General History of Africa Vol 3: Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century

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UNESCO International Committee for the Drafting of a General History of Africa

Transcript of General History of Africa Vol 3: Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century

GENERALHISTORYOF AFRICA HI Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century

U N E S C O General History of Africa Volume I Volume II Volume III Methodology and African Prehistory (Editor J. Ki-Zerbo) Ancient Civilizations of Africa (Editor G . Mokhtar) Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century (Editor M . El Fasi) (Assistant Editor I. Hrbek) Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century (Editor D . T . Niane) Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century (Editor B . A . Ogot) Africa in the Nineteenth Century until the 1880s (Editor J. F . A . Ajayi) Africa under Colonial Domination, 1880-1935 (Editor A . A . Boahen) Africa since 1935 (Editor A . A . Mazrui) (Assistant Editor C . Wondji)

Volume IV Volume V Volume VI Volume VII Volume VIII

U N E S C O International Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General History of Africa

G E N E R A L HISTORY OF A F R I C A - H I Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh CenturyEDITOR M.ELFASl ASSISTANT EDITOR l.HRBEK

HEINEMANN -CALIFORNIA UNESCO

First published 1988 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 7 Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris and Reprinted in 1995 by Heinemann Educational Publishers A Division of Heinemann Publishers (Oxford) Ltd Halley Court, Jordan Hill, Oxford 0 x 2 8EJ Reprinted in 2000 by U N E S C O Publishing 1 rue Miollis, 75732 PARIS Cedex 15, France Heinemann: A Division of Reed Publishing (USA) Inc. 361 Hanover Street, Portsmouth, N H 03801-3912, U S A Heinemann Educational Books (Nigeria) Ltd P M B 5205, Ibadan Heinemann Educational Boleswa P O Box 10103, Village Post Office, Gaborone, Botswana FLORENCE PRAGUE PARIS M A D R I D ATHENS M E L B O U R N E JOHANNESBURG A U C K L A N D SINGAPORE T O K Y O CHICAGO SAO PAULO First published 1988 in the United States of America by the University of California Press 2120 Berkeley W a y , Berkeley California 94720, United States of America U N E S C O 1988 Heinemann Publishers ISBN o 435 94809 1

UNESCO ISBN 92-3-101 709-8 University of California Press ISBN 0-520-03914-9

Filmset in u p t M o n o p h o t o Ehrhardt by Eta Services (Typesetters) Ltd., Beccles, Suffolk

ContentsNote on chronology List of figures ix List of plates xi xv vii

Acknowledgements for plates

Preface xvii A M A D O U - M A H T A R M ' B O W , Former Director-General of Unesco Description of the Project xxiii B . A . O G O T , Former President of the International Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General History of Africa i 2 3 Africa in the context of world history I. H R B E K i 31

The coming of Islam and the expansion of the Muslim empire M . E L FASI and I. H R B E K Stages in the development of Islam and its dissemination in Africa 56 M . EL FASI and I. H R B E K Islam as a social system in Africa since the seventh century Z. DRAMANI-ISSIFOU T h e peoples of the Sudan: population movements F. D E MEDEIROS T h e Bantu-speaking peoples and their expansion S. L W A N G A - L U N Y I I G O and J. VANSINA Egypt from the Arab conquest until the end of the Ftimid state (1171) 163 T.BIANQUIS Christian Nubia at the height of its civilization S. JAKOBIELSKI 194 224 119 140 92

4 5 6 7

8 9 10

T h e conquest of North Africa and Berber resistance H. M O N S T h e independence of the Maghrib M . TALBI 246

v

Contents 11 T h e role of the Sahara and Saharians in relationships between north and south 276 T . LEWICKI T h e emergence of the Ftimids I. H R B E K The Almoravids 336 I. H R B E K and J. DEVISSE Trade and trade routes in West Africa J. DEVISSE T h e Chad region as a crossroads D. LANGE 436 461 367 314

12 13 14 15 16 17

The Guinea zone: general situation Thurstan S H A W

T h e Guiean belt: the peoples between M o u n t Cameroon and the Ivory Coast* 488 B . W . A N D A H in collaboration with J. A N Q U A N D A H T h e peoples of Upper Guinea (between the Ivory Coast and the Casamance) 530 B. W . A N D A H T h e Horn of Africa T. T . M E K O U R I A 559 575 586

18

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Ethiopia's relations with the Muslim world E. CERULLI

T h e East African coast and the C o m o r o Islands F. T . M A S A O and H . W . M U T O R O T h e East African interior C. E H R E T 616

Central Africa to the north of the Zambezi D . W . PHILLIPSON Southern Africa to the south of the Zambezi T. N . H U F F M A N Madagascar 681 B. D O M E N I C H I N I - R A M I A R A M A N A N A

643 664

T h e African diaspora in Asia 704 Y . T A L I B based on a contribution by F. Samir Relations between the different regions of Africa 734 A . B A T H I L Y with the collaboration o/C. M E I L L A S S O U X

Contents 28 Africa from the seventh to the eleventh century: five formative centuries 750 J. D E V I S S E and J. V A N S I N A

M e m b e r s of the International Scientific Committee for the drafting of a General History of Africa 794 Biographies of Authors Bibliography Index 848 799 796

* Note: T h e official designation of Cte d'Ivoire is Cte d'Ivoire in all languages but with respect to the English practice, Ivory Coast will be found in this book.

