Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy - City of Sub... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy City
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Transcript of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy - City of Sub... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy City
What are the issues? After the use of less energy through sustainable design, the supply of efficient energy and the use of renewable energy are highly effective and interlinked ways in which to contribute to the mitigation of climate change. This is in line with the Mayor of London’s energy hierarchy and the ‘lean’, ‘clean’, and ‘green’ concept:
One of the most effective ways to provide energy efficiently is through decentralised heating and cooling networks, using Combined Heat and Power (CHP) or in some cases Combined Cooling, Heat and Power (CCHP). These networks are energy efficient because:
• They are ‘decentralised’ so they lose less electricity through transmission than centralised power supplies from the national grid.
• It is networked system with a mix of uses drawing heat and energy. It can therefore balance demand from domestic and commercial users which have different peak periods to make the use of energy more efficient.
• CHP usually consists of an engine which powers a generator producing electricity. Heat is recovered and distributed (in the form of hot water) as a side-effect of this electrical generation, and can also be stored for use when demand is high.
• CHP can use gas or low carbon fuels • As it is a networked system, it can ‘free up’ plant space within buildings for
other uses. Decentralised heating and cooling networks can be a very effective in city areas such as Westminster, due to the dense character of the built environment and the complex mix of uses, which produces a high and relatively even density of heat demand. Heating and cooling networks can also be a relatively unobtrusive form of energy use within the historic built environment, in comparison to other forms of energy provision.
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
City Management Plan
Westminster contains the Pimlico District Heating Undertaking, which is the oldest district heating system in the UK and provides heat and power to a large number of homes together with commercial and other premises in the south of the borough. This network together with the Whitehall District Heating System offer potential to connect and expand district heating in the south of the city.
Pimlico District Heating Undertaking ‘accumulator tower’, and example of pipe network
Renewable energy Renewable energy is energy generated from sources that do not require significant use of exhaustible materials. The main renewable and low-carbon technologies are as follows: Technology Potential Issues Ground source heating and cooling – draws heat from the ground.
Requires electricity to power pumps, which can reduce carbon efficiency by about a third compared with other renewables. Appropriate only for larger developments, and there will be limits to how many can be installed in an area.
Solar thermal – Solar collectors which use the sun’s energy to heat a liquid which transfers heat to water.
Requires a generally southern aspect. Potential implications for townscape and compatibility with historic environment. This may limit application to more concealed locations.
Solar photovoltaic cells which convert light energy (rather than direct sunlight) into electricity.
Potential implications for townscape and compatibility with historic environment.
Wind power usually through wind turbines, which generate electricity directly.
Amount of wind in built up areas (in order to be effective), structural support, and impact on townscape.
Biomass – organic matter such as wood chip/pellet that is burnt to generate heat.
With current technology it will negatively impact on air quality. Inappropriate in an Air Quality Management Area (covers Westminster), unless
abatement technology can provide sufficient mitigation. Requires space for storage and delivery of fuel, but has transport implications, and requires a source of fuel.
Biogas – such as methane from anaerobic digestion of waste.
May require space for storage and delivery of fuel, but likely to have less impact on local air quality than biomass.
Not every renewable energy technology will be appropriate for all sites and consideration needs to be given to which technology best suits individual developments and sites.
Borehole drilling for Eaton Square geothermal heating and cooling system
Policy Context The reduction in energy use, in addition to use of renewable energy and decentralised energy networks are being strongly pushed by both national and regional policy: National Policy The Government’s Planning Policy Statement (PPS) 1: ‘Delivering Sustainable Development’ states that “local planning authorities should ensure that development plans contribute to global sustainability by addressing the causes and potential impacts of climate change – through policies which reduce energy use, reduce emissions, promote the development of renewable resources, and take climate change impacts into account in the location and design of development.” Further national policy note PPS1a: ‘Planning and Climate Change’ states that there is a need to use and expand existing decentralised energy supply systems, and ensure a significant proportion of energy supply is gained from on-site renewable energy and/or from a decentralised energy supply. Planning Policy Statement 22: ‘Renewable Energy’ states that planning authorities may include policies that require a percentage of the energy to be used in new residential, commercial or industrial developments to come from on-site renewable energy developments. Such policies should ensure that the requirement is only
applied where viable given the type of development proposed, location, and design, and should not place undue burden on developers, i.e. by specifying that all energy to be used in a development should come from on-site renewable generation. Regional Policy – The London Plan Policy 4A.5 requires boroughs to safeguard existing heating and cooling networks, maximise opportunities for new networks, and to ensure that all development is designed for future connection to a heating and cooling network. Furthermore, it states that new network opportunities should be identified and established. Policy 4A.6 relates to decentralised energy: heat, cooling and power, and ensuring that all developments demonstrate that heating, cooling, and power systems have been selected to minimise carbon dioxide emissions. Policy 4A.7 states that “…boroughs should adopt a presumption that developments will achieve a reduction in CO2 emissions of 20% from on-site renewable energy generation unless it can be demonstrated that such provision is not feasible.” What you have told us?
• Policy should include a more flexible approach which achieves higher levels of energy efficiency on some sites and lower on others.
• The Council should require developers of large schemes to use energy efficient measures.
• Standards must be achievable and realistic and grounded in proper research. • Issue of retrofitting existing buildings with energy efficient measures needs to
be addressed. • Ways need to be explored to achieve substantial energy efficiency
improvements without damaging the integrity of historic buildings and conservation areas.
• Use of canal water should be a source for heating/cooling systems. • Targets should be in line with London Plan • Policies should take into account practicality and viability issues.
Current Unitary Development Plan Policy 2007 Policy ENV 1 ‘Sustainable and resource efficient buildings’ states that “the City Council will expect the efficient use of energy and other non-renewable resources through careful orientation, design, choice of materials, equipment, and landscaping”. It also states that “the council will encourage use of renewable energy installations that achieve good design solutions, particularly in sensitive areas, and that avoid detrimental effects on the surrounding area. Where feasible, new developments will be required to incorporate renewable energy generating plant to meet a proportion of the development’s overall energy demand.” Core Strategy Publication Draft 2009 – subject to agreement/change etc The proposed Core Strategy is likely to contain an energy infrastructure policy which will protect existing energy networks, and require major new development to link to and extend energy networks unless not practical or viable. Where it is not possible to link to an existing heat and energy network, major development will be required to provide site-wide decentralised energy generation which has the potential to be extended to serve other development sites in the vicinity. It is likely that smaller
developments will be encouraged to be enabled to connect into heat and energy networks. Alongside effective energy-efficient/low carbon design, it is likely that the City Council will seek development to maximise on-site renewable energy generation to achieve at least 20% reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, and where feasible, towards zero carbon emissions, except where the council considers that it is not appropriate or practicable due to the local historic environment, air quality and/or site constraints. The agenda for the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy part of the workshop is as follows: Decentralised energy The Core Strategy requires major new development