Educational Technology Timeline ppt

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History of Educational Resources

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  • 1. OBJECTIVE: Trace the development of education under the different eraand the corresponding educational technology used.The history of Educational technology can be traced back to the time when tribalpriests systemized bodies of knowledge,and early cultures invented pictographs orsign writing to record and transmitinformation.(Paul Saettler, 1990)

2. OBJECTIVE: Trace the development of education under the different eraand the corresponding educational technology used.Technology is commonlythought of in terms ofgadgets, instruments,machines and devices most(educators) will defer totechnology as computers.(Muffoletto, 1994) 3. The girls on the other hand stayed by theirmothers who taught them the rudiments ofhousekeeping and motherhoodIn Athens, the right of the individual todevelop to the fullest is recognized.Music schools with the kitharistGrammar schools with the grammatist andGymnastics with the paedotribeWith the help of the Sophist, cognitiverules, systematically arranged subject matterinstructional technologies and effectiveinstructional materials were designed andimplemented.Man started to use pointed sticks to inscript signs and symbol on the leaves oftrees and knives for the bark of trees.At about 3100 B.C. the Egyptians deviseda system for picture writing calledhieroglyphics .Rise of the class known as scribes, agroup of men trained in the art of writing.In ancient Greece, the Spartan educationEmphasized the Development of Physicalbody coupled with discipline.The boys underwent exercises andactivities that promoted bodily strength,endurance and vitality. They were taught bythe paidonomus , a military commander inthe public barracks.During the Ancient Times 4. During the Ancient TimesINQUIRY & THE SOCRATICMETHODThrough the use of questioning, Socrates (and hisstudents Plato and Zenophon) guide the learner to theirinborn knowledge. AVID, a national program for collegereadiness, still emphasizes the Socratic Method as anintegral part of the curriculum as students work in smallgroups with a tutor to use questioning to guide their peersto solve their homework questions. 5. Saun-Pan and SorobanThe earliest survivingcounting board is theSalamis Tablet which datesback to 400 BC. China (Saun-pan)and Japan (Soroban)introduced computer trays atabout the same point inhistory (200 AD). TheSoroban (a type of abacus),in particular, is still usedtoday for calculating.AbacusThe invention of theabacusin 3,000 BCmarked the beginning ofcomputers.For the first time, peoplehad a calculating devicewith which to do math.Abacus( Babylonian 3000 B.C.)Saun Pan (China)Soroban (Japan) 6. Around 2,300 BC the creatorsof Stonehenge first began workon what is now known as anastronomical calculator. Thismiraculous complex took over2,000 years to complete.Stonehenge stands onSalisbury Plain, two miles westof the town of Amesbury,Wiltshire, in Southern England.The identification of the history oftechnology with the history ofhumanlike species does not help infixing a precise point for its origin,because the estimates ofprehistorians and anthropologistsconcerning the emergenceof human species vary so widely.Animals occasionally use naturaltools such as sticks or stones, andthe creatures that became humandoubtless did the same forhundreds of millennia before thefirst giant step of fashioning theirown tools. 7. Even then it was an interminable time before they put such toolmaking on a regular basis, and still more aeons passed as theyarrived at the successive stages of standardizing theirsimple stone choppers and pounders and of manufacturing themthat is, providing sites and assigning specialists to the work.A degree of specialization in tool making was achieved by thetime of the Neanderthals (70,000 BCE); more-advanced tools,requiring assemblage of head and haft, were produced by Cro-Magnons (perhaps as early as 35,000 BCE); while the application ofmechanical principles was achieved by pottery-making Neolithic(New Stone Age; 6000 BCE) 8. During the Medieval EraThe establishment of the MedievalUniversityEmperor Frederick I of Bologna in1158 chartered the first UniversitydegreesThe Saracens or the Arabs amongthe Moors of Spain aimed to searchfor knowledge and the application ofscientific facts to their daily livesThey originated the scientific methodof teaching.During the Middle Age Advent ofScholastic Philosophy, Pierre Abelardintroduced a technology of instructionwhich was really a new method ofstructuring and presenting materialsthat helped set the style of scholasticeducation.John Amos Comenius wasrecognized as the pioneerof modern instructionaltechnology by reason of hisbook Orbis Pictus (TheWorld in Picture) whichwas illustrated textbooksfor children studying Latin& Sciences.Comenius, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Herbartand Montessori contributed their ownconcept on educational technologyimproving educative process. 