Early Emancipation in the North Missouri Compromise, 1820
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Transcript of Early Emancipation in the North Missouri Compromise, 1820
Early Emancipation in the North
Missouri Compromise, 1820
Slavery in the SouthAt the dawn of the American revolution, many believed that slavery was on a slow decline, much to do with its economic inefficiency and also from the idealism of the revolution. However, everything changed with the Eli Whitneys Cotton Gin, which made cotton profitable and it also needed a huge labor force. As a result, it chained the slave to the gin and the planter to the slave.
Cotton is King!!!!Cotton became an instant boom crop and many planters raced to gain more land in the gulf states. As they got more land, they wanted more slaves, so they could plant more cotton, so they could reap more financial rewards. It became cyclical. The North is guilty too. They made huge amounts of money on the cheap available southern cotton in the northern textile mills (where cheap wage slaves worked). Also, Northern shippers transported massive amounts of cotton to Britain and made huge profits. The prosperity of both the North and the South depended heavily on slave labor, the North indirectly and the South directly.
Cotton is King!!!!In 1840, 50% of the value of American exports was cottonIn 1840, the South produced more than half of the entire worlds supply of cotton.75 percent of the cotton used in Britain, who employed 20% of its workforce in textiles, was from the South. The main point, Cotton was making a killing and southern plantation owners essentially had a monopoly on the worlds cotton market.So much so, the South believed that if a war were to happen between the North and South, the British Royal Navy would stop any attempts by the North to blockade the Souths cotton.
Changes in Cotton Production18201860
Slaves Picking Cotton on a Mississippi Plantation
Slaves Using the Cotton Gin
Value of Cotton Exports As % of All US Exports
Southern AristocracySouth is an oligarchy because of the wealth and influence of the planter aristocracy.1,733 families owned more than 100 slaves each. These families provided the cream of the political and social leadership. Image of the large columned white plantation house of the cottonocracySir Walter ScottFamous author idolized in the South because he wrote about feudal society with manors and castles. Many southern plantation owners viewed themselves as lords and kings in a feudal society. This is why they were attracted to Scotts books, they reflected their archaic medieval society.
Tara Plantation Reality or Myth?Hollywoods Version?
Women and the PlantationsWomen who married plantation owners controlled a sizable household staff:Cooks, maids, seamstresses, laundresses, and body servantsBonds varied between households. Some women had affectionate bonds while others were cruel and mistreated the slaves.However, despite accounts of kindness, essentially no slaveholding women believed in abolition or advocated for it.
Plantation WastePlantations were actually quite wasteful and inefficient. Harsh for the land and destroyed the soilEconomy became more monopolistic and many small farmers were forced to leave to the West or Northwest to eek out a living. Basically, the big got bigger and the small got smaller. (Think Walmart and small mom and pop stores)Additionally, it was financially unstable.Overpopulation in land and slaves caused economic instability and debtSlaves represented a heavy investment of capitalDependence on one-crop economy (think the Irish and the potato). So no manufacturing, which made the South dependent upon the North
Characteristics of the Antebellum SouthPrimarily agrarian.Economic power shifted from the upper South to the lower South.Cotton Is King! * 1860 5 mil. bales a yr. (57% of total US exports).Very slow development of industrialization.Rudimentary financial system.Inadequate transportation system.
Southern Society (1850)Slavocracy [plantation owners]1,733 FamiliesOther Slaveowners (345,000 families) 2/3 of which owned less than 10 slaves each) 1.7 million peopleBlack FreemenBlack Slaves 4,000,000250,000Total US Population 23,000,000 [9,250,000 in the South = 40%]Whites who owned no slaves6.1 million people
Slave-Owning Population (1850)
Slave-Owning Families (1850)
White non-plantation populationUsually owned no more than 10 slaves and many families had one or 2 slaves. Sometimes up to a family of slavesIn total, only of the southern white population owned slaves.There were 6,120, 825 white non slave owners in the southThey scraped a living and life was tough. Lived a simple life in the mountains or in the backcountryViewed plantation owners as a snobocracy and benefitted little from slavery.
