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Transcript of EEL6841: Machine Intelligence & Synthesis · PDF file · 2016-01-19past...

  • Jan-19-164:55 PM

    EEL6841: Machine Intelligence & Synthesis

    1 University of Florida EEL 6841 Class #11 Spring 2016 Dr. A. Antonio Arroyo

    Urban NaviGator Announcements

    EEL6841: Machine Intelligence & Synthesis

    2 University of Florida EEL 6841 Class #11 Spring 2016 Dr. A. Antonio Arroyo

    Urban NaviGator Todays Menu A Review of English Syntax Part 2

    >Verbs and Verb Phrases >Compound NPs >Adjective Phrases >Adverbial Phrase Overview

  • Jan-19-164:55 PM

    EEL6841: Machine Intelligence & Synthesis

    3 University of Florida EEL 6841 Class #11 Spring 2016 Dr. A. Antonio Arroyo

    Urban NaviGator Review of English Syntax J. Allens Book Natural Language Understanding Ch. 2

    2.3 Verb Phrases > Verbs carry mood information

    Assertions (Declarative) Queries (Interrogative) Commands (Imperative)

    Mood Examples declarative or assertion The cat is sleeping. yes/no question Is the cat is sleeping? wh-question Who is sleeping? Which cat? imperative Shoot the cat!

    Figure 2-5 Basic moods of sentences

    EEL6841: Machine Intelligence & Synthesis

    4 University of Florida EEL 6841 Class #11 Spring 2016 Dr. A. Antonio Arroyo

    Urban NaviGator Review of English Syntax Verb Phrases

    > A declarative sentence consists of an NP (called the subject) followed by a VP (called the object phrase or the predicate).

    > The standard notation is: S NP, VP > A simple VP: Adverbial modifiers followed by the head verb,

    followed by its complements. Verbs are used in 1/5 basic forms Form Examples Example Uses base hit, cry Hit the ball!

    go, be I want to go. simple present hit, cries The girl cries often.

    go, am I am hungry. simple past hit, cried I was thirsty.

    went, was I went to the bank. present participle hitting, crying I am crying a lot.

    going, being Being tired is difficult. past participle hit, cried I have been there before.

    gone, been The pizza was gone.

    Figure 2-6 The five (5) verb forms

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    EEL6841: Machine Intelligence & Synthesis

    5 University of Florida EEL 6841 Class #11 Spring 2016 Dr. A. Antonio Arroyo

    Urban NaviGator Review of English Syntax A Classes of Verbs

    > Verbs are classified as follows: Auxiliary {Aux} Verbs : be, do, have Modal Verbs: will, can, could, should Main Verbs: eat, run, believe

    > Aux & Modal verbs take a verb phrase as a complement you get a sequence of verbs each the head of its own verb phrase

    Tenses of Verbs > Tenses are sequences of verbs that form the basis of

    establishing when a proposition (assertion) is true > There are six(6) Basic & Progressive Tenses > Verb groups encode Person & Number agreement > Subject-Verb Agreement: There must be person (e.g. third

    person) and number (e.g., sing. or plural) agreement between the first verb in a VP and and the subject NP

    EEL6841: Machine Intelligence & Synthesis

    6 University of Florida EEL 6841 Class #11 Spring 2016 Dr. A. Antonio Arroyo

    Urban NaviGator A Review of English Syntax Tense The Verb Sequence Example simple present simple present He walks to the store. simple past simple past He walked to the store. simple future will + infinitive He will walk to the store. present perfect have in present He has walked to the store.

    + past participle future perfect will + have in infinitive I have walked to the store.

    + past participle past perfect have in past I had walked to the store. (or pluperfect) + past participle

    Figure 2-7 The basic tenses

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    EEL6841: Machine Intelligence & Synthesis

    7 University of Florida EEL 6841 Class #11 Spring 2016 Dr. A. Antonio Arroyo

    Urban NaviGator A Review of English Syntax Tense Structure Example present progressive be in present He is walking to the store.

    + pres. participle past progressive be in past He was walking to the store.

    + pres. participle future progressive will + be in infinitive He will be walking home.

