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about biodiversity......

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2. What is Bio-diversity?????????Biological diversity or biodiversity is that part of naturewhich includes the differences in genes among theindividuals of a species, the variety and richness of allthe plant and animal species at different scales inspace, locally, in a region,in the country and theworld, and various types of ecosystems, both terrestrialand aquatic,within a defined area. 3. Genetic diversityEach member of any animal or plant species differs widely from other individuals in its genetic makeup because of the large number of combinations possible in the genes that give every individual specific characteristics. Thus, for example, each human being is very different from all others. 4. Genetic diversity 5. Genetic diversity 6. Species diversityThe number of species of plants and animals that arepresent in a region constitutes its species diversity. Thisdiversity is seen both in natural ecosystems and inagricultural ecosystems 7. Values of Biodiversity:Food:About 80,000 edible plants and about 90% of present day food crops have been domesticated from wild.Drugs & Medicines:About 75% of worlds population depend on plants or plant extracts.Fuel:Forests have been used since ages for fuel wood. Fossil fuels are also products of Biodiversity.Social Value:Many of the plants like Tulsi, Lotus, Peepal etc are considered holy plants.About 2.1 million species have been identified till date, while many more species are believed to exist. 8. A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with asignificant reservoir of biodiversity that is threatened withdestruction. An area is designated as a hot spot when it contains atleast 0.5% of plant species as endemic. There are 25 such hot spots of biodiversity on a globallevel. These hot spots covering less than 2% of the worlds landarea are found to have about 50% of the terrestrialbiodiversity 9. BIOGEOGRAPHIC CLASSIFICATION OFINDIA The Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Thar Desert of Rajasthan. 10. Criteria for determining hot-spots:No. of Endemic Species i.e. the species which are found nowhere else.Degree of threat, which is measured in terms of Habitatloss. 11. A habitat is the physical and biological environment used by an individual, a population, a species, or a group ofspecies. 12. Habitat Loss has occurred when quality of the environment is so low that it isno longer usable by a given species. 13. Habitat Degradation is the process by whichhabitat quality for a given species isdiminished. 14. Causes of Habitat Loss include man madeobjects such as roads, dams, Etc. 15. Roads are structures used to facilitatemovement. However, they are barriers foranimals such as amphibians, smallreptiles, and invertebrates. 16. Damming streams and rivers have destroyedmany aquatic ecosystems. Many animalsmove up and down the streams searching forplaces to breed. 17. Consequences of Habitat Loss include theendangerment and extinction of species, aswell as the destruction of land and ecosystems. 18. Other structures that are considered to be a cause of Habitat Loss are parking lots, mines, buildings, and railroads. 19. Causes of Habitat Degradation are AirPollution, Water Pollution, and Pesticides. 20. A combination of CFCs and halons reduce the concentration of the ozone, allowing UVrays to reach the earth surface, forming toxicclouds called smog. 21. Water Pollution includes material such asmud that smothers the bottom of aquatic ecosystems at high concentrations. 22. Pesticides, Insecticides, and Rodenticides areused to kill animals that would eat our crops. 23. Protecting remaining intact sections ofnatural habitat. Educating public about the importance ofnatural habitat and biodiversity. Devloping family planning programs in areasof rapid population growth. Finding ways to increase the agriculturaloutput by organic farming. 24. refers to the variety of species in a specificarea increases as one moves toward the equator(WHY?) 25. without it, we will not survive. 26. supports many basic natural services forhumans, such as fresh water, fertile soil andclean air helps pollinate our flowers and crops, cleanup our waste and put food on the table 27. Habitat loss Habitat fragmentation Edge effect Habitat degradation Water pollution Land pollution Exotic species 28. Conservation Biology study andimplementation of methods to protectbiodiversity Legal Protections of species Preserving habitats Habitat corridors 29. Working with people (park rangers and thelike) Reintroduction and species preservationprograms Captivity Protecting plant species 30. ThinkGreen...! 