February 28 th QUIZ – Chapter 23 Notes – chapter 23 February 28 th QUIZ – Chapter 23 Notes –...

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February 28 February 28 th th QUIZ – Chapter 23 QUIZ – Chapter 23 Notes – chapter 23 Notes – chapter 23 Roots, Stems, and Leaves HW: Plant book
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Transcript of February 28 th QUIZ – Chapter 23 Notes – chapter 23 February 28 th QUIZ – Chapter 23 Notes –...

  • February 28th QUIZ Chapter 23Notes chapter 23 Roots, Stems, and Leaves

    HW: Plant book

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  • March 2ndWeekend HW Finish notes Chapter 23 Roots, Stems and LeavesGrade Plant book **BRING YOUR LEAF TOMORROW!!****No microscopes today**

  • 23-1 Specialized Tissues in PlantsPlants are as successful if not more successful than animalsSeed plants have three main structures:RootsStemsLeavesLinked together by various means

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  • 23-1 Specialized Tissues in PlantsRootsAbsorbs water and nutrientsAnchor plant to the groundHold soil in place and prevent erosionProtect from soil bacteriaTransport water and nutrientsProvide upright support

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  • 23-1 Specialized Tissues in PlantsStemsSupport for the plant bodyCarries nutrients throughout plantDefense system to protect against predators and infectionFew millimeters to 100 meters

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  • 23-1 Specialized Tissues in PlantsLeavesMain photosynthetic systemsSusceptible to extreme dryingSight of oxygen/carbon dioxide intake and release

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  • 23-1 Specialized Tissues in PlantsPlant tissue systemsExist within the root, stems, and leavesDermal tissueVascular tissueGround tissue

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  • 23-1 Specialized Tissues in PlantsDermal TissueOuter covering Single layer of cellsCuticle waxy coating Trichomes Spiny projections on the leafRoots have dermal tissueRoot hairsGuard Cells

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  • 23-1 Specialized Tissues in PlantsVascular TissueTransport SystemSubsystemsXylemPhloemSubsystems are used to carry fluids throughout plant

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  • 23-1 Specialized Tissues in PlantsXylemTwo typesSeed plantsAngiospermsTracheid long narrow cellsWalls are connected to neighboring cellsWill eventually dieVessel Element wider that trachieds

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  • 23-1 Specialized Tissues in PlantsPhloemSieve Tube ElementsCells arranged end to endPump sugars and other foodsCompanion CellsSurround sieve tube elementsSupport phloem cells

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  • 23-1 Specialized Tissues in PlantsGround TissueCells between dermal and vascular tissueParenchymaThin cell walls, large vacuolesSite of photosynthesisCollenchymaStrong, flexible cell wallsSupport large plantsSclerenchymaExtremely thick, rigid cell walls

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  • 23-1 Specialized Tissues in PlantsPlant GrowthMeristems tissues responsible for growth Undifferentiated cellsApical MeristemProduce growth increased lengthDifferentiationCells will assume roles in the plantFlower DevelopmentStarts in the meristem

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  • 23-2 RootsTypes of RootsTaprootsFound in dicotsLong, thick rootHickory and oak treesFibrous rootsFound in monocotsNo single root larger than any otherMany thin roots

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  • 23-2 RootsRoot StructureOutside layerEpidermisRoot hairs - absorptionCortex - spongyCentral cylinder vascular systemRoot Cap cellular productionKey role in water/mineral transport

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  • 23-2 RootsRoot FunctionsAnchor plantAbsorb waterAbsorb nutrients

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  • 23-2 RootsPlant Nutrient UptakeSoil type determines plant typePlant requirementsOxygen, CO2 NitrogenPhosphorusPostassiumMagnesiumCalciumTrace elements

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  • 23-2 RootsActive Transport in PlantsRoot hairs use ATP Pump minerals from soilCauses water molecules to follow by osmosisVascular CylinderCasparian Strip water retentionRoot PressureForces water up into the plant

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  • 23-3 StemsStem StructureProduce leaves, branches, and flowersHold leaves upTransport substance between roots and leavesEssential part of transport systemFunction in storage and photosynthesis

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  • 23-3 StemsXylem and phloem major tubule systemsTransport water and nutrientsComposed of three tissue layersContain nodes attachment for leaves Internodes regions between the nodesBuds undeveloped tissue

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  • 23-3 StemsStem TypesMonocot vascular bundles are scattered throughoutDistinct epidermisDicot vascular tissue arranged in a cylinderPith parenchyma cells inside the ring

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  • 23-3 StemsStem GrowthPrimary growth new cells produced at the root tips and shootsIncreases the lengthSecondary growth increase in stem widthVascular cambium produces tissue and increases thicknessCork cambium produces outer covering of stems

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  • 23-3 StemsFormation of Vascular CambiumXylem and phloem bundles present intiallySecondary growth initiates production of a thin layerThe vascular cambium dividesProduces new xylem and phloem

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  • 23-3 StemsFormation of woodWood layers of xylemProduced year after yearResults from the older xylem not conducting water heartwoodBecomes darker with ageSapwood surrounds heartwood

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  • 23-3 RootsFormation of BarkAll the tissues outside the vascular cambiumConsists of outermost layers of dead corkWater proof

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  • 23-4 LeavesMain sight of photosynthesisConsist of:Blade thin flattened sectionPetiole stalk that attaches stem to bladeCovered by epidermis and cuticleCreate water proof barrier

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  • 23-4 LeavesLeaf FunctionsPhotosynthesis occurs in the mesophyllPalisade mesophyll absorb lightSpongy mesophyll beneath palisede levelStomata pores in the underside of the leafGuard Cells Surround the stomata

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  • 23-4 LeavesTranspirationLoss of water through its leavesReplaced by water drawn into the leaf

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  • 23-4 LeavesGas ExchangeTake in CO2 and release O2Can also do the opposite How?Gas exchange takes place at the stomataNot open all the timeStomata is controlled by water pressure in guard cells

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  • 23-5 Transport in PlantsWater TransportActive transport and root pressureCause water to move from soil to rootsCapillary actionCombined with active transport and root pressure, moves materials throughout the plant

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  • 23-5 Transport in PlantsCapillary TransportCapillary transport results from both cohesive and adhesive forcesWater molecules attracted to one anotherWater is also attracted to the xylem tubes in the plantCauses water to move from roots to the stem and upward

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  • 23-5 Transport in PlantsTranspirationEvaporation is the major moving forceAs water is lost, osmotic pressure moves water out of vascular tissueThis pulls water up from the stem to the leavesAffected by heat, humidity, and wind

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  • 23-5 Transport in PlantsControlling TranspirationOpen the stomata increase water lossClose the stomata decrease water loss

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  • 23-5 Transport in PlantsTranspiration and WiltingOsmotic pressure keeps plants semi-rigidWilting is a result of high transpiration ratesLoss of water causes a drop in osmotic pressureLoss of rigidityConserves water

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  • 23-5 Transport in PlantsNutrient TransportMost nutrients are pushed through plantNutrient movement takes place in phloemSource to SinkSource any cell that produces sugarsSink any cell where sugars are usedPressure-flow Hypothesis

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