    + pres. participle present perfect have in present He has been walking home. progressive + be in past participle

    + pres. participle future perfect will + have in present He will have been walking. progressive + be in past participle

    + pres. participle past perfect have in past He had have been walking. progressive + be in past participle

    + pres. participle Figure 2-8 The progressive tenses

    EEL6841: Machine Intelligence & Synthesis

    8 University of Florida EEL 6841 Class #11 Spring 2016 Dr. A. Antonio Arroyo

    Urban NaviGator Simple VPs Most English verbs distinguish only the 3rd person sing. Number First Person Second Person Third Person Singular I am, I walk you are, you walk he is, she walks Plural we are, we walk you are, you walk they are, they walk

    Figure 2-9 Person/Number forms of verbs

    B. Transitivity & Passives > Main Verb: Last verb in a verb sequence drawn from the open

    class of verbs. Complementary structures may/not be allowed > Intransitive: The main verb stands alone/requires no complement

    John laughed (laugh cannot be transitive). Jan ran. John slept. > Transitive: Requires a NP to follow the verb

    John found a dollar (find cannot be intransitive). > Both: Verbs like run can be both transitive and intransitive.

    However the meaning of the verb is different in each case. John ran. John ran the computer.

  • Jan-19-164:55 PM

    EEL6841: Machine Intelligence & Synthesis

    9 University of Florida EEL 6841 Class #11 Spring 2016 Dr. A. Antonio Arroyo

    Urban NaviGator Simple VPs Transitive Verbs Allow a Passive Form

    > Use a form of the be aux followed by past participle > The NP that would be in the object position becomes the subject > Tense is carried by the initial verb in the group > The 1st NP is semantically the object but syntactically the subject > Use pronouns to check (I was hit vs. Me was hit*) > Tense/Number Agreement between the verb & syntactic subject

    I was hit by them vs. I were hit by them.* > If a verb allows two NPs to follow it, the 2nd NP corresponds to

    the Object NP and is called the Direct Object John gave Sue a book. John found me a dollar.

    > The first NP is called the Indirect Object (e.g. Sue and me above) > There is an equivalent sentence where the Indirect Object

    becomes a PP John gave a book to Sue. John found a dollar for me.

    EEL6841: Machine Intelligence & Synthesis

    10 University of Florida EEL 6841 Class #11 Spring 2016 Dr. A. Antonio Arroyo

    Urban NaviGator Simple VPs Particles: {up, out, over, in, on, etc.}

    > Verb forms constructed from a verb + an additional word. These words are called particles and they overlap with prepositions

    > With look, take, or put you get different meanings, e.g., take out, take over, take up, take in

    > In some cases you get different interpretations as to whether you consider the word a particle or a preposition

    I looked over the paper. I scanned the paper. I looked over the paper. I looked at some behind/above the paper

    > If the object is a pronoun you can make a sharp distinction between particles and prepositions. The pronoun must precede the particle & the pronoun must follow the preposition.

    I looked it up. particle I looked up it. preposition

    > Particles may follow the Object NP, prepositions CANNOT I gave up the book to Mary or I gave the book up to Mary I climbed up the ladder vs. I climbed the ladder up*

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    EEL6841: Machine Intelligence & Synthesis

    11 University of Florida EEL 6841 Class #11 Spring 2016 Dr. A. Antonio Arroyo

    Urban NaviGator

    D. Clausal Comps: verbs allow clauses as complements > Clauses share most of the same properties of sentences and may

    have subjects, indicate tense, and occur in passive forms > S[that] : A sentence preceded by that

    I know that he is nice. I know that she has been nice. > VP [inf] : A clause that involved the infinitive verb form

    Josh wishes to see her. > S[inf] : A clause that involves a sentence using the infinitive

    John wishes for Sue to see him. > S[wh] : complements that are wh-words, e.g., who, what, when,

    where, how, why, whether, that, how many, etc. John knows who planned the party. John knows whether it is true.

    E. Prepositional Phrase Complements: Many verbs require specific prepositions. Ex.: NP + PP[to] or NP + Locn

    John gave a kiss to Mary John put the bike in the closet.

    Simple VPs

    EEL6841: Machine Intelligence & Synthesis

    12 University of Florida EEL 6841 Class #11 Spring 2016 Dr. A. Antonio Arroyo

    Urban NaviGator Verb Complement Forms

    Figure 2-11 Some common verb complement forms in English

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    EEL6841: Machine Intelligence & Synthesis

    13 University of Florida EEL 6841 Class #11 Spring 2016 Dr. A. Antonio Arroyo

    Urban NaviGator Compound NPs 2.4 Some NPs use sentences or VPs as sub-complements

    > Many require specific prepositional phrases love: PP [of] love of money familiarity: PP [with] familiarity with the course reliance: PP [on] reliance on himself

    &g