cyanobacteria (formerly called blue-greenalgae) are very frequent stone dwellers and cancause black, bluish or even violet stains. In somecases the stone serves as a source of nutrients.However usually the stone surface is only a solidhost for growth.

    alga

    bIologICalColonIzatIon .

    bIologICal ColonIzatIon . alga . >

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 67

    green algae growing on alimestone buttress.

    France, thouars, eglisesaint-Mdard, 1994.dimension stones 30 cmthick. lrMH / g. orial

    alga .

    green algae developing on a lime render on stonemasonry.

    Czech republic, nedvedice, south Moravia, PernstejnCastle, 2004. national Heritage of the Czech rep. / d.Michoinova

    alga .

    red algae on a bas-reliefsandstone sculpture.

    Cambodia, angkor, Chaosey, 2003. lrMH / V.Vergs-belmin

    alga .

    Moss . lICHen . Mould . Plant .

  • :mm

    mm

    , ,

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 68

    definition :Vegetal organism forming rounded millimetric to cen-timetric crusty or bushy patches, often having a lea-thery appearence, growing generally on outsideparts of a building. lichen are most commonly grey,yellow, orange, green or black and show no differen-tiation into stem, root and leaf.

    relationship with the substrate :a lichen is composed of a thallus, eventually bearingfruiting bodies, generally developed on the stone sur-face, and rhizines that may penetrate deep into thestone (tens to several millimeters).

    sub-type(s) :lichen usually are divided into crustose, folious andepilithic types. When their thallus is mainly inside thestone, they are called endolithic lichen.

    not to be confused with :Moss, alga, mould : see those terms.

    other remarks :all lichen represent symbiotic growth of a fungus andgreen alga or a cyanobacterium. lichen is a commonfeature on outdoor stone and is generally best deve-loped under clean air conditions, but growth may befacilitated by certain pollutants such as nitrogen oxi-des derived primarily from vehicle pollution or agri-culture. Former lichen growth may be detected bytypical pitting structures (see this term) or lobate ormosaic patterns and even depressions.

    lICHen

    bIologICalColonIzatIon .

    bIologICal ColonIzatIon . alga . >

  • ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 69

    lichens on a marble figure.

    switzerland, Pontresina, Cemetery,1993. KdC olching/s. simon

    lICHen . lichen on marble sculp-ture.

    Portugal, vora,Cathedral, 2001. Piecesof 1.5m height approxi-mately. lneC / J.delgado rodrigues

    lICHen .

    lichen on a coarse grained granitemonolith.

    Portugal, vora , almendresCromlech, 2004. Monolith 2m highapproximately. lneC / J. delgadorodrigues

    lICHen .

    White folious lichen on a basaltic tiki

    French Polynesia, Marquises Islands, atuona, 2006. lrMH / g. orial

    lICHen .

    Folious lichen(ramalina sp.) growingon a granite dimensionstone.

    ramalina sp.

    France, Penmarc'h,saint-nonna church,1991. Picture small side :15cm. lrMHdIa00091617 / J.P.bozellec

    lICHen .

    Moss . lICHen . Mould . Plant .

  • cm

    ICoMos International scientific Committee for stone (IsCs) . 70

    definition :Vegetal organism forming small, soft and greencush ions of centimetric size. Mosses look generallylike dense micro-leaves (sub- to millimetric size) tigh-tly packed together. Mosses often grow on stone sur-face open cavities, cracks, and in any place perma-nently or frequently wet (masonry joints), and usual-ly shady.

    relationship with the substrate :Mosses develop brown rhizines and may create amicro-soil zone between the stone surface and thegreen part.

    not to be confused with:- lichen, which are composed of a thallus and do nothave the typical organisation of micro-leaves tightlypacked together.- algae : algae are green during the humid season,but look different from mosses (viscous consistency,absence of microleaves).

    other remarks :Mosses often change morphology and colour underlack or excess of water. during dry periods of theyear, the cushions shrink, b