Elements of Emotion Emotion - the “feelingâ€‌ aspect of...

download Elements of Emotion Emotion - the “feelingâ€‌ aspect of consciousness, characterized by : – physical arousal = physiological arousal – Expressive behavior:

of 59

  • date post

    14-Dec-2015
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    232
  • download

    4

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Elements of Emotion Emotion - the “feelingâ€‌ aspect of...

  • Slide 1

Elements of Emotion Emotion - the feeling aspect of consciousness, characterized by : physical arousal = physiological arousal Expressive behavior: reveals the emotion to outside world Consciously experienced thoughts: inner awareness of feelings Display rules - learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings. control or display? Slide 2 Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Pupils dilate Salivation decreases Skin perspires Respiration increases Heart accelerates Digestion inhibits Adrenal glands secrete adrenalin Parasympathetic Pupils contract Salivation increases Skin dries Respiration decreases Heart slows Digestion activates Adrenal glands decrease adrenalin Slide 3 Common Sense tells us a stimulus leads to an emotion, which then leads to bodily arousal. Slide 4 James-Lange Theory of Emotion FIRSTphysiological reaction, THENlabeling of an emotion. different physiological states correspond to different experiences of emotion. feel sad because you cry feel angry because you strike feel happy because you smile Support: Neck-level spinal cord injuriesreduce intensity of emotions Slide 5 Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion Challenged JL since similar patterns of physiological activity associated with diff emotional states. (ex. anger & fear) NOT causeeffect physiological reaction & the emotion occur at the same time. Cerebral cortex = subjective awareness of emotion Sympathetic nervous system = physiological arousal Slide 6 Schachter and Singers Study of Emotion Emotion results from physiological arousal plus a cognitive label. Two-FACTOR: 2 ingredients Cognitive label: based on perceptions, memories, interpretation Explains arousal in emotional terms Physical arousal fuels emotion Cognition channels it Slide 7 Spillover Effect Tendency of one person's emotion to affect how other people around them feel. Emotional Volatility For example, the teacher received a phone call that his wife was pregnant with a much-awaited baby. He goes into class happy and excited, & although he doesn't tell his class about the good news, his good mood rubs off on his students & they feel happy as well. Experiment: injected with adrenaline An emotional experience requires a conscious interpretation of the arousal Same physical arousal Exposed to angry man, interpreted physical arousal as anger exposed to happy man interpreted arousal as happiness Slide 8 Romeo and Juliet Effect Misattribution of emotions~ assign arousal to passionate love instead of anger from lack of freedom Tendency for parental opposition to a relationship to intensify the romantic feelings of those in the relationship. The effect involves an increased commitment to persevere in the midst of parental opposition & interference. Slide 9 Donald Dutton and Arthur Aron (In support of 2 Factor Theory) Male subjects were asked to meet an attractive female interviewer in the middle of one of two bridges. safe-looking bridge vs. dangerous (high & narrow). An attractive female researcher interviewed the male passers-by in the middle of the two bridges. She gave them her telephone number in case they wanted to ask about the results. They were then more likely to call her back, looking for a date. Men on the less safe-looking bridge were more aroused by the height of the bridge, and were likely to confuse their feelings for being 'lovestruck'. Slide 10 Cognitive Mediational Theory of Emotion Cognitive appraisal of a stimulus determines your emotional response to it, physiological arousal follows the cognitive appraisal. both the physical arousal & the labeling of that arousal based on cues from the environment must occur before the emotion is experienced. stimulus must be interpreted (appraised) by a person in order to result in a physical response & an emotional reaction. Dual processing: The brain gets a message that causes the experience of emotion at the same time that the autonomic nervous system gets a message that causes physiological arousal. Equipped ? Slide 11 Emotions w/out conscious thinking Zajonc: LeDoux Low Road pathway High road pathway Slide 12 Theories of Emotion Opponent Process Our emotions tend to trigger opposing emotions. Then there is balance. A way to maintain a steady statehomeostasis As experiences are repeated wide swings in emotion are lessened, and things become more manageable! Costs of pleasure & the benefits of pain Examples: You almost get into a car accidentyou are afraidonce its over you feel relief You yell at your boyfriend and are angry; later to feel guilty and you apologize Slide 13 Slide 14 Duchenne's investigations mapping the muscles of the face Slide 15 The Old