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EYEEYE- CONTROLLED WHEELCHAIRPROJECT MEMBERS RINKU LAL GAUTAM PRAFUL CHUGHA NEHA WADHVA RAJIV PARWANI PROJECT GUIDE Mrs. ARCHANA SINGHIB.E. ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATIONS (2010-2011) WATUMULL INSTITUTE OF ELCTRONICS ENGINEERING & COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY.

TOPIC SURVEY1.RAMAN AMPLIFIER 2.MOBILE CONTROLLED ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES 3.CONTROLLED WHEELCHAIR

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CONTROLLING WHEELCHAIR1.JOYSTICK CONTROLLED 2.SENSOR CONTROLLED 3.EYE CONTROLLED

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CONTENTS1. OBJECTIVE. 2. ABSTRACT. 3. INTRODUCTION. 4. VARIOUS EYE TRACKING MECHANISMS. 5. DETAILED BLOCK DIAGRAM. 6. CIRCUITS. 7. SOFTWARE LOGIC. 8. WHEEL MECHANISM. 9. FUTURE SCOPE. 10.REFERENCES. 11.A PIECE OF ADVISE.

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OBJECTIVE INTRODUCTION PROPOSED SYSTEM VARIOUS EYE TRACKING MECHANISMS DETAILED BLOCK DIAGRAM CIRCUITS SOFTWARE LOGIC WHEEL MECHANISM FUTURE SCOPE REFERENCES

OBJECTIVE Improve quality of handicapped patients life.

Lets patients maneuver with the wheelchair more conveniently and avoid calamities. The optical pupil tracking and wheelchair control are combined to provide mobility to completely paralysed people. Two different research domains, namely, the optical pupil tracking and wheelchair control are combined to provide a control device for people with physical disabilities. The domain of this project is Human-Computer Interface

(HCI).

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ABSTRACT Describes an eye-control wheelchair, based on Human-Computer Interface (HCI). Consists of a standard electric wheelchair with an onboard computer, electric circuits and a graphic user interface run by the computer. This control technique could be useful in multiple applications, such as mobility and communication aid for handicapped persons primarily helping patients suffering from quadriplegic and paraplegic diseases.

OBJECTIVE INTRODUCTION PROPOSED SYSTEM VARIOUS EYE TRACKING MECHANISMS DETAILED BLOCK DIAGRAM CIRCUITS SOFTWARE LOGIC WHEEL MECHANISM FUTURE SCOPE REFERENCES

INTRODUCTIONA wheelchair aids persons with moderate/severe physical disabilities or chronic diseases.

Various kinds of interface have been developed for wheelchair control such as joystick control,heart beat and through censors. Difficulty in maneuvering . Mistakes in maneuvering the wheelchair may bring calamities such as overturn,fall out of the wheelchair,etc.

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VARIOUS TYPES OF EYE TRACKING MECHANISMSThere are three systems that can be used to compute the position of pupil .They are as follows: 1.Electro-Oculogram method(EOG)method. 2. Lens System . 3. Head Mounted Camera System.

EOG METHOD PROCEDURE. The electrodes will be attached to the users face . A total of five electrodes will be used . One electrode will be placed to the side of the left eye and another to the side of the right eye. One electrode will be placed above the left eye and another below the left eye. A fifth electrode will be attached by the ear.

OBJECTIVE INTRODUCTION PROPOSED SYSTEM VARIOUS EYE TRACKING MECHANISMS DETAILED BLOCK DIAGRAM CIRCUITS SOFTWARE LOGIC WHEEL MECHANISM FUTURE SCOPE REFERENCES

ADVANTAGES AND OF EOG METHOD. METHOD.Electrodes methods:ADVANTAGESBoth eyes can be recorded together Least expensive Simple to use

DISADVANTAGES

DRAWBACKSIt is limited to horizontal and vertical movements Poor accuracy for absolute positioning

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LENS SYSTEM PROCEDURE A non slipping contact lens fits over corneal bulge.

Tracking is recorded by affixing a magnetic coil or mirror to the lens. Mechanism employing lens to detect eye movements is shown in the figure.

HEAD MOUNTED CAMERA METHODPROCEDURE 1.Uses a camera to capture eye images, and tracks pupil motion by means of image processing program. 2. The centre position of the moving pupil is computed at the computer. 3. The calculated result is then transmitted to the powered wheelchair through serial port.

OBJECTIVE INTRODUCTION PROPOSED SYSTEM VARIOUS EYE TRACKING MECHANISMS DETAILED BLOCK DIAGRAM CIRCUITS SOFTWARE LOGIC WHEEL MECHANISM FUTURE SCOPE REFERENCES

3. Head Mounted Camera method

ADVANTAGES Doesnt restrict the users head movements. DRAWBACKS More awkward to use than the desk-based system as the user has to have instrument mounted to head9/11/2009 EYE CONTROLLED WHEELCHAIR 13

TYPES OF DETAILED BLOCK DIAGRAMThere are 2 types of block diagrams for eye controlled wheelchair. 1.WIRELESS. The wireless version of the wheelchair suits the scenario where similar wheelchairs operate within a certain region (such as hospitals etc) . 2.WIRED Works on the similar lines as the one employing wireless means of communication It does not involve the encoderdecoder and the transmitterreceiver modules.

WIRELESS BLOCK DIAGRAM COMPONENTS1.COMPUTER. 2.OPTO-ISOLATOR. 3.ENCODER(HT12E). 4.TRANSMITTER MODULE. 5.RECEIVER MODULE TUNED TO 315 MHZ. 6.DECODER. 7.MOTOR DRIVING CIRCUIT.

