Dr A Sahu Dept of Comp Sc & Engg. IIT Guwahati 1

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Transcript of Dr A Sahu Dept of Comp Sc & Engg. IIT Guwahati 1

  • Slide 1
  • Dr A Sahu Dept of Comp Sc & Engg. IIT Guwahati 1
  • Slide 2
  • Intel 945 Motherboard architecture GMCH ICH7 (8254,8259,8237) PCI and PCI Express Video Ram, In build GPU DirectX, OpenGL, OpenCL Advance GPU from ATI and AMD Introduction to Nvidia Cuda Programming 2
  • Slide 3
  • 4 Serial ATA Ports Integrated Matrix Storage Technology 6 PCI Slots BIOS Support BIOS Support Intel HD Audio 8 high Speed USB Ports 6 PCI Express* x1 slot 6 PCI Express* x1 slot Intel Pro 100/1000 LAN Intel Active Mngement Tech. Intel Active Mngement Tech. 82801 GR ICH7 (io cont. hub sys7) South Bridge 82801 GR ICH7 (io cont. hub sys7) South Bridge Intel Pentium D Processor Intel Pentium D Processor DDR2 Support for Media Ext Card Intel GMA 950 Graphics PCI Express* x16 Graphics PCI Express* x16 Graphics 82945 GMCH/MCH North Bridge 82945 GMCH/MCH North Bridge 3
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  • Graphics and Memory Controller Hub Graphics Interface (GI) and PCI Express for Graphics card support Host Interface (HI) Connect to processor and support HT, IntrDelivery, 12 in-order queue, etc. System Memory Interface (SMI) Connected to two channel DDR2 Direct Media Interface (DMI) Connect to ICH7 4
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  • IO Controller HUB version 7 (South Bridge) Enhance DMA controller, IC and timer Two cascaded 8259 PIC One 82C54 PIT (Motorola) One 8237 DMA Low Pin count (LPC) Interface PCI and PCI express (Peripheral Component. Int) AC97 & HD Audio Codec Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) Support Firm wire support (BIOS) ACPI, SATA, USBs 5
  • Slide 6
  • Peripherals : HD monitor Interfaces : Intermediate Hardware Nvidia GPU card Interfaces : Intermediate Software/Program Nvidia GPU driver Intel Pentium D Processor Intel Pentium D Processor DDR2 Support for Media Ext Card Intel GMA 950 Graphics PCI Express* x16 Graphics PCI Express* x16 Graphics 82945 GMCH/MCH North Bridge 82945 GMCH/MCH North Bridge 6
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  • Char display (80x25 char, 5x7pixel=400x175) CRT Monitor (400x600, 640x480,600x800) LCD Monitor (1024x768,1280x1024,) Graphics visually more appealing Display Line, Circle, Rectangle, Curve, Polygon Character using this primitives True type font RED ARROW Circle 7
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  • 1024x768 Pixel LCD 0 1 2 3 4 .. 1023 0 1 2 767 R R Row Ctr Col Ctr Col Ctr CLK > 1024x768x50Hz B B G G 8x3=24 Bits Frame Buffer Refresh screen 50 time a Sec 8
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  • Pixels in Frame Buffer Pixels on the Screen 24 Bit Per Pixels Graphical representation of 24 bit color 9
  • Slide 10
  • GPU : specialized processor that accelerates 3D or 2D graphics primitives operations Lots of Floating point operations Accelerates Primitives Line, circle, polygon, mesh, projection, sphere, 10
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  • 3D application 3D API: OpenGL DirectX/3D 3D API: OpenGL DirectX/3D 3D API Commands CPU-GPU Boundary GPU Command & Data Stream GPU Command GPU Command Primitive Assembly Primitive Assembly Rastereisation Interpolation Rastereisation Interpolation Raster Operation Raster Operation Frame Buffer Programmable Fragment Processors Programmable Fragment Processors Programmable Vertex Processor Programmable Vertex Processor Vertex Index Stream Assembled polygon, line & points Pixel Location Stream Pixel Updates Transformed Fragments Rastorized Pretransformed Fragments transformed Vertices Pretransformed Vertices 11
  • Slide 12
  • Memory System Memory System Texture Memory Texture Memory Frame Buffer Frame Buffer Vertex Processing Vertex Processing Pixel Processing Pixel Processing Vertices (x,y,z) Pixel R, G,B Vertex Shadder Vertex Shadder Pixel Shadder Pixel Shadder 12
  • Slide 13
  • Access to video memory We create a Linux device-driver that gives applications access to graphics frame-buffer Accessing Frame buffer through PCI Express slot Assume a Graphics card is installed in your system 13
  • Slide 14
  • user application user application standard runtime libraries standard runtime libraries call ret user spacekernel space Operating System kernel Operating System kernel syscall sysret device-driver module device-driver module call ret hardware device out in i/o memory RAM A device-driver is a software module that controls a hardware device in response to OS kernel requests relayed, often, from an application 14
  • Slide 15
