Food Nutrion - Food Pyramid

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    FOOD,NUTRITIONANDCOOKINGFOOD

    Foodisanysubstanceconsumedtoprovidenutritionalsupportforthebody.Itisusuallyof

    plantor

    animal

    origin,

    and

    contains

    essential

    nutrients,

    such

    as

    carbohydrates,

    fats,

    proteins,

    vitamins,orminerals.Thesubstanceisingestedbyanorganismandassimilatedbytheorganism's

    cellsinanefforttoproduceenergy,maintainlife,orstimulategrowth.

    NUTRITIONNutrition(alsocallednourishmentoraliment) istheprovision,tocellsandorganisms,of

    thematerialsnecessary(intheformoffood)tosupportlife.Manycommonhealthproblemscan

    bepreventedoralleviatedwithahealthydiet.

    Therearesixmajorclassesofnutrients:carbohydrates, fats,minerals,protein,vitamins,

    andwater.

    MacronutrientsandMicronutrients:Thesenutrient classescanbe categorizedaseithermacronutrients (needed in relatively

    large amounts) or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities). The macronutrients include

    carbohydrates (including fiber), fats, protein, and water. The micronutrients are minerals and

    vitamins.

    Themacronutrients (excluding fiberandwater)provide structuralmaterial (amino acids

    fromwhichproteinsarebuilt,andlipidsfromwhichcellmembranesandsomesignalingmolecules

    arebuilt)andenergy.Vitamins,minerals,fiber,andwaterdonotprovideenergy,butarerequired

    for other reasons. A third class of dietarymaterial, fiber (i.e., nondigestiblematerial such as

    cellulose), is also required, for both mechanical and biochemical reasons, although the exact

    reasonsremainunclear.

    CarbohydratesCarbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides

    dependingonthenumberofmonomer(sugar)unitstheycontain.Theyconstitutealargepartof

    foods such as rice, noodles, bread, and other grainbased products. Monosaccharides,

    disaccharides,andpolysaccharidescontainone,two,andthreeormoresugarunits,respectively.

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    Polysaccharidesareoften referredtoascomplexcarbohydratesbecause theyaretypically long,

    multiplebranchedchainsofsugarunits.

    FiberDietary

    fiber

    is

    acarbohydrate

    (or

    apolysaccharide)

    that

    is

    incompletely

    absorbed

    in

    humansand insomeanimals.Likeallcarbohydrates,when it ismetabolized itcanproduce four

    Calories (kilocalories)of energyper gram.However, inmost circumstances it accounts for less

    than that because of its limited absorption and digestibility. Dietary fiber consists mainly of

    cellulose, a large carbohydrate polymer that is indigestible because humans do not have the

    requiredenzymestodisassembleit.

    FatA

    molecule

    of

    dietary

    fat

    typically

    consists

    of

    several

    fatty

    acids

    (containing

    long

    chains

    of

    carbonandhydrogenatoms),bondedtoaglycerol.Theyaretypicallyfoundastriglycerides(three

    fattyacidsattachedtooneglycerolbackbone).Fatsmaybeclassifiedassaturatedorunsaturated

    dependingon thedetailed structure of the fatty acids involved. Saturated fats have all of the

    carbonatomsintheirfattyacidchainsbondedtohydrogenatoms,whereasunsaturatedfatshave

    someof thesecarbonatomsdoublebonded,so theirmoleculeshave relatively fewerhydrogen

    atomsthanasaturatedfattyacidofthesamelength.Unsaturatedfatsmaybefurtherclassifiedas

    monounsaturated (onedoublebond)orpolyunsaturated (manydoublebonds).Trans fatsarea

    type of unsaturated fat with transisomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from

    naturalsources;

    they

    are

    typically

    created

    in

    an

    industrial

    process

    called

    (partial)

    hydrogenation.

    Thereareninekilocaloriesineachgramoffat.Fattyacidssuchasconjugatedlinoleicacid,catalpic

    acid,eleostearicacidandpunicicacid,inadditiontoprovidingenergy,representpotentimmune

    modulatorymolecules.

    Saturated fats (typically fromanimalsources)havebeenastaple inmanyworldcultures

    formillennia.Unsaturatedfats(e.g.,vegetableoil)areconsideredhealthier,whiletransfatsare

    tobe avoided. Saturated and some trans fatsare typically solid at room temperature (suchas

    butterorlard),whileunsaturatedfatsaretypicallyliquids(suchasoliveoilorflaxseedoil).Trans

    fatsare

    very

    rare

    in

    nature,

    and

    have

    been

    shown

    to

    be

    highly

    detrimental

    to

    human

    health,

    but

    havepropertiesusefulinthefoodprocessingindustry,suchasrancidityresistance.