White non-plantation populationHowever, why did the poor white non-slave owners defend slavery?Idea of perhaps owning slaves themselves and improving their lot, gaining their southern American DreamTook solace in idea of racial superiority of whites that was preached in the South and that even though southern whites were poor, slaves still ranked below them on the social ladder.
Mountain folkIsolated from the rest of the South in the Appalachian mountains. Kind of a throwback to an earlier time and stuck in time. Some even kept some Elizabethan speech patterns.Little in common with the other whites and far from King Cotton. During the Civil war, many of these whites in the mountains sided with the Union and helped in winning the war for the North.
African American PopulationIn 1860, roughly 250,000 free blacks lived in the South. Upper South- many emancipated after the spirit of idealism spread during the revolutionary War periodDeep South- many free blacks were mulattoes. However, some free blacks also purchased their freedom with earnings from labor after hours.In New Orleans, there was a sizable mulatto population and many owned property. William T. Johnson was a free black in New Orleans who owned 15 slaves.
Laws Against Free BlacksIn many ways, free blacks in the South were like a third race:Forbidden from certain jobs and testifying against whites in courtConstant fear of being kidnapped by slave tradersSlave system saw them as a threat because they were examples of what a non-slave society could achieve.In the North: (250,000 free blacks)Some states forbade entrance, most denied right to vote, and some barred free blacks from school. The Irish often fought against free blacks in the North because they competed for jobs with them. Frederick Douglas was mobbed and beaten in the North many times. Common thought of the day was that southerners hated blacks as a race but liked the individuals while northerners professed they liked the race, but disliked individual blacks.
Southern SlaveryIn 1860, estimated 4 million slaves in the South (quadrupled since 1800)Legal importation was banned in 1808, however.Illegal slave trade continued as many smuggled N.P. Gordon, was hanged for participating in illegal slave trade in 1862 in New York. Only recorded time of a slave trader being punished executed.Bulk of the increase came from natural reproduction, which made American slave population unique in the world.
Plantation LifeSlaves primarily seen as investments, and 2 billion dollars sunk into slavery by 1860. Thus, as any capitalist, planters looked to make sure their investment was cared for as an asset As a result, many slaves were barred from doing dangerous work. This was usually done by Irish laborers, if a next was to be broken, better it was not a slave.
Slave Auction Notice, 1823Slave auctions werebrutal sights and showedthe lack of humanity thatwas the slave system.Many families were separated. Many slaveswere sold alongside cattleand horses, further diminishing their humanity.One of the worst legaciesof slavery was the lack ofconcern in keeping familiestogether and the separationof families at these slaveauctions
Slave Auction: Charleston, SC-1856
Slave Master BrandsSlave AccoutrementsSlave muzzleLife on the plantations varied greatly based on the slave owner. However, everywhere meant hard work, ignorance, and oppression. Slaves worked from dawn to dusk everyday, under constant threat of the overseer and his whip. No civil or political rights and could not testify in court.
Slave tag, SCSlave AccoutrementsSlave leg ironsSlave shoesFloggings were common becauseThe whip was an alternative to theWage-incentive system. Some Slaves sent to the breaker who Used cruel lashings to break a Slaves will to resist.
Slaves posing in front of their cabin on a Southern plantation.By 1860, majority of slaves lived in the Deep South wereCotton Farming was the most practiced. In some counties, Slaves accounted for over 75% of the population. This allowed for secure family life and also the creation of a Distinct African-American culture.
African-American CultureSigns of family continuity evidenced in the following:Practice of naming children for grandparents and surnames not of their current master, but of a forebears masterAvoiding marriage between first cousins, displaying African cultural rootsIn religion, many embraced Christianity, but mixed it with African elements.Evident in the responsorial style of preaching, which was an adaptation of traditions in Africa
A Slave Family
The Culture of SlaveryBlack Christianity [Baptists or Methodists]: * more emotional worship services. * negro spirituals.Pidgin or Gullah languages.Nuclear family with