Note on chronologyIt has been agreed to adopt the following method for writing dates. With regard to prehistory, dates may be written in two different ways. O n e way is by reference to the present era, that is, dates B P (before present),the reference year being + 1 9 5 0 ; all dates are negative in relation to + 1950. T h e other way is by reference to the beginning of the Christian era. Dates are represented in relation to the Christian era by a simple + or sign before the date. W h e n referring to centuries, the terms B C and AD are replaced by 'before the Christian era' and 'of the Christian era'. S o m e examples are as follows: (i) 2300 B P = - 3 5 0 (ii) 2900 BC = 2900 AD 180O = +180O (iii) 5th century B C = 5th century before the Christian era 3rd century AD = 3rd century of the Christian era

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List of figuresi.i T h e Old World, c. 230/845 15 2.1 T h e expansion of the Islamic state 50 3.1 T h e Islamized areas of Africa by c. 1100 58 3.2 T h e Islamized areas of Africa by c. 1500 77 5.1 West Africa in the eleventh century 124 6.1 Bantu expansion 144 6.2 Early Iron Age pottery (Urewe) from Rurembo, Rwanda 153 6.3 Early Iron Age pottery (Urewe) from Kabuye, Rwanda 153 6.4(a)-(c) Profiles of reconstituted Early Iron Age furnaces in the Butare area, Rwanda 158 7.1 Arab Egypt 167 8.1 Christian Nubia ig7 8.2 T h e mosque building in Old Dongola 201 8.3 Plan of the Christian site of Debeyra West 205 8.4 Plan of Kasr al-Wizz, a Nubian monastic complex 205 8.5 T h e Second Period in the development of Nubian church architecture 218 8.6 T h e Third Period in the development of Nubian church architecture 220 9.1 T h e Arab conquest of the Maghrib 230 1 I.I T h e Sahara 27c 12.1 T h e Maghrib in thefirsthalf of thefifth/eleventhcentury 316 13.1 T h e Almoravid empire: towns and monuments 338 13.2 Localities on the Senegal in the Almoravid period 358 14.1 T h e desert area to be crossed: m a p showing present-day isohyets 370 14.2 Trade routes described by Ibn Hawkal 375 14.3 Gold mints on the eve of the Ftimid conquest 3Q3 14.4 Minting of dirhams in the Western Maghrib during the Idrisid period 3Q4 14.5 Minting of gold in the Western Muslim world after 910 3Q5 14.6 Almoravid gold coinage: mints 401 14.7 Al-Bakrfs itineraries: western part 407 14.8 Al-Idrisrs itineraries: western part 411 14.9 Sites of trans-Saharan trade, ninth to eleventh centuries 415 14.10 Gold production areas in West Africa 424 16.1 T h e Guinea zone: places mentioned in the text 463 16.2 Plan of the Wassu site 472 16.3 T w o stone circles at Wassu 473 16.4 T h e lyre stone at Kerbatch 474 17.1 T o w n s and sites mentioned in the text 48c 17.2 Language groups, peoples and kingdoms mentioned in the text 4Q0 17.3 Tenth- to eleventh-century painted pottery from Begho, Republic of Ghana 47IX

List of figures 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 19.1 21.1 21.2 22.1 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 25.1 27.1 Seventh- to ninth-century pottery from N e w Buipe, Republic of Ghana 48 Seventh- to ninth-century pottery from N e w Buipe, Republic of Ghana 48 Pottery from period II at N k u k o a B u o h o , Republic of Ghana 500 Kintampo Culture artefacts from period I at N k u k o a Buoho, Republic of Ghana 500 Middle Iron A g e Shai D a n g m e pottery from Cherekecherete, Republic of Ghana 503 West Africa: major physical regions S32 Language families of West Africa 535 M a n d i n g peoples and languages 537 Population movements in the U p p e r Guinea region $42 T h e H o r n of Africa 561 Pottery excavated at M r o D e o u a , C o m o r o Islands $Q6 Old Shrz m o s q u e of D o m o n i Anjouan, C o m o r o Islands (eleventh century) 597 Major eastern African societies from about the seventh to the ninth century 618 Archaeological cultures in eastern and southern Africa 64s Archaeological sites in central Africa 647 Pottery and an ivory bangle from Sanga, Zaire 652 L u a n g w a tradition pottery from M a k w e rock-shelter, eastern Zambia 660 M o d e r n L u n g w e b u n g u tradition pottery 662 S o m e of the ethnic groups denned by ceramic style in southern Africa between 700 and 900 666 Ethnic groups and movements in southern Africa between 9 5 0 and 1000 668 Spatial organization of the Bantu Cattle Culture 670 Stylized reconstruction of the K 2 site, c. 1050 675 Stylized reconstruction of M a p u n g u b w e at 1075 and 1150 677 Madagascar and the Comoros 683, Relations between the different parts of Africa from the seventh to the eleventh century 735

T h e publishers would like to thank the following for supplying maps and/or d r a w ings for this volume: Professor B . W . A n d a