Man "The Mechanisms of Human Facial Expression","The Mechanisms of Human Facial Expression", (published in French 1862) experimentation in the perception and communication of human facial affect.experimentation in the perception and communication of human facial affect. Slide 16 "The Old Man Duchenne's principal photographic subjectDuchenne's principal photographic subject afflicted with almost total facial anesthesia. ideal subject for this investigation,ideal subject for this investigation, stimulating electrodes used were certainly somewhat uncomfortable, if not actually painful. Slide 17 Electrization apparatuses electrical stimulation served as the diagnostic test in localization.electrical stimulation served as the diagnostic test in localization. "faradism," the application of electricity to the skin for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. "faradism," the application of electricity to the skin for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. stimulate the nerves and muscles of patients. map the muscles of the body and note their functions Slide 18 Duchenne electrically stimulates the musculature of the face of an actress of the French Comedy with the purpose of modifying emotions expressed by her face. Slide 19 mapped 100 facial muscles in 1862. false, or even half-hearted, smiles involved only muscles of the mouth. But "the sweet emotions of the soul," he said, activate the pars lateralis muscle around the eyes. Slide 20 Slide 21 Facial Expression http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/surveys/smiles/in dex.shtmlhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/surveys/smiles/in dex.shtml Slide 22 22 Detecting Emotion Hard-to-control facial muscles reveal signs of emotions you may be trying to conceal. A fake smile may continue for more than 4-5 seconds while a genuine smile will have faded by then. Which of Paul Ekmans smiles is genuine? Dr. Paul Elkman, University of California at San Francisco Slide 23 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Facial expressions: Darwin speculated that our ancestors communicated with facial expressions in the absence of language. Nonverbal facial expressions led to our ancestors survival. Paul Ekman (1970s) series of cross-cultural studies looking for universals in facial expressions of emotions Emotions are Adaptive Based on evolutionary principle: it would have been advantageous for a highly social species to be able to quickly read emotions from faces. Slide 24 Ekman: Universal expressions of emotions: Fore People Many members of this group experienced little or no contact with modern culture Facial expressions were limited to their own people due to the fact they have never been in contact with a westerner Never saw any movies, did not speak English, & only lived in their settlement Can conclude that identifying facial expressions are hardwired biologically Slide 25 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Universal Facial Expressions Ekman & Friesen (1978) identified six universal facial expressions: joy, fear, anger, sadness, surprise and disgust. Slide 26 Slide 27 Menu LO 9.13 Three elements of emotion Slide 28 Slide 29 29 Detecting Emotion Most of us are good at deciphering emotions through nonverbal communication. In a crowd of faces a single angry face will pop out faster than a single happy face (Fox et al, 2000). Slide 30 Figure 9.16 Cross-cultural comparisons of peoples ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions Slide 31 Ekman: Facial Feedback Hypothesis Facial feedback hypothesis - theory of emotion that assumes that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion. Slide 32 32 The Effects of Facial Expression If facial expressions are manipulated, like furrowing brows, people feel sad while looking at sad pictures. Attaching two golf tees to the face and making their tips touch causes the brow to furrow. Courtesy of Louis Schake/ Michael Kausman/ The New York Times Pictures Slide 33 Guilty Knowledge test Slide 34 How to Spot a Liar Paul Ekman Slide 35 Slide 36 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Lying faces: Can we identify when a face is lying? Ekaman Telling Lies (2001). microexpression: brief, fleeting facial expression of the opposite emotion to what the person is trying to convey 90% of deceivers produce reliable microexpression. 30% of truth-tellers also do. Other cues: depersonalization of speech, departure from typical communication style. Ekmans advice: always play good cop Slide 37 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) MicroExpression Training Tools (METT) and Subtle Expression Training Tools (SETT) provide self instructional training to improve your ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion. In under an hour, METT will train you to see very brief (1/25th of a second) microexpressions of concealed emotion. SETT teaches you to recognize the subtlest signs of when an emotion is first beginning in another person. *Paul Ekman 2004 Slide 38 Emotion Happiness Gender Anger Slide 39 39 Gender, Emotion, & Nonverbal Behavior Women are much better at d