Equine Nutrition- Native Ponies
Embed Size (px)
Transcript of Equine Nutrition- Native Ponies
Equine Nutrition- Native Ponies Nicholas Canning BSc (Hons)Ruminant Nutritionist
Equine Nutrition- Native Ponies` 27th October 2012Native ponies have usually undergone evolution to be able to survive in harsh conditions.They have adapted to utilize poor quality grazing and be constantly moving in search of fresh grazing areasThe difficulty arises balancing up trickle feeding animals with higher quality pastures than they require. Their natural environment would allow up to 18 hours a day grazing.Digestive tract: Mouth masticate food and wet food with salivaStomach- Capacity of 9-15 litres, The cardiac sphincter doesnt relax to allow regurgitation.Small Intestine- Makes up 30% of the digestive tract. Site of some starch digestion, Amino acids, fats, Vitamins and mineral absorbed here.HindgutCecum Large Colon- Small colon. Fibre digesters most active around pH 6.2-6.8 whereas starch digesters prefer pH 5-6
Equine Nutrition- Native Ponies` 27th October 2012Microbial Fermentation Fibrous and non-Fibrous Carbohydrate attacked by microbes. Breaks down into VFAs, Gas, B-Vitamins, Vit K. and protein/Amino Acids. VFAs are metabolized for energy whereas gas is wasted energy.
Feeding the Pony:(Animal Protein/Energy Requirements)- (Supplied Feed) = Change in Body conditionIf the amount supplied is greater than required than an increase in body condition will occur. If the animal doesnt receive enough then it will lose condition.
ProteinProtein is needed by the horse for growth and repair of new cells and tissues. Quality of protein is just as important as quantity. Growing horses need 14-16% protein total ration, Mature horses 8-10% with aged horses (>20years old) requiring protein levels similar to young growing horses
StarchMade up of non-structural carbohydrates which are broken down by the horse in the small intestine to provide energy. This energy is generally fast release which provides a Sudden burst of energy. This however can cause excitable Behaviour so is sometimes best to be avoided.
Equine Nutrition- Native Ponies` 27th October 2012Requirements
Based upon the animals weight, status and work.
Weight can either be measured or calculated:
Girth (cm) x Girth (cm) X Body Length (cm)11877
Equine Nutrition- Native Ponies` 27th October 2012Energy requirements is measured in DE(MJ) =18 + BW(KG) 10
So for a 400kg Pony then the DE requirement for maintenance is 58MJ in total
Energy requirements will increased based on the amount and type of work the horse is undergoing.
Forage analysis is usually measure in MJ/kg DM
ME is approximately 83% of DE so therefore ME value would be 48 MJ in total
Equine Nutrition- Native Ponies` 27th October 2012
MacromineralRecommendationCalcium21gChlorine80 mg per kg BWMagnesium15 mg/kg body weightPhosphorus14 g/dayPotassium0.05 g/kg body weightSodium0.02 g/kg body weightSulphur0.15% of dry matter intake
Equine Nutrition- Native Ponies` 27th October 2012Vitamin Deficiencies-
Vitamin A deficiency is characterized by night blindness, However, clinical signs of deficiency (mainly night blindness) are hard to induce in horses, and require very low levels of carotene intake over a long period of time (at least a year or more). Impaired growth has been reported in growing ponies deprived of carotene. As a result, it is thought that growth parameters are a more sensitive indicator of carotene deficiency than clinical signs.
Vitamin D deficiency is also not a huge concern as they need very little. Rickets is the disease that develops if a horse does not get enough D. Rickets is also called soft-bone disease, and the main symptom is bone deformities, especially in the limbs. In most practical horse-keeping situations, assuming the horse gets at least some exposure to sunlight, or some supplemental D in the diet, D deficiency is not going to be a problem.
Equine Nutrition- Native Ponies` 27th October 2012Vitamin E -White muscle disease is the disease that is commonly thought of when vitamin E deficiency is being discussed. This disease is also known as nutritional muscular dystrophy, and is a degenerative disease that affects the heart and skeletal muscles of foals under a year of age. Vitamin K- Problems with blood clotting is the major symptom of vitamin K deficiency. It is caused by those Gla-proteins being formed the wrong way and not being able to do their job correctly.In humans, K deficiency has also been implicated in diseases affecting bone and heart health. If the horse consumes K antagonists, deficiency symptoms can appear. One of these antagonists, dicoumarol, is produced by mouldy sweet clover hay. Problems with blood clotting from consuming mouldy sweet clover hay (and thus dicoumarol) HAVE been reported in horses.
Equine Nutrition- Native Ponies` 27th October 2012Current Grass Analysis
Equine Nutrition- Native Ponies 27th October 2012Current Fresh Grass Mineral Analysis
Equine Nutrition- Native Ponies 27th October 2012The Sums
Based upon the 15-19th October data (ME = 12.4MJ/KGDM , DM=14.9% and Protein =22.5%The Pony requires 48MJ in total for maintenance
E.G 1 The pony weighs 400kg and eats 2% BW Grass= 8kgDm8kg DM = 99.2MJ (overfeeding of 207%)
E.G 2 The pony weighs 400kg and eats 1.5% BW Grass= 6kgDM6kgDM = 74.4MJ (overfeeding of 155%)
E.G3 The pony weighs 400kg and is restricted to 1% BW Grass = 4kgDM4kg DM = 49.6MJ (overfeeding of 103%)
These same calculations apply for fermented forages.
To supply maintenance to this pony on an ad-lib feeding basis then the energy densityOf the total ration would need to be 6MJ/KG.
The Mineral SumsEquine Nutrition- Native Ponies 27th October 2012
Average Mineral Profiles 2012
Fresh Grass Scotland
Element8kg DMI6kg DMI4kg DMIRequirementsCalcium%0.393.1247062.3435291.56235321Phosphorus%0.241.9011761.4258820.950588Magnesium%0.141.120.840.566Sodium %0.110.8470590.6352940.423529Potassium%1.7514.0047110.503537.00235320Sulphur%0.141.1011760.8258820.550588Chloride%0.665.3176473.9882352.6588241.44CAB2201762.8241322.118881.4118000Ironmg/kg599.84798.6823599.0122399.341Manganesemg/kg185.21481.521111.14740.76Cobaltmg/kg0.443.4870592.6152941.743529Zincmg/kg23.3186.56139.9293.28Seleniummg/kg0.0590.4687060.3515290.234353Aluminiummg/kg497.63980.8942985.6711990.447Leadmg/kg0.846.7388245.0541183.369412Molybdenummg/kg1.3610.851768.1388245.425882000Coppermg/kg5.846.434.823.2
No. of samples17
Equine Nutrition- Native Ponies` 27th October 2012Hay VS. Haylage
Equine Nutrition- Native Ponies` 27th October 2012Biotin
Mouth is first Part of digestive systems*Mouth is first Part of digestive systems*Mouth is first Part of digestive systems*Mouth is first Part of digestive systems*Mouth is first Part of digestive systems*Mouth is first Part of digestive systems**Mouth is first Part of digestive systems*Mouth is first Part of digestive systems*