  • The graphics screen is a two-dimensional array of picture elements (pixels) Each pixels color is an individually programmable mix of red, green, and blue These pixels are redrawn sequentially, left-to-right, by rows from top to bottom 15
  • Slide 16
  • VRAM RAM CPU CRT 16-MB of VRAM 2048-MB of RAM 16
  • Slide 17
  • This depends on the total number of pixels the number of bits-per-pixel The total number of pixels Determined by the screens width and height 1280-by-960= 1,228,800 pixels The number of bits-per-pixel (color depth) is a programmable parameter (varies from 1 to 32) Certain types of applications also need to use extra VRAM for multiple displays, or for special effects like computer game animations 17
  • Slide 18
  • R B G alpha red green blue 081624 pixel longword The intensity of each color-component within a pixel is an 8-bit value 0.5, 0, 1, 0 0, 0.5, 0 Alpha represent pre- multiplied valued 18
  • Slide 19
  • B B G G R R A A B B G G R R A A B B G G R R VRAM 0 1 2 3 Video Screen 4 5 6 78 9 10 truecolor graphics-modes use 4-bytes per picture-element 19
  • Slide 20
  • Linux is a protected-mode operating system I/O devices normally are not directly accessible Linux on x86 platforms uses virtual memory Privileged software must map the VRAM A device-driver module is needed: vram.c We can compile it using: $ mmake vram Device-node: # mknod /dev/vram c 98 0 Make it writable: # chmod a+w /dev/vram 20
  • Slide 21
  • Its a character-mode Linux device-driver It implements four device-file methods: read(): lets a program read from video memory write(): lets a program write to video memory llseek(): lets a program move the files pointer mmap(): lets a program map vram to user-space It also implements a pseudo-file that lets users view the RADEON X300 graphics controllers PCI Configuration Space parameter-values: $ cat /proc/vram 21
  • Slide 22
  • Its an acronym for Peripheral Component Interconnect and refers to a collection of industry standards for devices used in PCs An Intel-sponsored initiative (from 1992-9) having several ambitious goals: Reduce diversity inherent in legacy PC devices Improve speed and efficiency of data-transfers Eliminate (or reduce) platform dependencies Simplify adding/removing peripheral adapters Lower PCs total consumption of electrical power 22
  • Slide 23
  • PCI Configuration Space Body (48 doublewords variable format) PCI Configuration Space Body (48 doublewords variable format) 64 doublewords PCI Configuration Space Header (16 doublewords fixed format) PCI Configuration Space Header (16 doublewords fixed format) A non-volatile parameter-storage area for each PCI device-function 23
  • Slide 24
  • Status Register Status Register Command Register Command Register Device ID Device ID Vendor ID Vendor ID BIST Cache Line Size Cache Line Size Class Code Class/SubClass/ProgIF Class Code Class/SubClass/ProgIF Revision ID Revision ID Base Address 0 Subsystem Device ID Subsystem Device ID Subsystem Vendor ID Subsystem Vendor ID CardBus CIS Pointer reserved capabilities pointer capabilities pointer Expansion ROM Base Address Minimum Grant Minimum Grant Interrupt Pin Interrupt Pin reserved Latency Timer Latency Timer Header Type Header Type Base Address 1 Base Address 2 Base Address 3 Base Address 4 Base Address 5 Interrupt Line Interrupt Line Maximum Latency Maximum Latency 31 0 16 doublewords Dwords 1 - 0 3 - 2 5 - 4 7 - 6 9 - 8 11 - 10 13 - 12 15 - 14 24
  • Slide 25
  • 0x8086 Intel Corporation 0x1022 Advanced Micro Devices, Inc 0x1002 Advanced Technologies, Inc (My office machine) 0x10EC RealTek, Incorporated 0x10DE Nvidia Corporation 0x10B7 3Com Corporation 0x101C Western Digital, Inc 0x1014 IBM Corporation 0x0E11 Compaq Corporation 0x1057 Motorola Corporation 0x106B Apple Computers, Inc 0x5333 Silicon Integrated Systems, Inc 25
  • Slide 26
  • 0x5347: ATI RAGE128 SG 0x4C58: ATI RADEON LX 0x5950: ATI RS480 0x436E: ATI IXP300 SATA 0x438C: ATI IXP600 IDE 0x5B60:ATI Radeon HD 3200 Graphics See this Linux header-file for lots more examples: 26
  • Slide 27
  • 0x00: Legacy Device (i.e., built before class-codes were defined) 0x01: Mass Storage controller 0x02: Network controller 0x03: Display controller 0x04: Multimedia device 0x05: Memory Controller 0x06: Bridge device 0x07: Simple Communications controller 0x08: Base System peripherals 0x09: Input device 0x0A: Docking stations 0x0B: Processors 0x0C: Serial Bus controllers 0x0D: Wireless controllers 0x0E: Intelligent I/O controllers 0x0F: Encryption/Decryption controllers 0x10: Satellite Communications controllers 0x11: Data Acquisition and Signal Processing controllers 27
  • Slide 28
  • Class Code 0x01: Mass Storage controller 0x00: SCSI controller 0x01: IDE controller 0x02: Floppy Disk controller 0x03: IPI controller 0x04: RAID controller 0x80: Other Mass Storage controller 28
  • Slide 29
  • Class Code 0x02: Network