Czar Nicholas II Czar (ruler) of Russia Weak leader Overthrown in 1917 Russian Revolution

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Transcript of Czar Nicholas II Czar (ruler) of Russia Weak leader Overthrown in 1917 Russian Revolution

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Czar Nicholas II Czar (ruler) of Russia Weak leader Overthrown in 1917 Russian Revolution Slide 2 The Hessian Hussie Czarina Alexandra Wife of Nicholas II Rumored to have affair with Rasputin Born in Germany Slide 3 RASPUTIN Slide 4 Revolution n March 1917 n Provisional government under Alexander Kerensky n Democratic n Continued to prosecute the war n Continuing the war doomed this government Slide 5 Road to Russian Revolution Causeway to Communism Slide 6 It all started when Autocratic rulers weakened Russia Autocratic rulers weakened Russia Paul I (assassinated) Alexander I (despot death Decembrist Revolt) Nicholas I (dictator Autocracy, Orthodoxy, etc.) Slide 7 Alexander II (r. 1855 1881) Son of Nicholas I Son of Nicholas I Traveled as a youth visited 30 regions of Russia Traveled as a youth visited 30 regions of Russia Had government experience Had government experience Liked autocracy and bureaucracy of Nicholas I Liked autocracy and bureaucracy of Nicholas I Slide 8 Emancipation of Serfs (1861) Two reasons Two reasons Crimean War demonstrated lack of technology. Emancipation would result in industrial labor force and movement toward industry and tech. Fear of peasant revolt Slide 9 Czar Nichols II (r. 1894 1917) Last Czar of Russia Last Czar of Russia Slide 10 Russo-Japanese War 1904 a little victorious war to stem the tide of revolution would be most welcome 1904 a little victorious war to stem the tide of revolution would be most welcome Japan struck first destroyed ENTIRE Russian fleet Japan struck first destroyed ENTIRE Russian fleet Treaty of Portsmouth (1905) Treaty of Portsmouth (1905) Russian Navy Slide 11 Revolution (1905) Bloody Sunday - January 22, 1905 Bloody Sunday - January 22, 1905 Workers, carrying petition to the czar, were shot by soldiers in St. Petersburg Over 300 unarmed workers were killed Strikes shutdown RRs, telegraph system, government offices Councils of workers called SOVIETS sprang up in cities to direct rebellion Slide 12 Nicholas II relented and allowed reform Nicholas II relented and allowed reform Constitution Duma (legislative body) Constitution Duma (legislative body) Duma, little power 1906, 1907, they were dismissed by the czar when they asked for reform measures Duma, little power 1906, 1907, they were dismissed by the czar when they asked for reform measures Emblem of the Russian Duma 100 th Anniversary Slide 13 REAL Revolution, 1917 The February Revolution (March 1917) was a spontaneous popular revolution focused around St Petersburg. The February Revolution (March 1917) was a spontaneous popular revolution focused around St Petersburg. In the chaos, members of the Duma assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government. In the chaos, members of the Duma assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government. The army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution and Czar Nicholas II of Russia, the last Czar of Russia, abdicated, effectively leaving the Provisional Government in power The army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution and Czar Nicholas II of Russia, the last Czar of Russia, abdicated, effectively leaving the Provisional Government in power Slide 14 Provisional government Alexander Kerensky Provisional government Alexander Kerensky Representative government with Legislature and executive branch Continued the war bad move During this chaotic period there were frequent mutinies and many strikes. The Provisional Government chose to remain in the war, whereas the policy of the Bolsheviks and other socialist factions was to abandon the war effort. Slide 15 Peace, Land, Bread!!! Slide 16 Lenin and the Bolsheviks November 1917 November 1917 Government war policy VERY unpopular Peasants starving Demand for land Petrograd (St. Petersburg) and Moscow soviets were controlled by Bolsheviks Red Guard workers militia eventually became the Red Army Slide 17 Lenin and the Bolsheviks Bolsheviks Russian Communists Bolsheviks Russian Communists Nikoli Vladamir Lenin (LENIN) was leader of the Bolsheviks Nikoli Vladamir Lenin (LENIN) was leader of the Bolsheviks Bolsheviks took over after Russian Revolution Oct (1917) Bolsheviks took over after Russian Revolution Oct (1917) Slide 18 Bolsheviks took government buildings by force Bolsheviks took government buildings by force All ministers were arrested (Kerensky escaped) All ministers were arrested (Kerensky escaped) Communist dictatorship under Lenin Communist dictatorship under Lenin Slide 19 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Beginning of 1918 Russia dropped out of the war Beginning of 1918 Russia dropped out of the war Treaty of Brest-Litovsk gave Germany huge area of Russian territory Treaty of Brest-Litovsk gave Germany huge area of Russian territory Result of the Russian Revolution was that Russia quit and now Germany could fully mobilize against the Allies Result of the Russian Revolution was that Russia quit and now Germany could fully mobilize against the Allies Slide 20 Four-year civil war within Russia to consolidate power and murder all opposition Four-year civil war within Russia to consolidate power and murder all opposition 1922 USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1922 USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Slide 21 Battle of BELLEAU WOOD One of the first major battles USA (AEF) participated inJune 1918 Brigade of U.S. Marine Corps, part of AEF under General Pershing Defeated Germans after battling on rocky ground in heavy brush Slide 22 Great victory for USA / allies French were very impressed Renamed area Wood of the Marine Brigade Slide 23 Argonne Forest Sept Nov 1918 Largest battle for USA 1.2 million men (American) mobilized for the fight It was the final battle of the war AEF led by General Pershing fought brilliantly Slide 24 Sgt. Alvin York Greatest war hero for USA Single-handedly captured 130 Germans during Argonne campaign Slide 25 Armistice Armistice an agreement to stop fighting Armistice ending WW I was signed on November 11, 1918 11 th hour of 11 th day of 11 th month 11 11 11, 1918 Railroad car in Compiegne, France