e-Learning: Facilitating Learning through Technology
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e-Learning: Facilitating Learning through TechnologyBob BostromTerry College of BusinessUniversity of Georgiabostrom@terry.uga.eduTutorial Resources available at http://www.terry.uga.edu/people/rbostrom/ Click on Agder University and e-Learning under Resources
HOW LEARNING IS DELIVEREDThe evolution of training technologies1800s-1980sCorrespondence CoursesAudio TapesMid 1980s - mid 1990sVideo ConferencingSatellite BroadcastsAudio & Video TapesComputer-Based Train.1996 to presentCDsWeb-based Technologies that support:AsynchronousSynchronousSelf-paced Learning
Ford Learning Network: e-Learning ExampleTouches 125,000 employees, 30,000 on regular basisOne searchable portal; search capability critical (neural-net search system)Contains: 400,000 titles, including 1500 on-line courses, 800 classroom courses, and 1900 e-books, and internal resources48,000 20-minute learning objects in various media designed as just-in-time solutions or refreshersMuch of material is mapped to job-role competencies; employees self-assess skills, determine gaps, find trainingTrack value of training on the jobReference: http://www.clomedia.com/content/templates/clo_cloprofile.asp?articleid=180&zoneid=4
Academic e-Learning ExamplesDesigned, implemented and taught in UGA PwC/IBM MBA program (both design of curriculum and technical infrastructure) [see web site for paper or Bjorn Erics Book]MITs OpenCourseWare Project http://ocw.mit.edu/ (virtually all of MITs course available free by 2007)Michigan Virtual University http://www.mivu.org/ (MVU founded by state government; cooperative effort with higher education and industry; see IT training initiative)New Jersey Institute of Technology http://cpe.njit.edu/ (a leader in e-Learning since 1978; degree and professional programs)Sanford Center for Professional Development http://scpd.stanford.edu/NYU Online: launched in 1998, closed it doors in late 2001 (Spent $25 million)
LEARNING IS MOVING ONLINE: Do for us?Reaches more people (Access)Universal access via the WebImproved Quality?Time & money savings are obvious travel costs, delivery delaysincrease ROI from training expendituresOffers new possibilitiesAnytime, anyplace training (smaller modules) [Key value proposition: time and/or place independent]Improving performance
Bottom Line: Continuous/Lifelong Learning
The biggest growth in the Internet, and the area that will prove to be one of the biggest agents of change, will be in on-line training, or e-learning.John Chambers, CEO, Cisco
e-Learninge-Learning refers to the technology supporting learning activities in any of the following environments.TIMESAME (Synchronous)DIFFERENT (Asynchronous)AnyTime AnyWhereAnyOnePLACESameDifferentCLASSFace To Face InteractionOngoing CoordinationVirtual Classroom (Centra, Interwise) Instant MessagingSimultaneous interaction across distancesE-Mail, LMS, LCS (Blackboard)Interaction across time and distanceDistance/Distributed Learning: learning in which the learner and learning resources are separated by time and/or space.
Can TechnologyFacilitate Learning?YESNOMAYBE
What technology do you use now in your classes?
WebsiteStatic or Dynamic (interactivity)?Course Management SystemsBlackboardWebCTOtherCollaboration toolsEmailListserv (Group Email)Instant MessagingAudio/Video ConferencingVirtual ClassroomThreaded discussionsOther (Groove, etc.)
Tutorial Outcomes Purpose: provide an overview of e-learning to encourage and facilitate IS professionals teaching and research efforts. The ultimate question is: Can technology really facilitate learning? If yes, how do we use technology effectively to help activate and challenge our learners? To answer these questions, this tutorial:Provides a technology map of e-learning technology that can be used to support learning in a classroom or from a distance;Outlines key research issues in e-learning focusing on those where IS research can add value;Shares best practices for implementing and using technology effectively in IS learning situations; andDiscuss how instructor roles and skills need to change to be effective in technology-supported environments, particularly in distance learning situations..
Relevance of e-Learning to IS Field(How I find myself presenting this tutorial?)
