Dark Matters: WIMP and Beyond

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Dark Matters: WIMP and Beyond. Shufang Su U. of Arizona SI 2005. Outline. -. Brief introduction of standard cosmology Dark matter evidence New physics and dark matter WIMP candidates: neutralino LSP in MSSM, lightest KK particle in UED - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Dark Matters:

    WIMP and Beyond Shufang Su U. of ArizonaSI 2005

  • Outline Brief introduction of standard cosmology

    Dark matter evidence

    New physics and dark matter

    WIMP

    candidates: neutralino LSP in MSSM, lightest KK particle in UED

    direct/indirect DM searches, collider studies

    synergy between cosmology and particle physics

    superWIMP

  • Standard cosmology Einstein equations Metrics Equations of statea(t): scale factork: -1, 0, 1 for open, flat, close universe

  • Standard cosmology Friedmann equationHubble parametercritical density

  • We are living through a revolution in our understanding of the Universe on the largest scales

    For the first time in history, we have a complete picture of the Universe

  • DM evidence: rotation curves Rotation curves of galaxies and galactic clustersConstrain mi=i/c

  • Dark matter evidence: supernovae SupernovaeConstrain m-

  • Dark matter evidence: CMB Cosmic Microwave BackgroundConstrain +mthennow

  • Remarkable agreement Remarkable precision (~10%)Synthesis =73% 4%=23% 4%=3% 0.5% 0.5%

  • Additional evidence

  • Dark matter vs. dark energy We know how much, but no idea what it is.

    Dark matterDark energyNo known particles contributeAll known particles contributeProbably tied to mweak 100 GeVProbably tied to mPlanck 1019 GeVSeveral compelling solutions No compelling solutions

  • Five stationSeven stationDark EnergyDark MatterOrdinary matter

  • Standard Model No good candidates for CDM in SMNot for cosmology observations Dark Matter Cosmology constant Baryon asymmetry SM is a very successful theoretical framework describes all experimental observations to date Gravitational interacting Stable Non-baryonic Neutral Cold (massive) Correct density

    H

    uctdsb

    ee

    W,Zg

    Quarks

    Leptons

    Gauge boson(force carrier)

    Higgs

  • New physics beyond SM DM problem provide precise, unambiguous evidence for new physicsIndependent motivation for new physics in particle physics New physics to protect electroweak scale

    new symmetry: supersymmetry new space dimension: extra-dimension

  • Dark matter in new physics Dark Matter: new stable particlein many theories, dark matter is easier to explain than no dark matter

  • Dark matter candidates mass and interaction strengths span many, many orders of magnitudeMany ideas of DM candidates:

    WIMP superWIMPs primodial black holes axions warm gravitinos Q balls wimpzillas self-interacting particles self-annihilating particles fuzzy dark matter branons appear in particle physics models motivated independently by attempts to solve Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    relic density are determined by mpl and mweak

    naturally around the observed value no need to introduce and adjust new energy scale

  • Dark matter freeze out Freeze out, n/s constWIMP early time H n neq

    late time H (n/s)today (n/s)decoupling at freeze-out H TF m/25Approximately, relic / 1/hvi=n hvi v.s. HUniverse cools: n=nEQe-m/T Boltzmann equationThermal equilibrium $ ff

  • Relic density calculations Boltzmann equationnumber density at thermal equilibriumentropy

  • Relic density calculations Define Long before freeze-out Long after freeze-out

  • Relic density calculations Approximately, relic density today ( ) g*: number of relativistic degrees of freedom at the time of freeze outxF: freeze out temperatureg: degrees of freedom for dark matter Xc: O(1) constant determined by matching the late-time and early-time solutionsOr, order of magnitude estimation: Resonance enhancement, coannihilation

  • WIMP dark matter WIMP: Weak Interacting Massive Particle mWIMP mweak an weak2 mweak-2 h2 0.3 naturally around the observed value

  • SM particle superpartner Spin differ by 1/2 Correct density Non-baryonic Neutral Coldm > 45 GeV Stable gravitational interactingweak interactionSupersymmetry breaking, m TeV Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM)

    (Hu+,Hu0) , (Hd0, Hd-)

    uctdsb

    ee

    B0W,W0g

    Squarks

    sleptons

    Gauginos

    Higgsino

  • Neutralino LSP as DM new weak scale particle constraints discrete symmetry

    stability

    dark matter candidate

  • Sneutrino Dark Matter rapid annihilation, hAvi largeSneutrino CDM in MSSM is disfavored

  • Neutralino relic density CMSSM0.1 h2 0.3 (pre-WMAP) t-channel(dominate) s-channelimportant near pole m mZ,H/2 Cosmology excludes much of the parameter space

    too big

    cosmology focuses attention on particular regions

    just right

  • Bulk region and coannihilation regionbulkco-annihilation muon g-2 th-exp=(26 16) 10-10 CMSSM0.1 h2 0.3 0.094 h2 0.129 Ellis et. al. (2003)

