Deconstructing Terror

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An assessment of how the media has covered radicalisation and religious intolerance in Kenya.

Transcript of Deconstructing Terror

  • Published by:

    Media Council of KenyaBritam Centre, Ground FloorMara/Ragati Road Junction, Upper HillP. O. Box 43132 00100 Nairobi, KenyaTel: +254 2737058/ 2716265/2716266/0727 735252Email: [email protected]: www.mediacouncil.or.ke

    Supported by:

  • Assessing Medias Role in Religious Intolerance and Radicalisation

    iii

    Published by:

    Media Council of KenyaBritam Centre, Ground FloorMara/Ragati Road Junction, Upper HillP. O. Box 43132 00100 Nairobi, KenyaTel: +254 2737058/ 2716265/2716266/0727 735252Email: [email protected]: www.mediacouncil.or.ke

    Supported by:

    Deconstructing Terror

    Media Council of Kenya

  • iv

    Deconstructing Terror

    First published November 2014

    Media Council of Kenya

    All rights reserved. Apart from fair dealing for the purposes of research, private study, criticism and review, no part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronically or mechanically, including photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms should be sent to the publishers.

    ISBN 978-9966-073-05-1

  • vDeconstructing Terror

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe Media Council of Kenya wishes to thank all those who participated in ensuring the success of data collection, analysis, report writing and preview/editing of this report.These include the various respondents who were willing to spare their time to participate in the study. The writing of this report was done by the Research and Media Monitoring Officer Amos Kibet to whom much gratitude is owed.

    We also appreciate the input and support of the Councils Chief Executive Officer Haron Mwangi, Programmes Manager Victor Bwire, the Councils Communications and Information Officer Jerry Abuga and the Communications Assistant Kevin Mabonga.

    Lastly, we sincerely thank the Kenya Media Programme and GIZ for their continued support, and for ensuring the success of this project.

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    Deconstructing Terror

    ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ......................................................................................................iii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...........................................................................................................................iv

    INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................1

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. Vii

    ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS .......................................................................................viii

    Introduction .................................................................................................................................. ix

    Key Findings .................................................................................................................................. x

    Objectives and Research Questions ........................................................................................ xi

    Methodology ...............................................................................................................................xii

    Chapter One

    Background of the study ........................................................................................................ 1-7

    Chapter Two

    Media frames on the war on terror ....................................................................................8-17

    Chapter Three

    Key themes in the war on terror ...................................................................................... 18-22

    Chapter Four

    Focus Group Discussion findings ................................................................................... 23 - 36

    Chapter Five

    Case Reviews: Critical examination of articles and clips ........................................... 37 - 42

    Chapter Six

    Conclusions and Recommendations ............................................................................. 43 - 51

    References ....................................................................................................................................52

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

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    Deconstructing Terror

    Radicalisation may not be a new phenomenon globally. However it presents journalists with various challenges due to its sensitive nature. Some of these challenges include professional and ethical issues that journalists grapple with on daily basis. That the media has the potential to deepen divides by offending or confronting anothers culture or identity is a painful fact. This is more especially when covering issues like religious intolerance and radicalisation. The example of cartoons published in the Danish Press in 2005 that depicted the Prophet Mohammed, for instance, set off protests throughout the Muslim world, with critics calling the cartoons racist and blasphemous and insensitive is a good example which Kenyan journalist can learn from.

    The role of the media in facilitating and maintaining a cohesive society is enshrined in its social responsibility theorem. The importance of social cohesion and intercultural and religious tolerance and understanding as a key element in reducing drivers for radicalisation and extremism cannot be wished away. The extent to which the media sensationalises issues and the coverage of unbalanced stories around Islam and terrorism are considered part of the radicalising agents in Kenya.

    Journalists in the course of their work should ensure that they observe professionalism and patriotism. Granted, they should guard against manipulation and distortion. A good journalist, priviledging truth and adhering to ethical and professional standards, will always be a good citizen. A patriotic journalist neither engages in subterfuge, deceit, propaganda nor twists the truth.

    Regrettably, the entrepreneurial tendencies of many media organisations and the propensity to sell more papers and attract more advertising have been considered a dominant feature of media framing of Islam and terrorism. This has pushed accuracy, balance and objectivity to the back seat as economic drivers become prioritised. This is compounded by the use by various actors, sometimes discreet news sources, to push certain agendas, including those ethno-religious in nature. Journalists should avoid emphasising the dramatic, most violent, and conflicting accounts on war against terror, radicalisation and religious intolerance. They should instead focus on historical, cultural, and social explanations for terrorism and the war against it.

    HARON MWANGI

    Chief Executive Officer & Secretary to the Council

    INTRODUCTION

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    Deconstructing Terror

    The war on terror has gained currency given its increasing threat to Kenyas security, stability and economy. Corollary to this, issues of war on terror, radicalisation and religious extremism have been identified as root causes of the serious challenges facing the country today. While the implication of the media in such malaise is obvious, journalists now face serious challenges as they deal with these issues in their everyday work practices.

    Compared to politics and the economy, religion often attracts little media attention. When it does make news, it is mainly because of extremism or intolerance.Granted, recent events make it critically important to explore how the media covers issues of war on terror, radicalisation and religious intolerance.

    The study examined various sampled media content and interviewed key informants to understand professional and ethical considerations informing media coverage of terror, religious extremism and radicalisation. From the findings, it is evident that the media somehow contributes to the propagation of the dominant narratives that: People of Somali origin are potential terrorists; all Muslims are potential terrorists because most suspects arrested are Muslims; and that Islam preaches and supports radicalisation and extremism, among other narratives.

    The study reveals that journalists now face serious security risks especially in the coastal region following perceived media biases. In fact, some have been attacked or threatened.

    The media does not strictly adhere to professional tenets and code of conduct. Some of the noted violations include use of bloody pictures and abhorrent scenes, inability to separate fact from commentary; and use of single news sources which creates impressions of biased reporting. Journalists should equally be careful about words and phrases they use when reporting terrorism and associated issues. They should promote diversity, and have different voices and perspectives on terrorism, religious and radicalisation issues. Consequently, promotion of inter-religious dialogue through the media is important in ensuring a cohesive society. The media should also go beyond superficial reporting and critically interrogate social, economic and political issues and provide a platform for better understanding of the problems that face society.

    Overall, media coverage of issue of war on terror, radicalisation and religious intolerance is wanting.

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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    Deconstructing Terror

    ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

    CTV Citizen Television

    FGD Focus group discussions

    IRIN Integrated Regional Information Networks

    KBC Kenya Broadcasting Corporation

    KTN Kenya Television Network

    NTV Nation Television

    NSCI National Security C