31. Poaching is the illegal hunting, killing orcapturing of animals Simple as taking an animal without a permit Using a prohibited weapon/ trap Stealing an animal from a zoo/ sanctuary Common in developing countries Poaching leads to extinction 32. Tusks-ivory Rhino horn BushMeat 33. Hides ,meats, and bonesare sold to dealers Clothes, food, and jewelryproduction Religious significances/shaman usage Collectors 34. MaskedpoachersPoachingfor moneyQuick profitWeapons 35. Drugs Weapons 36. The militaryCaught in act NativesFinedWeapons 37. What happens to the animal? 38. Model50050 Cal. 39. Ivory from elephant tusks: jewelry, flatwarehandles, piano keys, sculptures Leopard skin: said to give kings magicalpowers when placed upon his throne Tiger Penis: Used in Asia as a pain killer oraphrodisiac Lion Meat: said to give superhuman strengthand increase sex drive 40. Elephant Rhinoceros Leopard Tiger Lion Panda 41. EastAfrica Siberia IndiaSouthAmerica 42. RangersPetitionsFundsRisingawareness 43. Friendship 44. You personally? Nothing realistic. Donating money to your favorite wildlifeprotection and conservation organizationhelps, but does little to fundamentally stopinternational poaching The best thing would be to join one of theseorganizations and volunteer as an antipoaching ranger. Good luck with that. 45. The word conflict is defined as anincompatibility between opinions or principles a situation that arises because of differences inperception, attitude and insufficientunderstanding, mostly, on part of the wiser party. any conflict that arises where the behavior of one (either people or wildlife) is unacceptabilitydisadvantageous to the other. 46. Cont,,,, INTRODUCTION.. With the increase in wildlife population inresponse to protection, human-wildlife conflictalso has increased. Large-scale forest degradation, rapidinfrastructure development and populationexplosion, conflicts between domestic stock andwild carnivores have increased. 47. Man wildlife conflicts: The conflict between man and wildlife started with theevolution of man, but intensity increased due to theactivities of modern man Due to the lack of stable food and disruption ofmovement, wild animals came out of forest area andattack the agricultural field and humans and in turngot killed by the humans. 48. Tiger Wild Dog Wild Boar Leopard Elephant 49. Due to the minimum disturbance caused bythe residents with in the buffer zones to thehabitat, the prey base is considered to bebalanced Therefore the conflict related to the tiger isvery minimum though not absolutely nil. 50. Main problem of the man animal conflict iscaused by the wild dogs (Cuon alpinus) and theleopard (Panthera pardus) The main reason for the conflict from the wilddog is that the wild dogs are occasionally foundin groups and with the combined effort, iteasily kills the livestocks specially and thecattles become victim 51. Wild Boar is the greatest enemy of theresidents of the area who cultivates potatoesas their cash crop 52. Second most prevalent conflict with the leopard The conflict caused by the leopard kill is moreon sheep and horses and its preferences tothese species over other animals are not yetknown 53. Studies by Raman Sukumar in three locations inIndia suggested that up to 20% of elephantdeaths were caused directly by crop defence.These studies took place in 1982 and thesituation is thought to have worsened since.In Sri Lanka it is reported that up to 150 wildelephants are shot or poisoned by farmers everyyear. 54. Killing of HumansHouseDamageDamage to Agri. crop Type of conflict sAccidentalKilling ofinjurylivestock 55. Year LivestockHuman1998 244921999 207842000 253 1212001 375 1222002 269 105Ref : Shri Dhirendra Bhargava, IGNFA 56. Crop Loss Houses Humans Year(ha.)(No.)(No.) 2002 - 39031508 30 032003-04 42111071 432004-05 42011674 412005-06 46971194 33Ref :Shri Dhirendra Bhargava, IGNFA 57. From 2001 to 2006 100 people lost their lives 781 ha. Of crop has been damaged 61.5 lakh Rs. Has been spent on compensation 58. LIvestock Killed, 2004 Bear Tiger 1259% Snow leopard 23Tiger Bear 65 18% Leopard - 499 Leopard 70% Snowle opard3% Ref: Lhendup Tharchen F.T , IGNFA 59. Anthropogenic/Man made causes Habitat loss Agricultural practices Entry into forests Insufficient prey base Poverty Population pollution Exploitation of forests Culture and society 60. There are some common field between Manand animal, Which ultimately leads to conflictdue to resource limitation like: SPACE FOOD SHELTER Increasing population of human beings Loss of forest Decrease in quality of forest Development activities 61. Mitigation Reaction: Driving away wild animals Removing problem animals Killing problematic animals Law enforcement 62. Preventive methods: Creation of physical barrier. (Wall & Fencing) Habitat enrichment Preventive Spatial separation (By wall formation) 63. Conservation is theapplication of common senseto the common problems for the common good. 64. bye