9. Their curriculum was the mostorganized and complete in theelementary, secondary andcollegiate levels. Their universitiesand libraries were the models inthe entire Europe because theyinvented the printing press. Theyalso originated the scientificmethod of teaching.Charles Martel was the first ruler who soughtto educate the population. At first, heappointed several priests to educate the sonsof important men. Gradually he changededucation from being purely related to God toincluding more practical knowledge such asmathematics and Latin. By this time educationhad increased considerably but very few couldread and write and even fewer pursued ahigher education.The most common language in the medieval world wasLatin, even though most countries had their own language.Latin a thousand years ago was like English today: Thelanguage that most people understood and did businesswith. Many nobles were taught to read and write in Latinwhich was taught mostly in monasteries and abbeys.Those who studied in a monastery often became monks andworked by writing books and preserving Greek and Romantexts. They translated many classical works into Latin. Fewprofessions existed for those who were educated - thosewho were skilled in fighting generally earned more thanthose who weren't. For example, most politicians and rulersascended to power rarely by education, but ratherby warfare and inheritance. 10. During the Renaissance PeriodAuthorities agree that modern times beganwith the movement known as age ofRenaissance or Reawakening. The period hasthree main lines of concern:-Intellectual to which education belongs-Aesthetic-ScientificAlong the intellectual development,movements like:- Humanism-Reformation-Realism-Disciplinism-RationalismAll these contributed to the development ofeducational technology especially alongtheories and practices. Bacon , Rabelais, Vivesand Milton advance their own ideas abouteducation John Locke came out with his idea about thenature of the child's mind at birth in TabulaRasa. 11. Most peasants were never allowed to study as the fees required by the church werebeyond their reach. In addition, by keeping the population ignorant, the upper class couldget away with almost anything. Study books were extremely expensive so the only viableway to learn was with the help of a teacher. From an early age a boy's role wasdetermined. Some became fighters, others became merchants and so on.Most elite fighting troops were educated. The knights, with their famous Code ofChivalry are a perfect example. They were educated from a very early age and excelled inreading, writing and other practical skills. A knight was usually appointed to teach themeverything they needed to know.During the High Middle Ages many European nations became more stable. The Vikingraids were over, Law and Order improved and periods of peace ensued. The firstreal universities were constructed during this period. Even though still reserved mostly forthe rich, they allowed a gradual shift towards education that had been lost since the timesof the Romans.Women had been virtually ignored up to this point. Even though only a small minority ofthem began to study in universities, this was a changing point towards a more equalsociety. However, women were still required to do everything his husband or lord pleased. 12. During the Renaissance PeriodLeonardo da Vinci CalculatorIn 1452 AD it is believedthat Leonardoda Vinci conceived of acalculation device.Johannes Gutenberg (Germany)developed the printing press, sometimesconsidered the greatest invention of alltime.Between 1452 and 1456, Gutenbergprinted the first book ever, the Bible. John Amos Comenius developedthe first picture book known as theOrbis Pictus (the World in Pictures)He was considered as the pioneerin instructional technologydevelopmentMaria Montessori used multi-sensorymaterials to teaching. 13. The invention of the printing press in the late15th century gave rise to some of the firstforms of mass communication, by enabling thepublication of books and newspapers on ascale much larger than was previously possible.The invention also transformed the way theworld received printed materials, althoughbooks remained too expensive really to becalled a mass-medium for at least a centuryafter that.Humanist educators designed teachingmethods to prepare well-rounded, liberallyeducated persons. Dutch humanist DesideriusErasmus was particularly influential. Erasmusbelieved that understanding and conversingabout the meaning of literature was moreimportant than memorizing it, as had beenrequired at many of the medieval religiousschools. He advised teachers to study suchfields as archaeology, astronomy, mythology,history, and ScriptureOne of Luthers colleagues, Germanreligious reformer Melanchthon, wrote theschool code for the German region ofWrttemberg, which became a model forother regions of Germany and influencededucation throughout Europe. According tothis code, the government was responsiblefor supervising schools and licensingteachers.The Protestant reformers retained the dual