IT/IS artifact/technology is a core object of the field (Learning Systems are an emerging and important technology)Relevant IS Contexts where Learning Systems are Embedded Business OrganizationsAcademic Organizations (primarily Colleges)Training and education in business knowledge and skills especially IS (my love for teaching and training)IS Foundational Research StreamsGroup Support Systems/Digital CollaborationComputer Training (software, applications systems, end-users, etc.)e-Learning/technology-mediated learning (my experience implementing an e-Learning MBA program)Primary Reference Disciplines: Education, Computer Science, and Psychology
Information Systems Field/Community
CENTRAL/CORE OBJECTSInformation System (IS) / Information Technology (IT) [IT Artifact]System Development Process/Change ProcessContext IT embedded: Organizational System (Process/Task, Roles/Structure, People, Outcomes)Core Concept: Systems
OUTCOMES / INTENTIONSApplied - Added Value (Technology Improves the System)Contributions to Knowledge DomainsTechnology DesignTechnology Effects/Impacts on contexts embeddedTechnology Adoption (Diffusion, Use)Contributions to Other Fields
Benbasat and Zmud, The Identity Crisis (MISQ, June 2003)Nomological Net: IT Artifact, Usage, Impact, IT Capabilities and PracticesToo many research models include neither the IT artifact nor at least one elements of nomological net; need to focus on IT artifact and NetWe need to understand technology as well as individual and organizational usesToo much focus on adoption & impacts, instead of focus on technology design
Blended e-LearningOnline AnytimeAsynchronousPrimarily Diff. Time & PlaceDatabase Centric (Shared information spaces) Key ToolsLearning Management Systems (LMS, LCMS)Learning Team Shared SpacesDiscussion DatabasesGroup and Individual emailTraditional Classroom( Same Time & Place)Online LiveSynchronous/Real TimePrimarily Same Time + Diff. PlaceCommunication Centric Key ToolsInstant Messaging/ChatAudio/video conferencingVirtual ClassroomsElectronic Meeting Systems
e-Learning AliasesOnline learning/TrainingWeb-based learning/trainingVirtual learningDistributed learningDistance learningAsynchronous Learning NetworksTechnology-Supported/Mediated/Facilitated LearningNetworked LearningElectronic learningCollaborative electronic learningElectronic Performance SupportWorkflow-based learning[Learning/Training]
e-Learning Content Creation Tools(Content delivered electronically)Text/Words [Word]Audio (Regular, Streaming) Video (Regular, Streaming)Photographs/Pictures/Images [Photoshop]Diagrams [MindManager]Animation [Flash]Simulations [RoboDemo]Presentations/Slide Show [PowerPoint]Multimedia Presentations (audio, video, slides, audio in text) [Producer, AgilityPresenter, iCreate, TurboDemo, Breeze]Classroom Presentations CapturedAuthoring Systems [Authorware, ToolBook]Web Site Development tools [DreamWeaver, Frontpage]Other Software [Excel, etc.]
Colleagues, Professional Organizations, and Learning CommunitiesIT: ACM Professional Development http://pd.acm.org/ For a good talk on Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Listening, see http://stanford-online.stanford.edu/milo/ IT/MIS: http://www.isworld.org/ ConferencesTechlearn 2002: http://www.techlearn.net/layout/default.cfmIT Content: GarnterLive http://www.gartner.com/gartnerlive.htmlVendors and Learning Portals (buy, many free courses, or have made)IT, Business and Leadership: http://www.skillsoft.com/ Fathom http://www.fathom.com/Most Virtual Classroom vendors offer free seminars and recordings (for example see http://www.interwise.com/live/livecatalog.asp)Publishers/Book SellersLaudon book web site: http://www.prenhall.com/laudon/Barnes and Noble University: http://www.barnesandnobleuniversity.com/TRENDSMore content available, easily accessible and transferable (standards)Impact on Teaching role:Finding, evaluating, and selecting content Chunking (smaller learning objects/activities) & Sequencing ContentMatching Content to Delivery Tool & Environment
Electronic Content is Everywhere!
University EntrepreneursMore than 2,000 SkillSoft courses are eligible for credit at Drexel University. To receive credit for a SkillSoft course, a student must obtain a grade of 70 percent or higher on the course test. Students receive one credit for every ten contact hours associated with a SkillSoft course. For instance, successful completion of SkillSofts Six Sigma course series, comprised of eight courses, would earn the learner a minimum of 3 college credits. For more information on how to obtain credit for SkillSoft courses and for a catalog of online programs offered by Drexel, go to www.drexel.com/skillsoft (taken from Skillsoft web site)
A CASE STUDY OF WEB-BASED LEARNING: THE MICHIGAN VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY IT TRAINING INITIATIVE James J. Cappel: Central Michigan University, Jonathan M. Ahlbrand: Michigan Virtual University (AMCIS 2002 Proceedings) http://aisel.isworld.org/
Hot area: Simulation and GamingSimulation is an interactive (difference from animation) modelRecreate or model specific work environment (gaming creates more artificial world)Experience and learn through explorations (learn by doing)Game-based learning: serious learning + interactive entertainment (see book Digital Game-Based Learning & http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/default.asp) Additional site: http://www.games2train.com/ Learn from Gam