Emotion Module 12. Emotions Whole-organism responses, involving: –Physiological...

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Transcript of Emotion Module 12. Emotions Whole-organism responses, involving: –Physiological...

  • EmotionModule 12

  • EmotionsWhole-organism responses, involving:Physiological arousalExpressive behaviorsConscious experience

  • Debates in Emotion ResearchWhich comes first, physiological arousal or the subjective experience of an emotion?Can we react emotionally before appraising a situation, or does thinking always precede emotion?

  • Theories of Emotion: Historical ApproachesModule 12: Emotion

  • Common Sense Theory Emotion-arousing stimulus leads to a conscious feeling (fear, anger) and a physiological response.Seeing an angry dog triggers feelings of fear and physical responses such as trembling.

  • James-Lange TheoryAn emotion-arousing stimulus in the environment triggers a physiological reaction.Our awareness of the physiological reaction leads to our experience of an emotion.

  • Cannon-Bard TheoryAn emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers both a physiological response and the experience of an emotion.

  • Two-Factor TheoryEmotions involve two factors:A physiological arousalA cognitive label of the arousalAlso called the Schachter-Singer Theory

  • Robert Zajonc (1923- )Suggested that not all emotions involve deliberate thinkingTherefore, cognition is not necessary for all emotionsSome emotions skip the thinking part of the brain

  • Paths to Emotional Responses

  • Richard Lazarus (1922- )Believed some emotions do not require conscious thoughtHowever, there must be a minimum of unconscious thought.

  • Fear: A Closer LookModule 12: Emotion

  • Autonomic Nervous SystemThe division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organsMonitors the autonomic functionsControls breathing, blood pressure, and digestive processesDivided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

  • Sympathetic Nervous SystemThe part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to deal with perceived threatsFight or flight response

  • Parasympathetic Nervous SystemThe part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the bodyBrings the body back down to a relaxed state

  • Autonomic Nervous System

  • The Expression of Emotion: Nonverbal CommunicationModule 12: Emotion

  • Nonverbal CommunicationCommunicating feelings without words: --Facial expressionsTone of voiceHand gesturesAlso called body language

  • The Expression of Emotion: Gender and Cultural Effects on EmotionModule 12: Emotion

  • Gender EffectsWomen are better at reading nonverbal communication of emotions.Women tend to express emotions more than men do.

  • Display RulesThe cultural rules governing how and when a person may express emotionRules greatly vary from culture to culture.

  • Facial ExpressionsPaul Ekman studied facial expressions in an attempt to determine if they are inborn or culturally based.

  • Which Baby is Which?Anger, Disgust, Fear, Interest,Joy, Surprise, Sadness

  • Which Baby is Which?Anger, Disgust, Fear, Interest,Joy, Surprise, SadnessJoyAngerInterestDisgustSurpriseSadnessFear

  • Ekmans Facial Expression StudyInsert Ekmans Studies on Facial Expression of Emotion Video #28 from Worths Digital Media Archive for Psychology.Instructions for importing the video file can be found in the Readme file on the CD-ROM.