EXPLANATION OF COMPONENTS IN DETAIL1.COMPUTER. Computer terminal serves the main purpose of accepting real time video from source (webcam\ stored video) . Processes it to generate motor actuation signals. Sampling real time video at a considerably higher rate and generate a series of images. Processed to determine the eye movements using image processing. Corresponding actuation signals are released through the parallel port.

EXPLANATION OF COMPONENTS IN DETAIL2.ISOLATOR Additional stage used for isolation of transmitter circuitry and computer port. . We use MCT2E opto-isolator. 3.ENCODER. Main purpose of encoder IC is to synchronize the movement of receiver . encoder used here is HT12E . 4.TRANSMITTER MODULE. ASK technique of modulation is used . Carrier frequency chosen is 315MHz. RF module is used. wave antenna (17 cm) is used to radiate signals.

EXPLANATION OF COMPONENTS IN DETAIL5.RECEIVER MODULE. The receiver, tuned to 315 MHz, is basically an ASK demodulator . It gives digital data stream at its output, which is further decoded. 6.DECODER. Converts the serial data stream into parallel data. HT12D decoder IC is used . 7.MOTOR DRIVERS. Decoded data is used for controlling the operation of the motors. Used to switch the motors to move in clockwise or anticlockwise direction.

OBJECTIVE INTRODUCTION PROPOSED SYSTEM VARIOUS EYE TRACKING MECHANISMS DETAILED BLOCK DIAGRAM CIRCUITS SOFTWARE LOGIC WHEEL MECHANISM FUTURE SCOPE REFERENCES

DETAILED BLOCK DIAGRAMWireless

OPTO ISOLATOR ENCODER

TRANSMITTER MODULE

RECEIVER MODULE DECODER MOTOR DRIVING CIRCUIT

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OBJECTIVE INTRODUCTION PROPOSED SYSTEM VARIOUS EYE TRACKING MECHANISMS DETAILED BLOCK DIAGRAM CIRCUITS SOFTWARE LOGIC WHEEL MECHANISM FUTURE SCOPE REFERENCES

DETAILED BLOCK DIAGRAMWired

OPTO ISOLATOR

MOTOR DRIVING CIRCUIT

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OBJECTIVE INTRODUCTION PROPOSED SYSTEM VARIOUS EYE TRACKING MECHANISMS DETAILED BLOCK DIAGRAM CIRCUITS SOFTWARE LOGIC WHEEL MECHANISM FUTURE SCOPE REFERENCES

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM (MOTOR DRIVE CIRCUIT)

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OBJECTIVE INTRODUCTION PROPOSED SYSTEM VARIOUS EYE TRACKING MECHANISMS DETAILED BLOCK DIAGRAM CIRCUITS SOFTWARE LOGIC WHEEL MECHANISM FUTURE SCOPE REFERENCES

ALGORITHMSTEP 1: Start STEP 2: Reset the systems initial values. STEP 3: Set the counter value to zero. STEP 4: Take Real Time Video from Source (Camera or Webcam or stored video). STEP 5: Convert Real Time Video into frames. STEP 6: Store the frames in form of matrix. STEP 7: Prepare the digital negative of the matrix. STEP 8: Determine the quadrant in which pupil lies. STEP 9: Is there any change in direction? If YES go to STEP 3, else go to next step. STEP 10: Increment counter value by 1. STEP 11: Is counter value greater than threshold value? If NO go to STEP 4, if YES determine the direction of movement. STEP 12: Generate activation signals for the relay motor driving circuit. Go to STEP 4 and continue.9/11/2009 EYE CONTROLLED WHEELCHAIR 22

OBJECTIVE INTRODUCTION PROPOSED SYSTEM VARIOUS EYE TRACKING MECHANISMS DETAILED BLOCK DIAGRAM CIRCUITS SOFTWARE LOGIC WHEEL MECHANISM FUTURE SCOPE REFERENCES

Start Reset Initial values Set Counter value to zero Take Real Time Video from source Divide the video into frames Store the frames in form of matrix Determine the quadrant

FLOWCHART

YesAny change in direction?

NoIncrement Counter value by 1

Is counter value greater than threshold ?

No

Determine direction Generate activation signals

Yes

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OBJECTIVE INTRODUCTION PROPOSED SYSTEM VARIOUS EYE TRACKING MECHANISMS DETAILED BLOCK DIAGRAM CIRCUITS SOFTWARE LOGIC WHEEL MECHANISM FUTURE SCOPE REFERENCES

OUTOUT OF MATLAB

Eye Image

Negative

POSITION:

CENTER

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OBJECTIVE INTRODUCTION PROPOSED SYSTEM VARIOUS EYE TRACKING MECHANISMS DETAILED BLOCK DIAGRAM CIRCUITS SOFTWARE LOGIC WHEEL MECHANISM FUTURE SCOPE REFERENCES

Wheel MechanismFORWARD MOVEMENTANTI CLOCKWISE CLOCKWISE

OBJECTIVE INTRODUCTION PROPOSED SYSTEM VARIOUS EYE TRACKING MECHANISMS DETAILED BLOCK DIAGRAM CIRCUITS SOFTWARE LOGIC WHEEL MECHANISM FUTURE SCOPE REFERENCES

Wheel MechanismLEFT MOVEMENTANTI CLOCKWISE ANTI CLOCKWISE

CLOCKWISE

RIGH