Expanding West The Texas Revolution Chapter 11, Section 2 Pages 350 - 353

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Transcript of Expanding West The Texas Revolution Chapter 11, Section 2 Pages 350 - 353

  • Slide 1
  • Expanding West The Texas Revolution Chapter 11, Section 2 Pages 350 - 353
  • Slide 2
  • Building Background Spain controlled a vast amount of territory in what would later become the American Southwest. The Spanish built missions and forts in Texas to establish control of that region. But the settlements were far apart, and conflicts with Native Americans discouraged Spanish settlers from moving to Texas. When Mexico became an independent republic, it actively looked for more settlers.
  • Slide 3
  • Hildagos Revolt Mexico had a long, unprotected boarder that stretched from Texas to California. Mexicos Spanish rulers worried constantly about attacks from its neighbors and from within. In 1810 Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla led a rebellion of about 80,000 poor Indians and mestizos (people of Indian and Spanish ancestry. They hoped that if Mexico became independent from the Spanish crown, their lives would improve.
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  • Mexicos Independence Hidalgos revolt failed, but the rebellion he started grew. In 1821 Mexico became independent. In 1824 it adopted a republicans constitution that declared rights for all Mexicans.
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  • Settlement of Mexico The new Mexican government hired empresarios, to bring families to Texas and settle them there. In 1822 one young agent, Stephen F. Austin, started a Texas colony on the lower Colorado River. The first 300 families became Known as the Old Three Hundred.
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  • Settlement of Mexico In exchange for free land, settlers had to obey Mexican laws. But some settlers ignored these laws. For example, some settlers brought their slave into Mexico with them and slavery was prohibited by the Mexican government. Mexico became concerned about losing control of the territory and banned further settlement in 1830. Angry about this action, many Texans began to think about gaining their independence from Mexico.
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  • General Santa Anna Mexico came under the rule of General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. He quickly suspended Mexicos republicans constitution and turned his attention to the growing unrest in Texas.
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  • The Struggle for Independence The first fight of the Texan Revolution occurred in October 1835 at the town of Gonzales. After the skirmish, Texans asked for volunteers to help them fight Mexico. In December, the Texans scored their first important victory as they liberated San Antonio from a larger Mexican force.
  • Slide 11
  • The Alamo Santa Anna, furious at the loss of San Antonio, marched north to retake the settlement and found only a small force barricaded inside a nearby mission called the Alamo. The defenders at the Alamo, including Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie, held off with rifle fire he larger and better- armed Mexican force for 12 days. On March 6, 1836, after Mexican cannon fire smashed the Alamos walls, Mexican soldiers attacked, killing almost everyone inside.
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  • The Alamo
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  • Remember the Alamo Remember the Alamo became a rallying cry for Texas rebels during the rest of the war with Mexico. The siege of the Alamo bought the Texas rebels time. While Santa Anna was preoccupied with the band of rebels at the Alamo, America settlers and Tejanos declared the independent Republic of Texas and named Sam Houston chief of the Texas forces.
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  • Battle of San Jacinto At the Battle of San Jacinto, the forces of Houston and Santa Anna clashed. The battle started on April 21, 1836, when the Texans launched a surprise attack on the Mexican camp. They killed about 600 of the 1300-man force, and captured 700 other soldiers, including Santa Anna. After less than one year of fighting, the war was over. Santa Anna signed a treaty recognizing the independence of Texas on May 14, 1836.
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  • The Lone Star Republic In September 1836, Texans elected Sam Houston the first president of their new republic. Houston sent a delegation to Washington to ask President Andrew Jackson to annex Texas. But Jackson refused. Texas would enter the Union as a slave state, which would upset the balance of free states and slave states in Congress at the time. Jackson did not want to open up that conflict, even to get Texas.
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  • The Lone Star Republic Texas was forced to remain independent during a very difficult time. The republic was deeply in debt. Also, the government of Mexico refused to accept Santa Annas recognition of Texass independence. As a result, sporadic fighting between Mexican and Texan forces continued.
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  • Becoming a State Texas remained independent throughout the administrations of Martin Van Buren and John Tyler. But when James Polk, a strong believer in Manifest Destiny, became president in 1844, the situation changed. Polk wanted Texas. With Polks support, Congress passed a resolution to annex Texas. On December 28, 1845, Texas became a state.