    EssentialfattyacidsMost fatty acids are nonessential, meaning the body can produce them as needed,

    generallyfromotherfattyacidsandalwaysbyexpendingenergytodoso.However,inhumans,at

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    culturaltraditions.Cooksthemselvesalsovarywidelyinskillandtraining.Cookingcanalsooccur

    throughchemicalreactionswithoutthepresenceofheat,mostnotablyasinCeviche,atraditional

    SouthAmericandishwherefishiscookedwiththeacidsinlemonorlimejuice.Sushialsoutilizesa

    similarchemicalreactionbetweenfishandtheacidiccontentofriceglazedwithvinegar.

    Preparingfoodwithheatorfireisanactivityuniquetohumans,andsomescientistsbelievetheadventofcookingplayedanimportantroleinhumanevolution.Mostanthropologistsbelievethat

    cooking fires first developed around 250,000 years ago. The development of agriculture,

    commerceandtransportationbetweencivilizations indifferentregionsofferedcooksmanynew

    ingredients. New inventions and technologies, such as pottery for holding and boiling water,

    expandedcookingtechniques.Somemoderncooksapplyadvancedscientifictechniquestofood

    preparation.

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    FOODPYRAMID

    Afoodguidepyramidisapyramidshapedguideofhealthyfoodsdividedintosectionstoshowtherecommendedintakeforeachfoodgroup.

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    PHILIPPINEFOODPYRAMID

    TheFoodandNutritionResearchInstitute(undertheDOST)FoodPyramid: DailyEatingGuideforFilipinos

    Usingasimple

    graphic

    presentation,

    it

    makes

    itself

    understood

    and

    therefore

    easily

    followed

    by

    practicallyeverybody.Atthesametime,itlendsitselftoadaptationtosuitindividualneeds.ThustheFNRI

    has developed a food pyramid guide for the general Filipino population, building upon the various

    nutritionalguides thatwehavealreadydesigned.Westartedwith theBasic6, followedby theGuide to

    GoodNutritionwiththreemajorfoodgroupsof"Go,GlowandGrow"foods,theNutritionalGuidelinesfor

    Filipinos including five simple rules to follow, then followed by various guides for the prevention of

    diseases.

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    FOODGROUPS(GeneralFoodGroups)

    Foodgroupingbasedonnutrients:vitaminsandminerals,proteins,fatsandcarbohydrates

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    FOODGROUPS(GO,GROWANDGLOW)

    GoFoods

    Go Foods: Energy givers - give us energy

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    GrowFoods

    Grow Foods: Body builders - help to build our bodies and make them strong

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    GlowFoods

    Glow Foods: Protection of body - Protect us from getting sick

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    RECOMMENDEDENERGYANDNUTRIENTSINTAKE(RENI)FORFILIPINOS

    (Previously:RecommendedDietaryAllowances(RDA))

    By: Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) of the DOST

    The revised edition of the dietary standards is changed from "Recommended Dietary Allowances(RDA)" to Recommended Energy and Nutrient Intakes (RENI) to emphasize that the standards are interms of nutrients, and not foods or diets. RENIs are defined as levels of intakes of energy and nutrientswhich, on the basis of current scientific knowledge, are considered adequate for the maintenance of healthand well being of nearly all healthy persons in the population. For most nutrients, they are equal to theaverage physiologic requirement (AR), corrected for incomplete utilization or dietary nutrient bioavailability,plus two standard deviations (SD), or twice an assumed coefficient of variation (CV), to cover the needs ofalmost all individuals in the population. In the case of nutrient for which data on AR are insufficient, the RNIis an "adequate intake" (AI) which is based on the experimentally observed average intake of healthyindividuals. For energy, the recommended intake level is set at the estimated average requirement ofindividuals in a group (no SD), since intakes consistently above the individuals r4equirement lead tooverweight or obesity.

    POPULATION GROUPINGS.

    The population groups essentially follow the (FAO/WHO, 2002) groupings. These are similar tothose of the 1989 Philippine RDA, except for the cut-off for children, which is now 18 years rather than 19years, consistent with the International Reference Standards (IRS) for growth.

    REFERENCE WEIGHTS.

    The reference weights for adults are the average weights derived from the 1998 National NutritionSurvey (NNS). These weights are higher by 3 kg in the male and 2 kg in the female than the referenceweights used in the 1989 Philippine RDA edition. The reference weights for children are set higher than theaverage weights following the International Reference Standards except in late adolescence.

    RECOMMENDED E