  • Focus Point Region~Feng et. al. (2000)

    conventional wisdom focus pointnaturalness m0, M1/2, || TeVm0 a few TeV , naturalm0 term negligiblem0 term not negligible|| M1|| M1DM Bino-like: 10 B0DM Bino-Higgsino mixture

  • Funnel-Like RegionLarge tan : m mA,H/2Ellis et. al. (2003)

  • Extra dimension 4DUniversal extra dimension:

    All SM particles live in the (flat) bulk

    unwanted states: orbifoldAppelquist, cheng and Dobrescu (2000)

  • Universal Extra Dimension new weak scale particle constraints

    discrete symmetry

    stability

    dark matter candidate

  • UED: LKP Dark Matter Servant, Tait (2002)

  • Dark matter detection / 1/h iNot overclose universeEfficient annihilation thenDM annihilation

  • Direct detection detectorMeasure nuclear recoil energy(ionization, photo)

  • Direct detection

  • Current SensitivityNear FutureFutureTheoretical PredictionsBaer, Balazs, Belyaev, OFarrill (2003)Direct detection: future B(1) LKP DM

  • Indirect detectiondetectorA / nDM2

  • Dark matter density in the sun, capture rate

  • MSSMIndirect detection: neutrinoUEDicecubeHooper and Wang (2003)Hooper and Krib (2002)

  • Dark Matter annihilates in galactic center to photons , a place some particles which are detected by GLAST, HESS. an experiment

    recipeDark matter density in the center of the galaxyHESS

  • Indirect detection: gamma rayUEDHooper and Wang (2003)

  • Dark Matter annihilates in the halo to positions , a place some particles which are detected by AMS on the ISS. an experiment

    recipeDark matter density profile in the haloAMS

  • Comparison of pre-LHC SUSY searches DM searches are complementary to collider searches

    When combined, entire cosmologically attractive region will be explored before LHC ( 2007 ) Pre-WMAPPost-WMAPLHC searchDM search

  • Collider study of dark matter Can study those regions at colliders2007Now Precise determination of new particle mass and couplingDetermine DM mass, relic densityLHCILC

  • Choose four representative points for detailed study Neutralino DM in mSUGRAFeng et. al. ILC cosmology working groupBaer et. al. ISAJETGondolo et. al. DarkSUSYBelanger et. al. MicroMEGA

  • Bulk region LCC1 (SPS1a)M0, m1/2, A0, tan = 100, 250, -100, 10 ( >o, m3/2>mLSP )light 10, 20, 1, sleptonWeiglein, Martyn et. al. (2004) Scan over 20 most relevant parameters

    compute h2, weigh each point by Gaussian distribution for each observable

    width of pdf h2

  • LCC1 Relic density determination: LCC1(preliminary) result: / = 2.2% ( h2 = 0.0026 )Battaglia (2005)

  • LCC2 Foucs point region: LCC2(preliminary) result: / = 2.4% ( h2 = 0.0029 )Battaglia (2005)M0, m1/2, A0, tan =3280, 300, 0, 10 ( >o, m3/2>mLSP )light neutralino/chargino LCC2

  • Coanniliation region: LCC3(preliminary) result: / = 7% ( h2 = 0.0084 )Battaglia (2005)M0, m1/2, A0, tan =210, 360, 0, 40 ( >o, m3/2>mLSP )m mstau LCC3

  • Synergy

    Relic Density Indirect DetectionDirect Detection

    Astrophysical and Cosmological InputsCollider Inputs

    Weak-scale Parameters

    DM AnnihilationDM-N Interaction

  • Alternative dark matter But the relic density argument strongly prefers weak interactions.All of the signals rely on DM having EW interactions.

    Is this required?NO!

  • SWIMPSMsuperWIMP Feng, Rajaraman and Takayama (2003)104 s t 108 ssuperWIMP

    e.g. Gravitino LSP LKK graviton

    WIMP

    neutral chargedWIMP superWIMP + SM particlesWIMP

  • superWIMP : an example SUSY caseWIMP superWIMP + SM particles

  • Gravitino Gravitino: superpartner of graviton

    Obtain mass when SUSY is spontaneously broken mG F/mpl

    Stable when it is LSP - candidate of Dark Matter~

  • Gravitino: warm dark matter mG mSUSY (GMSB) Moroi, Murayama and Yamaguchi, PLB303, 289 (1993)~

  • Gravitino cold dark matter thermalLSP v-1 (weak coupling)-2 WIMPsuperWIMPDMBolz, Brandenburg and Buchmuller,NPB 606, 518 (2001)Kawasaki, Kohri and Moroi, asrtro-ph/0402490, astro-ph/0408426Buchmuller, Bari, Plumacher, NPB665, 445 (2003)Kohri, Moroi and Yotsuyanagi, hep-ph/0